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We consider direct numerical simulations of turbulent Rayleigh–Bénard convection inside two-dimensional square cells. For Rayleigh numbers
and Prandtl numbers
, two types of flow regimes are observed intermittently: consecutive flow reversals (CR), and extended cessations (EC). For each regime, we combine proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and statistical tools on long-term data to characterise the dynamics of large-scale structures. For the CR regime, centrosymmetric modes are dominant and display a coherent dynamics, while non-centrosymmetric modes fluctuate randomly. For the EC regime, all POD modes follow Poissonian statistics and a non-centrosymmetric mode is dominant. To explore further the differences between the CR and EC regimes, an analysis based on a cluster partition of the POD phase space is proposed. This data-driven approach confirms the successive mechanisms of the generic reversal cycle in CR as proposed in Castillo-Castellanos et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 808, 2016, pp. 614–640). However, these mechanisms may take one of multiple paths in the POD phase space. Inside the EC regime, this approach reveals the presence of two types of coherent time sequences (weak reversals and actual cessations) and more rarely intense plume crossings. Finally, we analyse within a range of Rayleigh numbers up to turbulent flow, the relation between dynamical regimes and the POD energetic contents as well as the residence time in each cluster.
Among children exposed to elevated maternal depression symptoms (MDS), recent studies have demonstrated reduced internalizing and externalizing problems for those who have attended formal childcare (i.e., center-based, family-based childcare). However, these studies did not consider whether childcare attendance is associated with benefits for the child only or also with reduced MDS. Using a four-wave longitudinal cross-lagged model, we evaluated whether formal childcare attendance was associated with MDS or child behavior problems and whether it moderated longitudinal associations between MDS and child behavior problems and between child behavior problems and MDS. The sample was drawn from a population-based cohort study and consisted of 908 biologically related mother–child dyads, followed from 5 months to 5 years. Attending formal childcare was not associated with MDS or child behavior problems but moderated the association between MDS at 3.5 years and child internalizing and externalizing problems at 5 years as well as between girls’ externalizing problems at 3.5 years and MDS at 5 years. No other moderation of formal childcare was found. Findings suggest that attending formal childcare reduces the risks of behavior problems in the context of MDS but also the risk of MDS in the context of girls’ externalizing problems.
This study examined whether the interaction between parenting and inhibitory control predicts hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in 195 children. Observation data of positive parenting were collected at 4 years, and mother reports of coercive parenting at 5 years, inhibitory control at 6 years, and hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention at 7 years were obtained. The common and unique variance of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptoms were examined as outcomes using a bifactor model. Results indicated that positive parenting practices predicted lower levels of hyperactivity-impulsivity/inattention behaviors at age 7 only when children's inhibitory control was high. These results support the vantage sensitivity model, which posits that some individuals show an increased sensitivity to positive experiences exclusively, and support the appropriateness of a targeted prevention approach in early childhood.
Trichomonas vaginalis is an extracellular parasite that colonizes the human urogenital tract leading to trichomoniasis, the most common sexually-transmitted non-viral disease worldwide. The immune response plays a critical role in the host defense against this parasite. Trichomonas' DNA contains unmethylated CpG motifs (CpGDNA) that in other microorganisms act as modulators of the immune response. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for CpGDNA immune modulation are still unclear. As macrophages participate in the first line of defense against infection, we investigated the type of immune response of murine macrophages to T. vaginalis DNA (TvDNA). We observed high expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12p40 in macrophages stimulated with TvDNA. In contrast, the anti-inflammatory response, assessed by IL-10 and IL-13 mRNA expression was delayed. This suggests that the immune response induced by TvDNA is modulated through cytokine production, mediated partly by NADPH-oxidase activity, as TvDNA induced reactive species of oxygen production and a rounded morphology in macrophages indicative of an M1 phenotype. Furthermore, infected mice pretreated with TvDNA displayed persistent vulvar inflammation and decreased parasite viability consistent with higher proinflammatory cytokine levels during infection compared to untreated mice. Overall, our findings suggest that TvDNA pretreatment modulates the immune response favouring parasite elimination.
Calcium homeostasis is crucial for the normal function of the organism. Parathyroid hormone, calcitriol and calcitonin play critical roles in the homeostatic regulation of calcium. Serotonin and prolactin have also been shown to be involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis. In modern dairy cows, the endocrine pathways controlling calcium homeostasis during non-lactating and non-pregnant physiological states are unable to fully support the increased demand of calcium required for milk synthesis at the onset of lactation. This review describes different endocrine systems associated with the regulation of calcium homeostasis in mammalian species around parturition with special focus on dairy cows. Additionally, classic and novel strategies to reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia in parturient dairy cows are discussed.
Understanding drivers of deforestation is essential for developing any successful intervention to reduce forest degradation or loss, yet there remains relatively little consensus or clarity on how drivers should be identified and classified. To capture the full range of values and mediating factors that may contribute to land-use behaviours, an approach derived from a shared values perspective that includes a range of values associated with whole landscapes and ecosystems is required. We developed a model that combines behavioural theory with the Capability Approach as a conceptual framework through which to investigate the value–action gap. We used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of Likert-scale responses to belief statements in order to identify land users’ shared values in the Sarstún Motagua region of Guatemala. We then qualify and quantify the role of capabilities in mediating between the shared values of different cultural groups of land users (Q’eqchi Maya and Ladinos) by comparing their factor scores with their self-reported forest cover change behaviours. Our results indicate that Maya and Ladinos share a set of values, but hold different value orientations that predict their behavioural intentions. We find that their different value orientations reflect behavioural intentions, but an understanding of the capabilities available to different groups is also necessary to fill the value–action gap. These findings have implications for behavioural theory, providing empirical links between shared values, capabilities and behaviour and identification of the role of value orientations, as well as demonstrating a useful approach for decision-makers seeking to understand drivers of change at landscape and whole-ecosystem levels.
Milk is an important protein source in human diets, providing around 32 g protein/l (for bovine milk, which constitutes some 85% of global consumption). The most abundant milk proteins are α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, αs-casein, β-casein, and κ-casein. Besides their nutritional value, milk proteins play a crucial role in the processing properties of milk, such as solubility, water bonding, heat stability, renneting and foaming, among others. In addition, and most importantly for this review, these proteins are the main source of bioactive components in milk. Due to the wide range of proposed beneficial effects on human health, milk proteins are considered as potential ingredients for the production of health-promoting functional foods. However, most of the evidence for bioactive effects comes from in vitro studies, and there is a need for further research to fully evaluate the true potential of milk-derived bioactive factors. Animal genetics and animal nutrition play an important role in the relative proportions of milk proteins and could be used to manipulate the concentration of specific bioactive peptides in milk from ruminants. Unfortunately, only a few studies in the literature have focused on changes in milk bioactive peptides associated to animal genetics and animal nutrition. The knowledge described in the present review may set the basis for further research and for the development of new dairy products with healthy and beneficial properties for humans.
We investigated the distribution of comorbidities among adult tuberculosis (TB) patients in Chiapas, the poorest Mexican state, with a high presence of indigenous population, and a corridor for migrants from Latin America. Secondary analysis on 5508 new adult TB patients diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 revealed that the most prevalent comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (DM; 19.1%) and undernutrition (14.4%). The prevalence of DM in these TB patients was significantly higher among middle aged (41–64 years) compared with older adults (⩾65 years) (38.6% vs. 23.2%; P < 0.0001). The prevalence of undernutrition was lower among those with DM, and higher in communities with high indigenous presence. Immigrants only comprised 2% of all TB cases, but were more likely to have unfavourable TB treatment outcomes (treatment failure, death and default) when compared with those born in Chiapas (29.5% vs. 11.1%; P < 0.05). Unfavourable TB outcomes were also more prevalent among the TB patients with undernutrition, HIV or older age, but not DM (P < 0.05). Our study in Chiapas illustrates the challenges of other regions worldwide where social (e.g. indigenous origin, poverty, migration) and host factors (DM, undernutrition, HIV, older age) are associated with TB. Further understanding of these critical factors will guide local policy makers and health providers to improve TB management.
Mental health courts (MHCs) offer community-based treatment in lieu of criminal prosecution for chronic offenders with psychiatric disabilities, and MHC judges enjoy expanded powers to achieve the court's objectives. Because scholars know little about how judges transition into a new occupational role in the problem-solving courtroom, this ethnographic study of four MHCs in the United States focuses on how judges learn to orchestrate their responses to treatment noncompliance in this novel court setting. The goal of this article is to examine the professionalization of MHC judges and the emergent craft of therapeutic adjudication. To achieve this goal, I investigate judicial strategies for motivating, questioning, and defending participants accused of wrongdoing. I conclude that the art and practice of problem-solving justice requires judges to rise to the larger institutional challenges embedded in the alternative courtroom, a process I call the politics of benchcraft.
An ethnographic study of four Midwest mental health courts was focused on how case managers influence the judicial response to offender noncompliance. Mental health courts, which bear little resemblance to traditional work group models, are staffed by teams of legal and social service professionals working collaboratively toward reducing recidivism and community reintegration for high‐risk offenders. Few studies, however, have explored how treatment providers practice their trade in this new court organization. I investigate how case management professionals, working at the intersections of the social welfare and criminal justice systems, leverage courtroom decision making that results in greater leniency or enhanced punishment. The findings suggest that mental‐health‐court case managers act as boundary spanners in terms of their strategic use of resources to facilitate treatment goals. I conclude that case managers act as “double agents” challenging the state to advocate for clemency while enforcing client rules to uphold the integrity of the court.
In approximately 5% of patients with idiopathic recurrent pericarditis, the disease usually follows a chronic relapsing course, and children can develop dependence and side effects of prolonged high-dose corticosteroid regimens. In this setting anakinra, a recombinant human interleukin-1 competitive receptor antagonist that blocks the biologic effects of interleukin-1, thereby reducing systemic inflammatory responses, appears to be one of the most promising strategies. We report an adolescent with steroid-dependent idiopathic recurrent pericarditis that was successfully treated with anakinra, highlighting that this therapeutic option seems to be an effective, rapidly acting, steroid-sparing, and relatively safe agent for the treatment of this entity in children.
The Gravettian settlements of Europe are considered as an expression of human adaptation to harsh climates. In Southern Europe, however, favorable vegetation-climate conditions supported hunters-gatherer subsistence and the maintenance of their large-scale networks. This was also the case of the North-Adriatic plain and the Apennine mountain ridge in Italy. Traditionally considered lacking evidence, the northern part of the Apennine ridge has recently yielded the Early Gravettian site of Piovesello, located at 870 m a.s.l. Survey and excavation revealed lithic artifacts in primary position embedded in loamy sediments. Radiocarbon dating, anthracological and extended palynological and microcharcoal analyses have been integrated to reconstruct the palaeoecological context of this camp which was probably positioned above the timberline in an arid rocky landscape, bounding the fronts of local glaciers close to their maximum expansion at the time of Greenland Stadial (GS) 5 (32.04 - 28.9 ka cal BP). Human activity left ephemeral traces represented by lithic artefacts, charcoal, and the introduction of radiolarites from sources in proximity to the site and of chert from very far western sources. Evidence from Piovesello contributes to the reconstruction of human and vegetation ecology during Late Pleistocene glaciations and also provides hints for the historical biogeography of petrophytic plants and their orographic relics in the northern Apennine.
It is well known that the existence of more than two ends in the sense of J.R. Stallings for a finitely generated discrete group G can be detected on the cohomology group H1(G,R[G]), where R is either a finite field, the ring of integers or the field of rational numbers. It will be shown (cf. Theorem A*) that for a compactly generated totally disconnected locally compact group G the same information about the number of ends of G in the sense of H. Abels can be provided by dH1(G, Bi(G)), where Bi(G) is the rational discrete standard bimodule of G, and dH•(G, _) denotes rational discrete cohomology as introduced in .
As a consequence one has that the class of fundamental groups of a finite graph of profinite groups coincides with the class of compactly presented totally disconnected locally compact groups of rational discrete cohomological dimension at most 1 (cf. Theorem B).
In the past, ionic analyses of deep ice cores tended to consist of a few widely spaced measurements that indicated general trends in concentration. the ion-chromatographic methods widely used provide well-validated individual data, but are time-consuming. the development of continuous flow analysis (CFA) methods has allowed very rapid, high-resolution data to be collected in the field for a wide range of ions. In the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) deep ice-core drilling at Dome C, many ions have been measured at high resolution, and several have been analyzed by more than one method. the full range of ions has been measured in five different laboratories by ion chromatography (IC), at resolutions of 2.5–10 cm. In the field, CFA was used to measure the ions Na+, Ca2+, nitrate and ammonium. Additionally, a new semi-continuous in situ IC method, fast ion chromatography (FIC), was used to analyze sulphate, nitrate and chloride. Some data are now available to 788 m depth. In this paper we compare the data obtained by the three methods, and show that the rapid methods (CFA and FIC) give an excellent indication of trends in ionic data. Differences between the data from the different methods do occur, and in some cases these are genuine, being due to differences in speciation in the methods. We conclude that the best system for most deep ice-core analysis is a rapid system of CFA and FIC, along with in situ meltwater collection for analysis of other ions by IC, but that material should be kept aside for a regular check on analytical quality and for more detailed analysis of some sections.
Abnormalities in reward circuit function are considered a core feature of addiction. Yet, it is still largely unknown whether these abnormalities stem from chronic drug use, a genetic predisposition, or both.
In the present study, we investigated this issue using a large sample of adolescent children by applying structural equation modeling to examine the effects of several dopaminergic polymorphisms of the D1 and D2 receptor type on the reward function of the ventral striatum (VS) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), and whether this relationship predicted the propensity to engage in early alcohol misuse behaviors at 14 years of age and again at 16 years of age.
The results demonstrated a regional specificity with which the functional polymorphism rs686 of the D1 dopamine receptor (DRD1) gene and Taq1A of the ANKK1 gene influenced medial and lateral OFC activation during reward anticipation, respectively. Importantly, our path model revealed a significant indirect relationship between the rs686 of the DRD1 gene and early onset of alcohol misuse through a medial OFC × VS interaction.
These findings highlight the role of D1 and D2 in adjusting reward-related activations within the mesocorticolimbic circuitry, as well as in the susceptibility to early onset of alcohol misuse.
The new mineral acmonidesite, (NH4,K,Pb2+,Na)9Fe42+(SO4)5Cl8, was found in an active fumarole (fumarole FA, temperature ~250°C) at La Fossa crater, Vulcano, Aeolian Islands, Sicily, Italy. It occurs on a pyroclastic breccia as brown prismatic crystals up to 0.10 mm long, in association with salammoniac, alunite and adranosite. The mineral is orthorhombic, space group C2221 (no. 20) with a = 9.841(1), b = 19.448(3) c = 17.847(3) Å, V = 3415.7(9) Å3 and Z = 4. The six strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are: [dobs in Å(I)(hkl)] 8.766(100)(110), 1.805(88)(390), 5.178(45)(131), 4.250(42)(221), 2.926(42)(330) and 2.684(32)(261). The empirical formula (based on 28 anions per formula unit [pfu]) is (NH4)5.77K1.42Pb0.62Na1.24Fe3.96Mn0.08S5.04O20.16Cl7.97Br0.08. The idealised formula is (NH4,K,Pb2+,Na)9Fe42+(SO4)5Cl8. The calculated density is 2.551 g cm–3. Using single-crystal diffraction data, the structure was refined to a final R(F) = 0.0363 for 4614 independent observed reflections [I > 2σ(I)]. The structure contains two independent, distorted octahedral iron sites, Fe1 and Fe2, with the iron atoms in the 2+ oxidation state, as confirmed by the interatomic distances and bond-valence calculations (2.06 and 1.94 vu, respectively). Fe1 is surrounded by two chlorine atoms and four oxygens of the sulfate ions, with the following average distances (Å): Fe1–O 2.125 and Fe1–Cl 2.472; and Fe2 is surrounded by three chlorine atoms and three oxygens of the sulfate ions, with the following average distances (Å): Fe2–O 2.110 and Fe2–Cl 2.531. Three independent sulfate anions are also present and are connected with the iron polyhedra to form a three-dimensional structure containing voids occupied by four independent ammonium ions (two of them partially replaced by K+), one Na+/Pb2+ site and one Cl– ion.