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In “Grande cuisine” creation and tradition co-evolve in a rich number of ways. Great chefs still use recipes from the 19th century and may also reinvent gastronomy itself. The creation heritage of culinary Art is the paradoxical capacity to both “respect” tradition and “break” its rules. Building on C-K theory, we show that such creative heritage needs multiple and independent layers of knowledge that “speak” of basic fixed objects. These properties correspond to general mathematical structures that we find in Topos theory. Thus, C-K/Topos predicts creative design strategies that can respect tradition in different ways. It also proves a form of “innovation within tradition” - “sheafification” in Topos words- that is not a compromise and builds on tradition itself. These findings fit with the lessons of great books of gastronomy. C-K/Topos has a wide scope of validity: it applies to any innovative design that needs preserving systemic structures, like engineering systems or social and environmental systems. C- K/Topos models with a high generality how local and radical innovation can warrant systems incremental change. C-K/Topos will have implications for teaching and research.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Recent scientific evidence on Culex quinquefasciatus has suggested its potential as a vector for ZIKV, which may change the current risk zones. We aimed to quantify the world population potentially exposed to ZIKV in a spatially explicit way, considering the primary vector (A. aegypti) and the potential vector (C. quinquefasciatus). Our model combined species distribution modelling of mosquito species with spatially explicit human population data to estimate ZIKV exposure risk. We estimated the potential global distribution of C. quinquefasciatus and estimated its potential interaction zones with A. aegypti. Then we evaluated the risk zones for ZIKV considering both vectors. Finally, we quantified and compared the people under risk associated with each vector by risk level, country and continent. We found that C. quinquefasciatus had a more temperate distribution until 42° in both hemispheres, while the risk involving A. aegypti is concentrated mainly in tropical latitudes until 35° in both hemispheres. Globally, 4.2 billion people are under risk associated with ZIKV. Around 2.6 billon people are under very high risk associated with C. quinquefasciatus and 1 billion people associated with A. aegypti. Several countries could be exposed to ZIKV, which emphasises the need to clarify the competence of C. quinquefasciatus as a potential vector as soon as possible. The models presented here represent a tool for risk management, public health planning, mosquito control and preventive actions, especially to focus efforts on the most affected areas.
The migration pattern of sperm-specific phospholipase C-ζ (PLC-ζ) was followed and the role of this migration in actin cytoskeleton dynamics was determined. We investigated whether PLC-ζ exits sperm, opening the possibility that PLC-ζ is the ‘spermatozoidal activator factor’ (SOAF). As capacitation progresses, the highly dynamic actin cytoskeleton bound different proteins to regulate their location and activity. PLC-ζ participation at the start of fertilization was established. In non-capacitated spermatozoa, PLC-ζ is in the perinuclear theca (PT) and in the flagellum, therefore it was decided to determine whether bovine sperm actin interacts with PLC-ζ to direct its relocation as it progresses from non-capacitated (NC) to capacitated (C) and to acrosome-reacted (AR) spermatozoa. PLC-ζ interacted with actin in NC spermatozoa (100%), PLC-ζ levels decreased in C spermatozoa to 32% and in AR spermatozoa to 57% (P < 0.001). The level of actin/PLC-ζ interaction was twice as high in G-actin (P < 0.001) that reflected an increase in affinity. Upon reaching the AR spermatozoa, PLC-ζ was partially released from the cell. It was concluded that actin cytoskeleton dynamics control the migration of PLC-ζ during capacitation and leads to its partial release at AR spermatozoa. It is suggested that liberated PLC-ζ could reach the egg and favour fertilization.
The Patient Dignity Inventory (PDI) evaluates sources of distress related to the feeling of loss of dignity and was designed for patients at the end of life. The aim of the present work was to generate a better understanding of the experiences of healthcare staff when using the PDI.
An exploratory qualitative study is presented about the experience of 4 professionals who applied the PDI to 124 advanced-cancer patients. Our study consisted of an analysis of their experiences, taken from information generated in a focus group. A thematic analysis was performed on the information generated at that meeting by two researchers working independently.
The initial experiences with the PDI on the part of the professionals led them to systematically administer the questionnaire as part of an interview instead of having patients fill it out themselves in written form. What started out as an evaluation very often led to a profound conversation on the meaning of life, dignity, and other sensitive, key issues related to the process of the illness.
Significance of results:
The PDI has intrinsic therapeutic value and is useful in clinical practice, and it is also a way of examining issues related to dignity and the meaning of life within the context of advanced-stage illness. There is a need for studies that examine patient experiences through a PDI-based interview.
Organic molecular crystals are often noncubic and contain significant steric hindrance within their structure to resist dislocation motion. Plastic deformation in these systems can be imparted during processing (tableting and comminution of powders), and the defect density impacts subsequent properties and performance. This study measured the elastic and plastic properties of representative monoclinic, orthorhombic, and triclinic molecular crystalline structures using nanoindentation of as-grown sub-mm single crystals. The variation in modulus due to in-plane rotational orientation, relative to a Berkovich tip, was approximately equal to the variation of a given crystal at a fixed orientation. The onset of plasticity occurs consistently at shear stresses between 1 and 5% of the elastic modulus in all three crystal systems, and the hardness to modulus ratio suggests conventional Berkovich tips do not generate fully self-similar plastic zones in these materials. This provides guidance for mechanical models of tableting, machining, and property assessment of molecular crystals.
The world’s fisheries and aquaculture industries produce vast amounts of protein-containing by-products that can be enzymatically hydrolysed to smaller peptides and possibly be used as additives to functional foods and nutraceuticals targeted for patients with obesity-related metabolic disorders. To investigate the effects of fish protein hydrolysates on markers of metabolic disorders, obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets with 75 % of protein from casein/whey (CAS) and 25 % from herring (HER) or salmon (SAL) protein hydrolysate from rest raw material, or 100 % protein from CAS for 4 weeks. The fatty acid compositions were similar in the experimental diets, and none of them contained any long-chain n-3 PUFA. Ratios of lysine:arginine and methionine:glycine were lower in HER and SAL diets when compared with CAS, and taurine was detected only in fish protein hydrolysate diets. Motifs with reported hypocholesterolemic or antidiabetic activities were identified in both fish protein hydrolysates. Rats fed HER diet had lower serum HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, and higher serum TAG, MUFA and n-3:n-6 PUFA ratio compared with CAS-fed rats. SAL rats gained more weight and had better postprandial glucose regulation compared with CAS rats. Serum lipids and fatty acids were only marginally affected by SAL, but adipose tissue contained less total SFA and more total n-3 PUFA when compared with CAS. To conclude, diets containing hydrolysed rest raw material from herring or salmon proteins may affect growth, lipid metabolism, postprandial glucose regulation and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in obese Zucker rats.
The social and economic structure of the Crown of Castile underwent significant changes in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era, partly due to the strong pace of urbanization, a process which had been going on for some time, as was also the case in the rest of Europe. The expansion of regional trade and the incorporation of Castilian products within Europe's trading networks were some of the most remarkable consequences of this process. These changes inevitably led to the emergence of collaborative efforts and collective actions that, as was usual in other territories, supplemented the individual activities of great merchants. By means of these occasional relationships, there came about an organized system based on regular commercial, social and political contacts through the participation of the most important merchant families, who generally shared the same neighbourhood. To live in the same city, in the same neighbourhood, even in the same street meant to share the daily life and favoured the creation of kinship relations or business in common. The example of Castilian merchants at the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth century is very instructive as we try to understand how small local agents became large companies, corporations who had a strong familiar component and who were able to join the urban elite groups of the kingdom.
Servant Leadership emphasizes employee’s development and growth within a context of moral and social concern. Nowadays, this management change towards workers´ wellbeing is highlighted as an important issue. The aims of this paper are to adapt to Spanish speakers the Servant Leadership Survey (SLS) by van Dierendonck and Nuijten (2011), and to analyze its factorial validity through confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance in three countries. A sample of 638 working people from three Spanish-speaking countries (Spain, Argentina and Mexico) participated in the study. In all three countries, confirmatory factor analyses corroborate the eight factor structure (empowerment, accountability, standing back, humility, authenticity, courage, forgiveness and stewardship) with one second order factor (servant leadership) (in all three samples, CFI, IFI > .92, TLI > .91, RMSEA < .70). Also, factor loadings, reliability and convergent validity were acceptable across samples. Furthermore, through measurement invariance analysis, we detected model equivalence in all three countries including structural residual invariance (ΔCFI = .001). Finally, cultural differences in some dimensions were found and discussed, opening the way for future cross-cultural studies.
Defect structures in Rubidium Titanyl Phosphate (RTP) crystals (non-doped and doped) grown by the Top Seeded Solution Growth (TSSG) method were characterized using Synchrotron White Beam X-ray Topography. Main defects observed in non-doped crystals are growth sector boundaries while both growth sector boundaries and growth striations are observed in the Nb single doped and (Nb,Yb)-codoped crystals with relatively few linear defects such as dislocations. Results show that the overall crystalline quality is lowered as more doping elements are incorporated. Details of defect distributions are correlated with the growth process to facilitate high quality growth of doped RTP.
The ferroic phase transition in LaEr(MoO4)3 has been analyzed for the first time. It has been confirmed that this compound undergoes a phase transition from a tetragonal system (paraelectric-paraelastic phase), with space group P-421m [β-Gd2(MoO4)3 averaged phase] to an orthorhombic system (ferroelectric-ferroelastic phase), with space group Pba2 [β'-Gd2(MoO4)3 phase] in a reversible process. This phenomenon, together with the observed demixing at high temperature has been studied using different techniques. LaEr(MoO4)3 samples have been obtained by the conventional solid-state synthesis. The thermal dependence of the crystal structure was studied by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction, following a new refining procedure in which the symmetry modes of atomic displacements from the paraelectric-paraelastic structure were analyzed. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements have confirmed the structural results, showing a very smooth phase transition. Finally, calculations within the framework of Density Functional Theory show a behavior of the lattice parameters similar to that observed in our experiments.
Two polymorphs of Holmium molybdate, known as β'-phase and γ-phase, were prepared by solid state reaction with different thermal treatments. These polycrystalline samples have been studied for the first time by X-ray thermodiffractometry from room temperature up to 1300 K. We found that the initial β'-phase undergoes a transition to a β-phase and then to a γ-phase. The γ (hydrated)-phase, turns to the γ (dehydrated)-phase and then to the β-phase. Each sequence involves a reversible and an irreversible phase transition for Ho2(MoO4)3. Both polymorphs have remarkable physical properties like nonlinear optics, ferroelectricity and negative thermal expansion. We have calculated the linear expansion coefficients of both phases. We have obtained a positive coefficient for the β'-phase and a negative one for the γ-phase. Moreover, we have made a comparison of the obtained coefficients with previous results for other rare earth molybdates.
We present a technique for the direct deposition of nanoporous GaN particles on Si substrates without requiring any post-growth treatment. The internal morphology of the nanoporous GaN particles deposited on Si substrates by using a simple chemical vapor deposition approach was investigated, and straight nanopores with diameters ranging between 50 and 100 nm were observed. Cathodoluminescence characterization revealed a sharp and well-defined near band-edge emission at ∼365 nm. This approach simplifies other methods used for this purpose, such as etching and corrosion techniques that can damage the semiconductor structure and modify its properties.