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Zagami is a basaltic shergottite well characterized among Martian meteorites. For this reason, it is used as a reference sample to verify the feasibility of the vibrational spectroscopy techniques. In general, these techniques seeking extract spectral signatures from individual mineral present in the meteorite samples. Among some FTIR results were detected organic compounds in the Zagami meteorite and recorded in some articles. Based on these results, an analysis of a Zagami meteorite sample was performed using FTIR and Raman spectrometry. Examining the fragment of Zagami meteorite using the FTIR technique, it was possible to identify the same band of 2920 and 2850 cm−1 described by other references, which were interpreted as organic components and were recorded such as aliphatic hydrocarbon. Another unusual result in Martian meteorite was the detection of the 1300 cm−1 band using Raman. The main reason for this peculiarity is that band is characterized in meteorites as a D band. Generally, this band is attributed to structural defects and the disordering of carbon. However, care should be taken when interpreting Raman spectra around 1300 cm−1 and FTIR spectra 2950–2840 cm−1 of the sample from oxidizing environments such as Mars. Misconceptions can occur during the interpretations of the bands, and this can lead to incorrect identification. Thus, an analysis of the mentioned peaks, such as chemical and mineralogical assignments, will be provided and suggested in order to compare the results that mentioned the presence of organic compounds in the Zagami meteorite.
The research described in this technical research communication examines the hypothesis that sublethal stress conditions can improve the survival of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis during drying and subsequent storage. After drying, the L. lactis that had adapted to acid or osmotic stresses did not differ statistically in terms of cell viability loss compared to the control samples tested (~0.38 log cycles). However, the cells that had adapted to oxidative conditions demonstrated a cell viability loss of only 0.01 log cycles. After 45 d of storage at temperatures of 4 and 25 °C, the final L. lactis sample populations were shown to be higher (112.5%) when they had been submitted to sublethal conditions of oxidative stress. When the cell samples were exposed to acid stress conditions, they exhibited a viability loss (0.82 log cycles) that was statistically different from the control sample (0.58 log cycles) after 45 d. Osmotic stress conditions did not demonstrate any influence over cell survival rates. Thus, submitting cells to oxidative stress conditions prior to storage has been shown to be a potential strategy for producing dehydrated cultures of L. lactis strains that are less sensitive to oxygen exposure.
The goal of this study was to study the distribution of potential habitat markers (Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca and Li/Ca) in water from the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex (Brazil) and to study habitat use patterns of Cathorops spixii through ontogeny employing otolith microchemistry. Fish were caught from three sampling sites while water samples were collected at eight stations covering a salinity range from 4.5–33. Elemental concentrations in otolith and water were determined by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS, respectively. When the relationship between salinity and elements or ratios in water was studied, significant positive relationships were found for Sr, Li, Ca, Sr/Ca, and negative for Ba, Mn, Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca (P < 0.05). No relationship was observed between water Li/Ca and salinity. A significant positive correlation was found between otolith edge Sr/Ca and salinity (r = 0.63; P < 0.05), positioning this ratio as the best natural tag for reconstructing environmental histories of C. spixii. Change point analysis (CPA) based on otolith Sr/Ca signature through ontogeny revealed potential migrations between environments with different salinity. According to CPA, the number of displacements among different salinities ranged from 3–9 (6.1 ± 1.9), suggesting high plasticity in the migratory patterns. Ba/Ca, Li/Ca and Mn/Ca peaks were observed on the outer margin of the primordium, and could be influenced by physiological, environmental and maternal factors.
Maternal protein restriction and physical activity can affect the interaction mother–placenta–fetus. This study quantified the gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurothrophin 4, tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB/NTRK2), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1r) in the different areas of mother’s brain (hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cortex), placenta, and fetus’ brain of rats. Female Wistar rats (n = 20) were housed in cages containing a running wheel for 4 weeks before gestation. According to the distance spontaneously traveled daily, rats were classified as inactive or active. During gestation, on continued access to the running wheel, active and inactive groups were randomized to receive normoprotein diet (18% protein) or a low-protein (LP) diet (8% protein). At day 20 of gestation, gene expression of neurotrophic factors was analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in different brain areas and the placenta. Dams submitted to a LP diet during gestation showed upregulation of IGF-1r and BDNF messenger RNA in the hypothalamus, IGF-1r and NTRK2 in the hippocampus, and BDNF, NTRK2, IGF-1 and IGF-1r in the cortex. In the placenta, there was a downregulation of IGF-1. In the brain of pups from mothers on LP diet, IGF-1r and NTRK2 were downregulated. Voluntary physical activity attenuated the effects of LP diet on IGF-1r in the hypothalamus, IGF-1r and NTRK2 in the hippocampus, IGF-1 in the placenta, and NTRK2 in the fetus’ brain. In conclusion, both maternal protein restriction and spontaneous physical activity influence the gene expression of BDNF, NTRK2, IGF-1, and IGF-1r, with spontaneous physical activity being able to normalize in part the defects caused by protein restriction during pregnancy.
The perennial forage peanut is a stoloniferous, perennial tropical legume with potential for use in pastures. Based on the hypothesis that under intermittent stocking herbage accumulation would follow a similar pattern to that described for tropical forage grasses, the objective of this study was to evaluate canopy characteristics and herbage accumulation of forage peanut subjected to strategies of rotational grazing management. Treatments corresponded to all possible combinations of two grazing frequencies (regrowth interrupted at 95% and maximum canopy light interception – LI95% and LIMax) and two grazing severities (post-grazing canopy heights (CHs) equivalent to 40 and 60% of the pre-grazing heights). Treatments were imposed to experimental units during an adaptation period (from November 2014 to January 2015) and the subsequent experimental period lasted from February 2015 to April 2016, comprising two consecutive pasture growing seasons with no interruption between them (summer I to summer II). The pre-grazing targets of LI95% and LIMax corresponded to CHs of 13 and 18 cm, respectively. Forage peanut showed high grazing tolerance as pre-grazing leaf area index (except during summer I and autumn/winter), total herbage, and leaflet dry matter accumulation varied only with seasons. Higher rates of herbage production were recorded during summer I and summer II, followed by those during late and early spring and autumn/winter. Since there was no difference in the pattern of herbage accumulation between LI95% and LIMax and stolons predominated at the bottom of the canopies, forage peanut may be rotationally grazed with greater flexibility than most tropical forage grasses. Recommended pre-grazing CHs are within 13 and 18 cm, and post-grazing heights between 40 and 60% of the pre-grazing height.
Automatic detection of negated content is often a prerequisite in information extraction systems in various domains. In the biomedical domain especially, this task is important because negation plays an important role. In this work, two main contributions are proposed. First, we work with languages which have been poorly addressed up to now: Brazilian Portuguese and French. Thus, we developed new corpora for these two languages which have been manually annotated for marking up the negation cues and their scope. Second, we propose automatic methods based on supervised machine learning approaches for the automatic detection of negation marks and of their scopes. The methods show to be robust in both languages (Brazilian Portuguese and French) and in cross-domain (general and biomedical languages) contexts. The approach is also validated on English data from the state of the art: it yields very good results and outperforms other existing approaches. Besides, the application is accessible and usable online. We assume that, through these issues (new annotated corpora, application accessible online, and cross-domain robustness), the reproducibility of the results and the robustness of the NLP applications will be augmented.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
Bovine trypanosomosis has been spreading in Brazil. In the present study, we evaluated the spatial distribution, prevalence and risk factors of this disease in the state of Goiás, Brazil, and performed both molecular and phylogenetical analyses of Trypanosoma vivax. A total of 4049 blood samples were collected from cattle for a period of 2 years. The parasitological diagnosis was performed using the Woo method and a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to document risk factors associated with the disease in the herd. Positive samples were DNA sequenced and compared to GenBank codes. The prevalence of T. vivax was 8.84%, occurring on 24 ranches only in dairy cattle and mainly in the central and southern portions of the state. The acquisition of new animals infected with T. vivax and the administration of exogenous oxytocin to cows using the same syringe and needle were the main associated factors (P ≤ 0.05). After an outbreak, milk production decreased by 39.62%. The presence of biting flies (tabanids, Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans) was not a risk factor (P > 0.05) for the occurrence of T. vivax. The epidemiological data demonstrate the importance of restricting the practice of auctions as well as eliminating the use of exogenous oxytocin in animals during milking. The samples tested by polymerase chain reaction were positive for T. vivax and were genetically homologous with T. vivax found in different states of Brazil and west Africa based on the 18S rRNA gene.
The description of the growth of the Japanese quails is necessary to characterize the genetic potential of these birds raised in different countries. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the genetic potential of Japanese quails by conducting a meta-analysis considering studies conducted in different countries. Only data about the subspecies Coturnix coturnix japonica were considered; studies regarding Coturnix coturnix coturnix were not examined. The criteria investigated were BW (W), age (t), year of publication and location of the study. Each set of genetic material within a publication was coded as one study. The Gompertz function was used to interpret the growth of laying quails; thus, each study was represented by Gompertz parameters. The W and t data were applied to estimate the values of Gompertz growth parameters, including BW at maturity (Wm), BW at birth (Wi), maturity rate (B) and inflection point (IP). The age at which the maximum growth rate was achieved (t*) was calculated considering the parameters Wm, Wi and B. To estimate these parameters, random regression was used to randomize the parameter Wm. The parameters estimated for each assay were used in exploratory, grouping, and principal component analyses. The values of Wi ranged from 4.1 to 11.6 g. The values of B ranged from 0.0393 to 0.1039/day, and consequently, the values of t* and IP ranged from 14 to 31 days and 9.21 to 31.03 g, respectively. These results show that there is considerable variability in the growth potential of Japanese quails. To better understand this variation, two groups were examined: Brazil and other countries, according to the grouping of Wi, Wm, B and t*; parameter B was the variable that presented the highest specificity, indicating that both groups modified the maturity rate. For the principal component analysis, the year of publication showed a relationship with the growth parameters but only for studies performed in Brazil. For studies carried out in other countries, the changes in growth parameters were not related to the year of publication. In Brazilian studies, there was a decrease in the maturity rate, but the weight at maturity was higher. Therefore, it appears that different strategies of genetic selection were adopted in Brazil compared to other countries.
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with social cognition (SC) impairments even during remission periods although a large heterogeneity has been described. Our aim was to explore the existence of different profiles on SC in euthymic patients with BD, and further explore the potential impact of distinct variables on SC.
Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using three SC domains [Theory of Mind (ToM), Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Attributional Bias (AB)]. The sample comprised of 131 individuals, 71 patients with BD and 60 healthy control subjects who were compared in terms of SC performance, demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive variables. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the effect of SC-associated risk factors.
A two-cluster solution was identified with an adjusted-performance group (N = 48, 67.6%) and a low-performance group (N = 23, 32.4%) with mild deficits in ToM and AB domains and with moderate difficulties in EI. Patients with low SC performance were mostly males, showed lower estimated IQ, higher subthreshold depressive symptoms, longer illness duration, and poorer visual memory and attention. Low estimated IQ (OR 0.920, 95% CI 0.863–0.981), male gender (OR 5.661, 95% CI 1.473–21.762), and longer illness duration (OR 1.085, 95% CI 1.006–1.171) contributed the most to the patients clustering. The model explained up to 35% of the variance in SC performance.
Our results confirmed the existence of two discrete profiles of SC among BD. Nearly two-thirds of patients exhibited adjusted social cognitive abilities. Longer illness duration, male gender, and lower estimated IQ were associated with low SC performance.
An understanding of the processes involved in grazing behaviour is a prerequisite for the design of efficient grassland management systems. The purpose of managing the grazing process is to identify sward structures that can maximize animal forage daily intake and optimize grazing time. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of different grazing management strategies on foraging behaviour and herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass under rotational stocking. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in southern Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two grazing management strategies and four replicates. The grazing management treatments were a traditional rotational stocking (RT), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 25 and 5 cm, respectively, and a ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking (RN) with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 18 and 11 cm, respectively. Male sheep with an average live weight of 32 ± 2.3 kg were used. As intended, the pre- and post-grazing sward heights were according to the treatments. The pre-grazing leaf/stem ratio of the Italian ryegrass pasture did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05) (~2.87), but the post-grazing leaf/stem ratio was greater (P < 0.001) in the RN than in the RT treatment (1.59 and 0.76, respectively). The percentage of the non-grazed area was greater (P < 0.01) in post-grazing for RN compared with RT treatment, with an average of 29.7% and 3.49%, respectively. Herbage nutritive value was greater for the RN than for the RT treatment, with greater CP and lower ADF and NDF contents. The total time spent grazing, ruminating and resting did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05), with averages of 439, 167 and 85 min, respectively. The bite rate, feeding stations per min and steps per min by sheep were greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment. The grazing time per hour and the bite rate were greater (P < 0.05) in the afternoon than in the morning in both treatments. The daily herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass was greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment (843.7 and 707.8 g organic matter/sheep, respectively). Our study supports the idea that even though the grazing time was not affected by the grazing management strategies when the animal behaviour responses drive management targets, such as in ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking, the sheep herbage intake is maximized, and the grazing time is optimized.
Mood disorders, i.e. major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorders, are leading sources of disability worldwide. Currently available treatments do not yield remission in approximately a third of patients with a mood disorder. This is in part because these treatments do not target a specific core pathology underlying these heterogeneous disorders. In recent years, abnormal inflammatory processes have been identified as putative pathophysiological mechanisms and treatment targets in mood disorders, particularly among individuals with treatment-resistant conditions.
In this selective review, we aimed to summarise recent advances in the field of immunopsychiatry, including emerging pathophysiological models and findings from treatment ttrials of immunomodulatory agents for both MDD and bipolar disorders.
We performed a literature review by searching Medline for clinical trials of immunomodulating agents as monotherapy or adjunctive treatments in MDD and bipolar disorders. Included studies are randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster RCTs or cross-over trials of immunomodulating agents that had an active comparator or a placebo-arm.
Current evidence shows an association between inflammation and mood symptoms. However, there is conflicting evidence on whether this link is causal.
Future studies should focus on identifying specific neurobiological underpinnings for the putative causal association between an activated inflammatory response and mood disorders. Results of these studies are needed before further treatment trials of immunomodulatory agents can be justified.
Aging leads to a progressive loss of muscle function (MF) and quality (MQ: muscle strength [MS]/lean muscle mass [LM]). Power training and protein (PROT) supplementation have been proposed as efficient interventions to improve MF and MQ. Discrepancies between results appear to be mainly related to the type and/or dose of proteins used. The present study aimed at determining whether or not mixed power training (MPT) combined with fast-digested PROT (F-PROT) leads to greater improvements in MF and MQ in elderly men than MPT combined with slow-digested PROT (S-PROT) or MPT alone. Sixty elderly men (Age:69±7years; BMI:18-30kg.m-2) randomized into 3 groups: 1) Placebo+MPT (PLA; n=19); 2) F-PROT+MPT (n=21); 3) S-PROT+MPT (n=20) completed the intervention. LM, handgrip and knee extensor MS and MQ, functional capacity, serum metabolic markers, skeletal muscle characteristics, dietary intake and total energy expenditure were measured. The interventions consisted in 12 weeks of MPT (3-times/week;1h/session) combined with a supplement (30g: 10g per meal) of F-PROT (whey) or S-PROT (casein) or a Placebo. No difference was observed among groups for age, BMI, number of steps and dietary intake pre- and post-intervention. All groups improved significantly their LM, and lower limb MS/MQ, functional capacity, muscle characteristics and serum parameters following the MPT. Importantly, no difference between groups was observed following the MPT. Altogether, adding 30 g PROT per day to MPT, regardless of the type, does not provide additional benefits to MPT alone in older men ingesting an adequate (i.e. above recommended daily allowance) amount of protein per day.
Este artigo faz uma análise das práticas portuárias empregadas no comércio de africanos na cidade do Rio de Janeiro durante as duas primeiras décadas do século dezenove. A partir da diferenciação conceitual entre desembarque e descarga final das arqueações de cativos, novos dados obtidos em fontes primárias inéditas foram confrontados com relatos de cronistas e com fontes documentais tradicionalmente conhecidas. Sob essa perspectiva, o texto apresenta um panorama sólido e plausível sobre o processo de importação de escravizados, resgatando a importância do papel da alfândega do Rio de Janeiro como primeiro local de desembarque, e deslocando para o litoral da Saúde, no antigo bairro do Valongo, o local de descarga final das arqueações de africanos. Trata-se, portanto, de um cenário divergente da teoria corrente, segundo a qual o Cais do Valongo, localizado na enseada do Valonguinho, teria sido a porta de entrada dos milhares de cativos africanos que chegaram ao Rio de Janeiro.
Agricultural production in Brazil has increased in recent decades. Despite this, the rural population continues to face income inequality. Policies targeting this issue, such as rural credit, have been implemented during this period. This study estimates the influence of credit on income inequality in Brazilian rural areas. Results suggest that the family farming credit program (PRONAF) is not associated with increase in inequality. However, access to rural credit from sources other than PRONAF has led to greater household income inequality. Results also indicate that greater levels of education and access to rural extension have boosted the effect of credit on income.
This study aimed to assess the effects of the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) on events that modulate bovine in vitro oocyte maturation. Cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured with hemisections (HSs) of the follicular walls in a maturation medium supplemented with different concentrations (0.1–10.0 mM) of Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME). Controls consisted of COCs cultured in the presence (+HSs) or absence of HSs (–HSs) with no additional l-NAME supplementation. The following parameters were assessed: oocyte nuclear maturation stage; cumulus cell (CC) membrane integrity; nitrate/nitrite, progesterone, and estradiol concentrations in the culture medium at 22 h of cultivation; and the concentrations of cGMP and cAMP in COCs during the first hour of maturation. The addition of 1.0 mM l-NAME increased the percentage of oocytes that reached metaphase II (MII) and the percentage of intact CCs (P < 0.05). All l-NAME concentrations reduced the nitrate/nitrite concentrations (P < 0.05), but none affected steroid concentrations compared with control +HSs (P > 0.05). The addition of 1.0 mM l-NAME reduced cGMP concentrations at 3 h and increased cAMP concentrations in the first hour of culture (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the NOS/NO/cGMP pathway participates in meiosis progression (MI to MII) of the bovine oocytes matured in vitro in the presence of hemisections of the follicular walls. Lastly, the mechanisms that lead to the progression of meiosis after NOS inhibition do not involve changes in steroid production.
Facial movements of others during verbal and social interaction are often too rapid to be faced and/or processed in time by numerous children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which could contribute to their face-to-face interaction peculiarities. We wish here to measure the effect of reducing the speed of one's facial dynamics on the visual exploration of the face by children with ASD. Twenty-three children with ASD and 29 typically-developing control children matched for chronological age passively viewed a video of a speaker telling a story at various velocities, i.e., a real-time speed and two slowed-down speeds. The visual scene was divided into four areas of interest (AOI): face, mouth, eyes, and outside the face. With an eye-tracking system, we measured the percentage of total fixation duration per AOI and the number and mean duration of the visual fixations made on each AOI. In children with ASD, the mean duration of visual fixations on the mouth region, which correlated with their verbal level, increased at slowed-down velocity compared with the real-time one, a finding which parallels a result also found in the control children. These findings strengthen the therapeutic potential of slowness for enhancing verbal and language abilities in children with ASD.
In this research paper we describe the technological properties of beneficial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from a dairy production chain and the development of a fermented milk produced with Lactobacillus casei MRUV6. Fifteen LAB isolates (Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp. and Weissela sp.) presented acidifying abilities (pH ranges from 0.73 to 2.11), were able to produce diacetyl (except by 5 isolates) and exopolysaccharides, and two were proteolytic. L. casei MRUV6 was selected for producing a fermented milk, stored up to 35 d at 4 and 10°C. Counts on MRS agar with added vancomycin (10 mg/l) and MRS agar with added bile salts (1.5% w/v) ranged from 9.7 to 9.9 log CFU/g, independently of the tested conditions, indicating stability and intestinal resistance of L. casei MRUV6, despite some significant differences (P < 0.05). The study demonstrated the technological potential of a potential probiotic candidate strain, L. casei MRUV6, to be used as a starter culture in the dairy industry.