To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is a fundamental term of the social contract that people trade allegiance for protection. In the nineteenth century, as millions of people made their way around the world, they entangled the world in web of allegiance that had enormous political consequences. Nationality was increasingly difficult to define. Just who was a national in a world where millions lived well beyond the borders of their sovereign state? As the nineteenth century gave way to the twentieth, jurists and policymakers began to think of ways to cut the web of obligation that had enabled world politics. They proposed to modernize international law to include subjects other than the state. Many of these experiments failed. But, by the mid-twentieth century, an international legal system predicated upon absolute universality and operated by intergovernmental organizations came to the fore. Under this system, individuals gradually became subjects of international law outside of their personal citizenship, culminating with the establishment of international courts of human rights after the Second World War.
From its ancient incarnation as a song to recent translations in modern languages, Homeric epic remains an abiding source of inspiration for both scholars and artists that transcends temporal and linguistic boundaries. The Cambridge Guide to Homer examines the influence and meaning of Homeric poetry from its earliest form as ancient Greek song to its current status in world literature, presenting the information in a synthetic manner that allows the reader to gain an understanding of the different strands of Homeric studies. The volume is structured around three main themes: Homeric Song and Text; the Homeric World, and Homer in the World. Each section starts with a series of 'macropedia' essays arranged thematically that are accompanied by shorter complementary 'micropedia' articles. The Cambridge Guide to Homer thus traces the many routes taken by Homeric epic in the ancient world and its continuing relevance in different periods and cultures.
The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, including defence against insect herbivores, in plants is widely reported. Si defence against insect herbivores is overwhelmingly studied in grasses (especially the cereals), many of which are hyper-accumulators of Si. Despite being neglected, legumes such as soybean (Glycine max) have the capacity to control Si accumulation and benefit from increased Si supply. We tested how Si supplementation via potassium, sodium or calcium silicate affected a soybean pest, the native budworm Helicoverpa punctigera Wallengren (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Herbivory reduced leaf biomass similarly in Si-supplemented (+Si) and non-supplemented (–Si) plants (c. 29 and 23%, respectively) relative to herbivore-free plants. Both Si supplementation and herbivory increased leaf Si concentrations. In relative terms, herbivores induced Si uptake by c. 19% in both +Si and –Si plants. All Si treatments reduced H. punctigera relative growth rates (RGR) to a similar extent for potassium (−41%), sodium (−49%) and calcium (−48%) silicate. Moreover, there was a strong negative correlation between Si accumulation in leaves and herbivore RGR. To our knowledge, this is only the second report of Si-based herbivore defence in soybean; the rapid increase in leaf Si following herbivory being indicative of an induced defence. Taken together with the other benefits of Si supplementation of legumes, Si could prove an effective herbivore defence in legumes as well as grasses.
Signaling games are central to political science but often have multiple equilibria, leading to no definitive prediction. We demonstrate that these indeterminacies create substantial problems when fitting theory to data: they lead to ill-defined and discontinuous likelihoods even if the game generating the data has a unique equilibrium. In our experiments, currently used techniques frequently fail to uncover the parameters of the canonical crisis-signaling game, regardless of sample size and number of equilibria in the data generating process. We propose three estimators that remedy these problems, outperforming current best practices. We fit the signaling model to data on economic sanctions. Our solutions find a novel U-shaped relationship between audience costs and the propensity for leaders to threaten sanctions, which current best practices fail to uncover.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
The fluid–structure interactions (FSI) of compliant lifting surfaces is complicated by free-surface and multiphase flows such as cavitation and ventilation. This paper describes the dynamic FSI response of a flexible surface-piercing hydrofoil in dry, wetted, ventilating and cavitating conditions. Experimental modal analysis is used to quantify the resonant frequencies and damping ratios of the fluid–structure system in each flow regime. The generalized hydrodynamic stiffness, fluid damping and fluid added mass are also determined as ratios to the corresponding structural modal forces. Added mass increases with increasing partial immersion of the hydrofoil and decreases in the presence of gaseous cavities. In particular, modal frequencies were observed to increase significantly in fully ventilated flow compared to fully wetted flow. The modal frequencies varied non-monotonically with speed in fully wetted flow. Gaseous cavities reduced the modal added mass and reduced the fluid disturbing force. Modal damping increases non-monotonically with increasing immersion depth. Forward speed causes the fluid damping force to increase with an approximately quadratic functional behaviour, consistent with a series expansion of the Morison equation, although damping identification became increasingly difficult at high flow speeds. The results indicate that fluid damping is greater than the associated structural damping in a quiescent liquid, and increasingly so with increasing immersion, suggesting viscous dissipation as a dominant mechanism. A preliminary investigation of modal vibration as a means of controlling the size and stability of ventilated cavities indicates that low-order modes encourage the formation of ventilation, while higher-order modes encourage the washout and elimination of ventilation.
Some self-knowledge must be arrived at by the subject herself, rather than being transmitted by another’s testimony. Yet in many cases the subject interacts with an expert in part because she is likely to have the relevant knowledge of their mind. This raises a question: what is the expert’s knowledge like that there are barriers to simply transmitting it by testimony? I argue that the expert’s knowledge is, in some circumstances, proleptic, referring to attitudes the subject would hold were she to reflect in certain ways. The expert’s knowledge cannot be transmitted by testimony because self-knowledge cannot be proleptic.
The maximum size of an r-uniform hypergraph without a Berge cycle of length at least k has been determined for all k ≥ r + 3 by Füredi, Kostochka and Luo and for k < r (and k = r, asymptotically) by Kostochka and Luo. In this paper we settle the remaining cases: k = r + 1 and k = r + 2, proving a conjecture of Füredi, Kostochka and Luo.
The first of these themes (the accurate depiction of war) brings together research on a series of writers who attempted to describe the battles of the Civil War in their fiction such as Ambrose Bierce, John Esten Cooke, Herman Melville, and Frances E. W. Harper. The second (the social construction of gender norms) involves the analysis of narratives that depict shifting gender roles during the conflict such as Augusta Jane Evan’s novel Macaria and Louisa May Alcott’s Hospital Sketches, a book which provides an excellent opportunity for discussing the relation of nonfiction genres such as memoir to literary forms.
Compliant lift-generating surfaces have widespread applications as marine propellers, hydrofoils and control surfaces, and the fluid–structure interactions (FSI) of such systems have important effects upon their performance and stability. Multi-phase flows like cavitation and ventilation alter the hydrodynamic and hydroelastic behaviours of lifting surfaces in ways that are not yet completely understood. This paper describes experiments on one rigid and two flexible variants of a vertical surface-piercing hydrofoil in wetted, ventilating and cavitating conditions. Tests were conducted in a towing tank and a free-surface cavitation channel. This work, which is Part 1 of a two-part series, examines the passive, or flow-induced, fluid–structure interactions of the hydrofoils. Four characteristic flow regimes are described: fully wetted, partially ventilated, partially cavitating and fully ventilated. Hydroelastic coupling is shown to increase the hydrodynamic lift and yawing moments across all four flow regimes by augmenting the effective angle of attack. The effective angle of attack, which was derived using a beam model to account for the effect of spanwise twisting deflections, effectively collapses the hydrodynamic load coefficients for the three hydrofoils. A generalized cavitation parameter, using the effective angle of attack, is used to collapse the lift and moment coefficients for all trials at a single immersed aspect ratio, smoothly bridging the four distinct flow regimes. None of the hydrofoils approached the static divergence condition, which occurs when the hydrodynamic stiffness negates the structural stiffness, but theory and experiments both show that ventilation increases the divergence speed by reducing the hydrodynamic twisting moment about the elastic axis. Coherent vortex shedding from the blunt trailing edge of the hydrofoil causes vortex-induced vibration at an approximately constant Strouhal number of 0.275 (based on the trailing edge thickness), and leads to amplified response at lock-in, when the vortex-shedding frequency approaches one of the resonant modal frequencies of the coupled fluid–structure system.
During the US military occupation of Haiti, domestic workers performed the crucial labor that allowed Marine households, the city of Port-au-Prince, and the entire country to function. In this sense, they represented a human infrastructure for the entire occupation. Their experiences show that the debates over labor, race, and sovereignty that defined the high politics of the occupation actually reached into private spaces where face-to-face interactions between occupier and occupied occurred. Domestic work, like other types of labor in the occupation, ran the gamut from highly coerced forms of unpaid child labor and convict work to various configurations of wage labor. Domestic sites influenced mutual processes of race-making, including the US exoticist obsession with Haitian Vodou. Servants’ conflicts with their Marine employers included—but ultimately went beyond—daily struggles over labor. Their proximity to marines influenced domestics’ participation in acts of anti-imperial activism, such as the Caco rebellion, and explains why servants were invoked by radical journalists and cultural nationalist writers who opposed US rule. Domestics’ activities also highlight under-explored areas of Haitian activism, such as their use of formal state institutions to seek redress and their participation in emerging forms of urban protest that included other members of the urban working class. Although novel and relatively small during the occupation, such urban protests have become a staple of Haitian politics in the present day.
The objective of this study was to assess the prospective association between diet quality, as well as a 6-year change in diet quality, and risk of incident CVD and diabetes in a community-based population.
We used Cox regression models to estimate the prospective association between diet quality, assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015 and the Alternative HEI (AHEI)-2010 scores, as well as change in diet quality, and incident CVD and diabetes.
The ARIC Study recruited 15 792 black and white men and women (45–64 years) from four US communities.
We included 10 808 study participants who reported usual dietary intake via FFQ at visit 1 (1987–1989) and who had not developed CVD, diabetes, or cancer at baseline.
Overall, 3070 participants developed CVD (median follow-up of 26 years) and 3452 developed diabetes (median follow-up of 22 years) after visit 1. Higher diet score at the initial visit was associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD (HR per 10 % higher HEI-2015 diet quality score: 0·90 (95 % CI: 0·86, 0·95) and HR per 10 % higher AHEI-2010 diet quality score: 0·96 (95 % CI: 0·93, 0·99)). We did not observe a significant association between initial diet score and incident diabetes. There were no significant associations between change in diet score and CVD or diabetes risk in the overall study population.
Higher diet quality assessed using HEI-2015 and AHEI-2010 was strongly associated with lower CVD risk but not diabetes risk within a middle-aged, community-based US population.
Twin registries often take part in large collaborative projects and are major contributors to genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis studies. In this article, we describe genotyping of twin-family populations from Australia, the Midwestern USA (Avera Twin Register), the Netherlands (Netherlands Twin Register), as well as a sample of mothers of twins from Nigeria to assess the extent, if any, of genetic differences between them. Genotyping in all cohorts was done using a custom-designed Illumina Global Screening Array (GSA), optimized to improve imputation quality for population-specific GWA studies. We investigated the degree of genetic similarity between the populations using several measures of population variation with genotype data generated from the GSA. Visualization of principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American populations exhibit negligible interpopulation stratification when compared to each other, to a reference European population and to globally distant populations. Estimations of fixation indices (FST values) between the Australian, Midwestern American and Netherlands populations suggest minimal genetic differentiation compared to the estimates between each population and a genetically distinct cohort (i.e., samples from Nigeria genotyped on GSA). Thus, results from this study demonstrate that genotype data from the Australian, Dutch and Midwestern American twin-family populations can be reasonably combined for joint-genetic analysis.
The world’s population is ageing. In 2017, older people (i.e., those aged 60 years or over) account for 13% of the world’s population. With better treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases, the global life expectancy at birth is projected to rise from 71 years in 2010–2015 to 77 years in 2045–2050. The number of older people in the world is projected to be 1.4 billion in 2030 and 2.1 billion in 2050, and could rise to 3.1 billion in 2100 . The increase in the elderly population brings with it many challenges for nearly all sectors of the society, including labour and financial markets; demand for goods and services such as health services, housing, transportation and social protection; and changes in family structures and intergenerational relationships . The World Health Organization estimated approximately 15% of older people aged 60 or over suffer from a mental disorder ; the most common mental health and neurological disorders are dementia and depression, which affect approximately 5% and 7%, respectively, of the world’s elderly population . Mental health disorders in older people are associated with unique age-related medical and psychosocial factors such as frailty, increased dependency, retirement, widowhood, role changes, finances and environmental relocation . People with severe functional psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, who enter into old age often have complex medical and psychosocial needs. It has also been suggested that, compared with younger people, presentations in older age are often atypical . Specialist services for older people with mental health problems have been developed in many parts of the world since the 1940s and 1950s, and the role of a psychiatrist is manifold in meeting the mental health needs of older people.
Hurricane Harvey left a path of destruction in its wake, resulting in over 100 deaths and damaging critical infrastructure. During a disaster, public health surveillance is necessary to track emerging illnesses and injuries, identify at-risk populations, and assess the effectiveness of response efforts. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and American Red Cross collaborate on shelter surveillance to monitor the health of the sheltered population and help guide response efforts.
We analyzed data collected from 24 Red Cross shelters between August 25, 2017, and September 14, 2017. We described the aggregate morbidity data collected during Harvey compared with previous hurricanes (Gustav, Ike, and Sandy).
Over one-third (38%) of reasons for visit were for health care maintenance; 33% for acute illnesses, which includes respiratory conditions, gastrointestinal symptoms, and pain; 19% for exacerbation of chronic disease; 7% for mental health; and 4% for injury. The Red Cross treated 41% of clients within the shelters; however, reporting of disposition was often missed. These results are comparable to previous hurricanes.
The capacity of Red Cross shelter staff to address the acute health needs of shelter residents is a critical resource for local public health agencies overwhelmed by the disaster. However, there remains room for improvement because reporting remained inconsistent.