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The objective of this meta-analysis study was to develop and validate equations estimated from in situ and in vitro methods to predict in vivo ruminal digestibility of organic matter (OM) of beef cattle diets. The database was composed of individual data of 23 diets from six experiments. Information collected from these studies was: in vivo digestibility and degradation parameters of OM calculated from in situ and in vitro incubations. The values of estimated times for the in situ and in vitro incubations to access in vivo digestibility of OM, and differences between degradation at 24, 48 and 72 h (in situ and in vitro) and in vivo digestibility were analysed in a model that included the fixed effects of forage neutral detergent fibre level. Thereafter, a multiple stepwise regression was carried out using OM digestibility as a dependent variable and degradation parameters (A = water-soluble fraction; B = potentially degradable water-insoluble fraction; and kd = degradation rate of fraction B) as independent variables. Equation validation was performed using data from a seventh experiment that have the same methods than previous studies. Stepwise regression results showed that the kd contributed significantly in most of the algorithms derived to predict in vivo digestibility. Validation analysis showed that equations developed from both in vitro and in situ incubations accurately estimated the in vivo digestibility of OM (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that equations developed to estimate OM digestibility showed both precision and accuracy; however, in situ method presented better results than in vitro.
Knowledge of evolutionary influences on patterns of human mating, social interactions, and differential health is increasing, yet these insights have rarely been applied to historical analyses of human population dynamics. The genetic and evolutionary forces behind biases in interethnic mating and in the health of individuals of different ethnic groups in Latin America and the Caribbean since the European colonization of America are still largely ignored. We discuss how historical and contemporary sociocultural interactions and practices are strongly influenced by population-level evolutionary forces. Specifically, we discuss the historical implications of functional (de facto) polygyny, sex-biased admixture, and assortative mating in Latin America. We propose that these three evolutionary mechanisms influenced mating patterns, shaping the genetic and cultural landscape across Latin America and the Caribbean. Further, we discuss how genetic differences between the original populations that migrated at different times into Latin America contributed to their accommodation to and survival in the different local ecologies and interethnic interactions. Relevant medical and social implications follow from the genetic and cultural changes reviewed.
Deliberative democracy has grown into an influential normative paradigm for political theory and reform programs alike, but doubts persist about its desirability in a world where strategic action and inequality are prevalent. This problem has spurred efforts to understand the empirical dynamics of power relations in institutionalized participation. This article argues that sociolegal scholarship has yet to join this turn to power but that doing so can help it to specify law’s causal and normative relevance in deliberative governance. This is because the legal environment within which actors interact affects causal mechanisms by distributing opportunities for the exercise of power between potential participants, actual participants, and participants and government. The utility of a power-distributional perspective is illustrated through a study of São Paulo’s health councils, one of the world’s largest experiments in deliberative governance. The study demonstrates that the councils’ trajectory and current functioning—including some of their normatively problematic aspects—cannot be understood without reference to legal arrangements. This article is meant as a building block for sociolegal scholarship to continue investigating deliberation.
First, we generalize the definition of a locally compact topology given by Paterson and Welch for a sequence of locally compact spaces to the case where the underlying spaces are
and sober. We then consider a certain semilattice of basic open sets for this topology on the space of all paths on a graph and impose relations motivated by the definitions of graph C*-algebra in order to recover the boundary path space of a graph. This is done using techniques of pointless topology. Finally, we generalize the results to the case of topological graphs.
Safeners have been widely used to reduce phytotoxicity to crops, thus serving as an alternative weed control strategy. Benoxacor and fenclorim safeners have the potential to protect plants from herbicide phytotoxicity by increasing glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity within the plant. The study aimed to evaluate the safening effect of benoxacor and fenclorim on tomato against selected herbicides applied postemergence. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a completely randomized designed with four replications, in a 9 x 3 factorial scheme, where Factor A consisted of eight herbicides including a nontreated control, and Factor B consisted of two safeners including a nontreated control. The herbicide treatments were sulfentrazone (0.220 kg ai ha-1), fomesafen (0.280 kg ai ha-1), flumioxazin (0.070 kg ai ha-1), linuron (1.200 kg ai ha-1), metribuzin (0.840 kg ai ha-1), pyroxasulfone (0.220 kg ai ha-1), and bicyclopyrone (0.040 kg ai ha-1). Safener treatments consisted of benoxacor (0.67 g L-1) and fenclorim (10 µM). Tomato seeds were immersed in safener solution before sowing and herbicides were applied when tomato plants were at the 3-leaf stage, or 25 days after sowing. Visible injury was scored at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after application (DAA), and shoot biomass was recorded 21 DAA. Seed treatment with fenclorim reduced injury caused by imazamox and bicyclopyrone, by 5.5 and 1.3 times, respectively, while benoxacor reduced the injury from bicyclopyrone 1.3 times. In addition, tomato plants pre-treated with fenclorim showed a lesser reduction in biomass after application of imazamox, fomesafen, and metribuzin, while benoxacor pre-treated plants showed lesser biomass reduction after metribuzin application. Thus, the use of safeners promotes greater crop selectivity, allowing the application of herbicides with different mechanisms of action on the crop.
Within out-of-hospital emergencies, Primary Health Care (PHC) pediatricians will likely be the first to provide health care at the scene of a life-threatening emergency (LTE) in children. Pediatricians should be trained to initially intervene, safely and effectively the LTEs, including the activation of Emergency Medical Systems (EMS), an adequate stabilization of patients and transport to the hospital.
The aims of this study are to know the training received for out-of-hospital LTEs by PHC pediatricians of the Principality of Asturias (Spain) and the perception they have about their own theoretical knowledge and practical skills in a series of emergency procedures used in LTEs; also, to analyze the differences according to the geographical context of their work.
This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational study of a sample of 27 PHC pediatricians from PHC Service of Asturias, Spain, from among the total of 88 pediatricians who make up the staff of pediatricians, conducted from April through May 2019. The survey was designed ad hoc using the Curriculum in Primary Care Pediatrics (CPCP) proposed by the European Confederation of Primary Care Pediatricians (ECPCP; Europe), which indicates the theoretical and practical procedures that must be acquired by the PHC pediatricians. It is composed of 30 procedures or techniques employed in LTEs using a 11-point Likert scale rating to detect their self-perception about theoretical knowledge and practical skills from zero (“Minimum”) to 10 (“Maximum”).
There are significant differences in the mean of theoretical knowledge and practical skills in many procedures or techniques studied, depending on the different areas of work.
Asturian pediatricians are generally well-prepared to solve LTEs with a few exceptions. The degree of self-perception and acquisition of general theoretical knowledge and general practical skills in LTEs is heterogeneous, with differences according to the scope of work.
Negative interactions between guanacos Lama guanicoe and ranchers have recently intensified in central Chile because guanacos are perceived to be competing with livestock for pasture resources. We examined this conservation conflict with a novel approach that considers ranchers' subjective theories, to better understand the origins of the conflict and to identify effective conservation measures based on the participants' explanations. Our findings indicate that ranchers see the source of the current problem in a shift towards increasingly arid conditions associated with climate change. We suggest the ranchers’ perceived problems are not only caused by interspecific resource competition arising from this climatic shift, but also by reported difficulties in negotiating with governmental institutions. This study adds to knowledge of human–wildlife interactions by exploring a further dimension of the complex ecological and social interactions taking place on livestock farms. We recommend identifying effective, acceptable solutions by considering and understanding the everyday knowledge of the conflict's protagonists and their potential for change.
Cattle production in extensive systems favours the occurrence of gastrointestinal nematodes, and the use of nematophagous fungi complements the control strategies for these nematodes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the fungi Arthrobotrys cladodes and Pochonia chlamydosporia in the biological control of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes in grazing cattle. Twenty-four calves were randomly divided into four groups and allocated to independent paddocks from February 2018 to January 2019. In the first group, the animals received pellets containing P. chlamydosporia. In the second group, the animals received pellets containing A. cladodes. In the third group, the animals received pellets containing a combination of the fungi A. cladodes and P. chlamydosporia. In the control group, the animals received pellets without fungus. The combined use of A. cladodes and P. chlamydosporia showed greater efficacy in the biological control of bovine gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes than the same fungi used separately. The parasite load was lower and weight gain was greater (P ⩽ 0.05) in the groups of cattle treated with nematophagous fungi. Therefore, the use of A. cladodes and P. chlamydosporia is promising in the biological control of nematodiosis in cattle.
Portable haemoglobinometers have been used in order to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in diverse settings. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate their performance in children of different age groups in distinct epidemiological contexts. To evaluate the reproducibility and reliability of a portable haemoglobinometer for the diagnosis of anaemia in children <5 years Hb was measured in the venous blood of 351 children <5 years by an automated system (standard method) and in three capillary blood samples, using a portable haemoglobinometer (HemoCue®; test method). The reproducibility of the device and of the test method was evaluated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) (Hb in its continuous form), κ and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) (categorised variable: anaemia: yes/no). For test method validation, Bland–Altman analyses were performed and sensitivity, specificity, accuracy rate, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were calculated. The haemoglobinometer presented good device reproducibility (ICC = 0·79) and reasonable method reproducibility (puncture, collection and reading) (ICC = 0·71). Superficial and fair agreement (κ) and good agreement (PABAK) were observed among the diagnoses obtained through the test method. The prevalence of anaemia was 19·1 and 19·7 % using the standard and the test method, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. The test method presented higher specificity (87·7 %) and NPV (88·3 %) than sensitivity (50·7 %) and PPV (49·3 %), and intermediary accuracy rate (57·8 %). HemoCue® showed good device reproducibility and reasonable method reproducibility, as well as good performance in estimating the prevalence of anaemia. Nevertheless, it showed a fair reliability and low individual diagnostic accuracy.
En este trabajo se describen las relaciones que las sociedades humanas establecieron con su entorno durante el período Formativo (3000-1000 aP) en la Pampa del Tamarugal, Desierto de Atacama, desde una perspectiva teórico-metodológica que pone el acento en el potencial del registro ecofactual. Éste, al mediar entre lo cultural y lo ambiental, proporciona información vital para una mejor comprensión de la relación entre naturaleza y cultura construida por estas sociedades. Queremos demostrar que este proceso forma parte de una larga historia de racionalización del desierto y de sus recursos silvestres, locales e introducidos, así como de la vivencia particular que tuvieron estas comunidades andinas. Por consiguiente, proponemos que la intervención humana en la Pampa del Tamarugal puede ser entendida como un cambio no sólo ecológico y económico, sino también cosmológico.
The description of the movements and habitat preference of marine fishes is essential to understand their biology and in the evaluation of commercially exploited species and the conservation of endangered ones. In this regard, little is known about the movements of the totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi), despite its being listed as critically endangered and having been a relevant fishery resource in the past century in Mexico. Totoaba is a fish species endemic to the Gulf of California characterized by late maturation, prolonged life and annual reproduction. Totoaba has maintained its known historical distribution range, although its movements and habitat occupancy in the water column have remained poorly understood. The present study describes, for the first time and at a daily fine scale, the vertical movements and habitat preferences of the totoaba in the Upper Gulf of California. Pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs) were used to record depth and temperature at 4-minute intervals. Ten individuals were caught and tagged in May 2016 in the Upper Gulf of California and Colorado River Delta Biosphere Reserve. All PSATs were either prematurely released or lost. Data derived from two recovered tags that saved data for 43 and 75 tracking days, respectively, were analysed. The results showed that tagged fishes moved southward to the vicinity of Angel de la Guarda Island; these are consistent with spatial displacement patterns reported in the literature, with a linear displacement of 223 km from deployment to pop-up sites. Fish spent 47% of the time within a depth range of 25–35 m. Depth increased to 70 m for one fish in early summer (late June). The preferred temperature of fishes ranged between 21–23°C. A generalized linear model revealed that vertical movement was influenced by temperature. The vertical displacement of the totoaba shows a diurnal variation that may be associated with the distribution of its prey. Further work is needed to test this hypothesis with a larger number of organisms.
The Richter Scale measures the magnitude of the seismic activity for an earthquake; however, it does not quantify the humanitarian need at the point of impact. This poses a challenge for humanitarian stakeholders in decision and policy making, especially in risk reduction, response, recovery, and reconstruction. The new disaster metrics tool titled “The YEW Disaster Severity Index” (DSI) was developed and presented at the 2017 World Congress of Disaster and Emergency Medicine, May 2017, Toronto, Canada. It uses a median score of three for vulnerability and exposure indicators, a median score percentage of 100%, and medium YEW DSI scoring of four to five as baseline, indicating the ability to cope within local capacity. Therefore, scoring more than baseline coping capacity indicates that external assistance is needed. This special real-time report was presented at the 2nd National Pre-Hospital Care Conference and Championship, October 2018, Malaysia.
The aim of this analysis is to present the real-time humanitarian impact and response to the 2018 earthquake and tsunami at Donggala and Palu, Sulawesi in Indonesia using the new disaster metrics YEW DSI. Based on the earthquake (measuring 7.7 on the Richter Scale) and tsunami at Donggala, the humanitarian impact calculated on September 29, 2018 scored 7.4 High in the YEW DSI with 11 of the total 17 indicators scoring more than the baseline coping capacity. The same YEW DSI score of 7.4 was scored on the earthquake and tsunami at Palu, with 13 of the total 17 indicators scoring more than baseline ability to cope within local capacity. Impact analysis reports were sent to relevant authorities on September 30, 2018.
Discussion & Conclusion:
A State of Emergency was declared for a national response, which indicated an inability to cope within the local capacity, shown by the YEW DSI. The strong correlation between the earthquake magnitude, intensities, and the humanitarian impact at Donggala and Palu reported could be added into the science of knowledge in prehospital care and disaster medicine research and practice. As a conclusion, the real-time disaster response was found to be almost an exact fit with the YEW DSI indicators, demonstrating the inability to cope within the local capacity.
A large share of our food comes from international supply food chains that are difficult to trace. Therefore, consumers are not aware of their environmental and social effects. We analysed the tomato supply system for Germany. Tomatoes consumed in Germany are produced either in The Netherlands by Polish workers and using large amounts of energy, or in Spain by West African workers and depleting the aquifer. The analysis shows the long-distance effects of food consumption that should be considered when designing strategies for a sustainable global food system. Comparable results can be expected for other food products traded around the world.
There is limited research on the interaction of both positive and negative daily-life environments with stress-related genetic variants on psychotic experiences (PEs) and negative affect (NA) across the extended psychosis phenotype. This study examined whether the FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) variability moderates the association of positive and negative experiences in the moment with PEs and NA in participants with incipient psychosis and their nonclinical counterparts.
A total of 233 nonclinical and 86 incipient psychosis participants were prompted for a 1-week period to assess their day-to-day experiences. Participants were genotyped for four FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360780, and rs9470080).
Multilevel analyses indicated that, unlike the risk haplotype, the protective FKBP5 haplotype moderated all the associations of positive experiences with diminished PEs and NA in incipient psychosis compared with nonclinical group.
Participants with incipient psychosis showed symptomatic improvement when reporting positive appraisals in the interpersonal domain, which suggests that these act as a powerful coping mechanism. The fact that this occurred in daily-life underscores the clinical significance of this finding and pinpoints the importance of identifying protective mechanisms. In addition, results seem to concur with the vantage sensitivity model of gene–environment interaction, which poses that certain genetic variants may enhance the likelihood of benefiting from positive exposures.
Modern lifestyle increases the prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities in the young population. High-salt (HS) diets are associated with hypertension and cardiac remodelling. The present study evaluated the potential effects of cardiometabolic programming induced by HS intake during puberty in lean and obese rats. Additionally, we investigated whether HS could exacerbate the impairment of cardiovascular parameters in adult life due to postnatal early overnutrition (PO). At postnatal day 3 (PN3), twenty-four litters of Wistar rats were divided into two groups: normal litter (NL, nine pups/dam) and small litter (SL, three pups/dam) throughout the lactation period; weaning was at PN21. At PN30, the pups were subdivided into two more groups: NL plus HS (NLHS) and SL plus HS (SLHS). HS intake was from PN30 until PN60. Cardiovascular parameters were evaluated at PN120. SL rats became overweight at adulthood due to persistent hyperphagia; however, HS exposure during puberty reduced the weight gain and food intake of NLHS and SLHS. Both HS and obesity raised the blood pressure, impaired baro- and chemoreflex sensitivity and induced cardiac remodelling but no worsening was observed in the association of these factors, except a little reduction in the angiotensin type-2 receptor in the hearts from SLHS animals. Our results suggest that the response of newborn offspring to PO and juveniles to a HS diet leads to significant changes in cardiovascular parameters in adult rats. This damage may be accompanied by impairment of both angiotensin signalling and antioxidant defence in the heart.
Highly weathered soils from humid tropics naturally have low contents of available potassium (K) to plants. Under these conditions, the K deprivation can change the equilibrium among cations in the soil and the nutritional status of some crops as soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill). A field experiment related to K fertilisation, spring soybean and diverse species of fall/winter crops, such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), corn (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) or oat (Avena strigosa L.), has been carried out in Southern Brazil since 1983. The K deprivation for 8 years reduced soybean grain yield and the K contents in soil and plant tissues. K extractants, such as Mehlich-1 and ion exchange resins, had diverse sensitivities with the variation in the K exchangeable contents induced by K rates. The increased soil K content after K fertilisation reduced calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) contents in index leaves and altered its contents in the soil extracted by 1 mol L−1 KCl and ion exchange resins. Among the micronutrients, only B contents changed due to increased K rates, and had significant correlations with K and Ca contents in index leaves. The calculated Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) indices were compatible with soybean yield and K contents in soybean index leaves.
Meaning-centered psychotherapy (MCP) is a structured psychotherapeutic intervention that aims to improve existential and spiritual well-being in patients with advanced cancer. To validate it, several efficacy studies with predominantly non-Hispanic white patients have been done. Puerto Ricans residing on the island are a largely overlooked segment of the US Latinx population. They have a strong national identity and are embedded in a collectivist culture which shares the Spanish language, cultural traditions, and an emphasis on familism, a cultural factor that values the role of the family in ensuring the well-being of its members.
The purpose of this study is to present a case study focused on a Puerto Rican advanced cancer patient who underwent MCP to assess the comprehension and acceptance of the MCP intervention.
We used a mixed-methods study design that included the taking of ethnographic notes, and pre- and post-test assessments of the scores the patient received on all the measures (using validated scales). The ethnographic notes were analyzed to determine the participant's comprehension and acceptance of the MCP intervention. Content analysis was performed on the ethnographic notes by three independent coders using a deductive coding approach. Pre- and post-interview assessments were conducted to explore changes in distress, spiritual well-being, and self-perceived quality of life.
A Latino patient with stage III cancer, low income, and low literacy skills showed low comprehension of the concepts of meaning, the finite, legacy, and moderate comprehension and acceptance of the concepts of the search for hope, purpose in life, connecting with life, courage, life's limitations, and sources of meaning. However, the patient showed high comprehension of death and dying (i.e., meaningful death). The patient showed low acceptance of death and dying concepts and high acceptance of the integration of family members into the therapy.
Significance of Results
Additional studies are needed to address cultural themes and to improve the comprehensibility and acceptance of the manual's content and the central MCP concepts. The findings suggest that MCP has the potential of being a feasible form of psychotherapy for Latinx patients suffering from distress, low spiritual well-being, and low self-perceived QOL.
There is no agreement regarding which solvent is more suitable to obtain sol–gel–derived titania (TiO2) samples with an enhanced photocatalytic behavior. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the preparation of TiO2-RGO (reduced graphene oxide) nanocomposites has not been published yet and could be an attractive experimental strategy to modulate structure and properties. On the basis of these observations, TiO2-RGO nanocomposites were fabricated in this study. It was evaluated for the influence of using either isopropyl (IsoprOH) or ethyl (EtOH) alcohol on the textural and photocatalytic properties of the prepared materials. The use of IsoprOH led to samples with smaller crystallite size, narrower apparent band gap, smaller isoelectric point, larger adsorption capacity, and higher photocatalytic activity. In addition, the incorporation of RGO into TiO2 greatly improved the adsorption capacity and photocatalytic activity of the latter. However, the optimal loading of RGO to prepare composites with enhanced photocatalytic activities was 1 wt%. This finding can be related to the stacking of RGO sheets when concentrations above 1 wt% are used, which could prevent UV light to reach the TiO2 particles and also decrease the photocatalytic capacity of the composites. Moreover, materials with RGO concentration above 1 wt% could exhibit a highly negatively charged surface, which may decrease the separation of the generated electron–hole pairs and lead to faster recombination rates of charge carriers.
Prochilodus brevis is a rheophilic species with a threatened natural population that promotes studies aimed at optimizing reproduction in captivity. The correct quantity of inseminating dose and activating solution volume significantly improves fertilization rates, thereby increasing productivity in captivity. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of sperm per oocyte and the ideal volume of activating solution to be used in the assisted fertilization of P. brevis. Gametes were collected and fertilization performed in two steps. In step 1, the ideal proportion of spermatozoa was determined based on the fertilization rate:oocyte by testing six doses of semen: D1 = 30 × 103, D2 = 150 × 103, D3 = 300 × 103, D4 = 3 × 106, D5 = 5 × 106, and D6 = 10 × 106. In step 2, the fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated using different volumes of activating solution (V1 – 25 ml, V2 – 50 ml, V3 – 75 ml,V4 – 100 ml, V5 – 125 ml, and V6 – 150 ml). A linear regression equation was estimated from steps 1 and 2. The Student–Newman–Keuls test was used to compare the means. In step 1, the percentage of fertilization increased linearly, reaching a plateau of 51.69%. In step 2, the best fertilization rates were obtained with an estimated ideal volume of 75.64 ml per 2 ml of oocytes. Therefore, the proportion of 928,410.29 sperm:oocyte, associated with the volume of 75.64 ml of water per 2 ml of oocytes, provided the maximum reproductive performance for P. brevis.