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Tobacco consumption has been related to the onset of panic attacks (PA), panic disorder (PD) and agoraphobia, to panic symptoms and to features related to PD. The relationship that links tobacco and panic is not clear, and some models have been proposed to explain it (causal, neuroticism as a vulnerability factor).
Our aim was to study the relationship that tobacco consumption before the onset of PD has with some features of the disorder and to clarify the relationship that links tobacco and panic.
A sample of 82 naïve PD patients was included. Patients were extensively evaluated (Mini Neuropsychiatric Interview–MINI-, Panic Disorder Severity Scale–PDSS-, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory–STAI-, Beck Depression Index–BDI-; Anxiety Sensitivity Index–ASI-, Mobility Inventory of Agoraphobia–MIA-, Clinical Global Impression-CGI-, NEO-Five Factor Inventory–NEO-FFI). Tobacco consumption was retrospectively assessed by asking the patients the consumption they had the week before suffering the first panic attack.
The condition of smoker before the onset of PA showed significant relationships with earlier age of onset of PD (p=0.04), less frequency of PA (p=0.04), and higher scores in BDI (p=0.04) and NEO-FFI neuroticism (p=0.02). After analysis with multiple logistic regression, neuroticism did not show considerably influence on any of these associations.
Being a smoker before the onset of PA is related, in the early phases of PD, to higher neuroticism and depressive symptoms, less frequency of PA and PD onset at a younger age.
Although proposed as a common vulnerability factor, neuroticism does not influence the observed associations.
Nocturnal panic attacks are considered in PD patients a severe subtype of the illness. Recent studies failed at identifying more severe psychopathology in these patients. We analyzed this issue in a sample in the earlier phases of PD.
Patients and method:
A sample of 153 patients (107 women and 46 men) with a recent onset of a PD established with the MINI was included. Patients were free of treatment and had never received effective treatment for their disorder. Data were obtained both from the clinical interview and from specific questionnaires concerning severity (PDSS, CGI), agoraphobia (MIA), anxiety (STAI) and depression (BDI). The presence of nocturnal attacks was assessed during the clinical interview.
The median time of evolution of the PD was 8 months. The mean age of the sample was 30 years old. Agoraphobia was diagnosed in 66% of the cases and the mean CGI was 4.22 (moderate). More than half of the patients (52.9%) reported nocturnal panic attacks. A positive relationship was found between rate of panic attacks and nocturnal attacks (PDSS frequency: p=0.002; number of attacks in the last month: p=0.02). A positive relationship appeared with agoraphobia (PDSS agoraphobic avoidance: p=0.05; MIA alone: p=0.02). No relationship appeared regarding CGI and scales concerning psychopathology.
Half of the patients in first stages of PD reports nocturnal panic attacks, which are related both to an increased rate of panic attacks and an increased agoraphobic avoidance. However, nocturnal attacks are not related with the whole clinical severity of PD.
Eating disorders (ED) are complex psychiatric diseases that include anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, and have higher than 50% heritability. Previous studies have found association of BDNF and NTRK2 to ED, while animal models suggest that other neurotrophin genes might also be involved in eating behavior. We have performed a family based association study with 151 TagSNPs covering ten neurotrophin signaling genes: NGFB, BDNF, NTRK1, NGFR/p75, NTF4/5, NTRK2, NTF3, NTRK3, CNTF and CNTFR in 371 ED trios of Spanish, French and German origin. Besides several nominal associations, we found a strong significant association after correcting for multiple testing (p = 1.04 x 10-4) between ED and rs7180942, located in the NTRK3 gene, which followed an overdominant model of inheritance. Interestingly, HapMap unrelated individuals carrying the rs7180942 risk genotypes for ED showed higher levels of expression of NTRK3 in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Furthermore, higher expression of the orthologous murine Ntrk3 gene was also detected in the hypothalamus of the anx/anx mouse model of anorexia. Finally, variants in NGFB gene appear to modify the risk conferred by the NTRK3 rs7180942 risk genotypes (p = 4.0 x 10-5) showing a synergistic epistatic interaction. The reported data, in addition to the previous reported findings for BDNF and NTRK2, point neurotrophin signaling genes as key regulators of eating behavior and their altered cross-regulation as susceptibility factors for eating disorders.
Since 1970, a relationship between cardiovascular morbi-mortality and anxiety disorders has been studied. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the possible mechanisms and has been studied in mental stress. The aim of this study is to compare the levels of two of the best known endothelial damage markers (von Willebrand Factor –vWF- and E-selectin) in patients and controls and its evolution after the treatment.
We recruited a sample of patients with recent onset panic disorder from the Panic Disorder Unit of Cantabria (University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain). Data were analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 12.0 and parametric test were used to compare the means (T test for paired and for independent samples).
We obtained measures in 54 cases and 43 age, sex and BMI matched controls. Mean age was 31.3 and 63% were women. Median duration of panic disorder was 7 months. Mean values of the markers were higher in patients than controls (vWF= 78.7 vs. 75.5; p=0.4, and E-selectin= 64.7 vs. 57.8; p=0.3) but did not reach statistical significance. When we analyzed evolution of markers in patients we observed a decrease in both (vWF= 78.7 → 74.6; p=0,058, E-selectin= 62.1 → 57.8; p=0,1) but again without reaching statistical significance.
These results could support our hypothesis of a relationship between the endothelial damage and panic disorder. The lack of statistical significance could be explained because of our small sample; therefore larger samples are needed to confirm our results.
It has been shown the relationship between Panic Disorder (PD) and cardiovascular mortality. Lipoprotein (a) is a well known cardiovascular risk factor. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between Lp (a) and clinical severity in Panic Disorder patients and changes related to treatment response.
Patients with recent onset Panic Disorder were recruited in the Panic Disorder Unit of Cantabria. All of them were drug naive to minimize potential confounding factors. Thereafter, patients entered in a naturalistic treatment with SSRIs and were evaluated after 8 weeks follow-up.
159 patients were included. The mean score of the CGI was of 4.2 ± 1.0 and the mean of Lp (a) levels was 25.0 ± 26.8 mg/dl. Clinical response occurred in about 80% of the patients.
There was a significant correlation between the CGI scale and the Lp (a) levels (rho: 0.208; d.f.: 147; p=0.011) at intake.
Evaluation of Lp (a) at follow up showed lower levels, without statistical significance. Only in the subgroup of patients without agoraphobia this diminution in Lp (a) was significant (p=0.047).
Patients with higher scores in CGI presented higher levels of Lp (a) with a linear positive correlation between this variables. These findings could implicate Lp (a) in the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PD.
At follow-up a trend toward decrease in Lp (a) was observed, being this reduction higher in patients without agoraphobia.
Future researches are needed to establish whether Lp (a) modifications occur at longer follow-up evaluations.
Pension reform is one of the top public policy priorities in advanced industrialized countries due to population ageing and the significant weight of pension spending in governments’ budgets. As a result of these concerns European countries have engaged in varying degrees of pension reforms over the last three decades. The extant literature on pension reform focuses on structural, institutional and blame avoidance theories to explain how pension reform take place. Yet, how do different conditions combine to lead to significant pension reform outcomes? To answer this question we analyze a set of 48 pension reform cases in eight European countries since the late 1980s up until 2014 by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). Our main finding is that institutional, structural or blame avoidance theories cannot account by themselves for instances of significant pension reform. Rather, we find three pathways that combine structural and institutional conditions to lead to significant pension reform.
Fluid–structure interaction is fundamental to the characteristics of the induced flows due to the motion of structures in fluids and also is crucial to the performance of submerged structures. This paper presents a three-dimensional analytical study of the intrinsic free vibration of an elastic multilayered hollow sphere interacting with an exterior non-Newtonian fluid medium. The fluid is assumed to be characterized by a compressible linear viscoelastic model accounting for both the shear and compressional relaxation processes. For small-amplitude vibrations, the equations governing the viscoelastic fluid can be linearized, which are then solved by introducing appropriate potential functions. The solid is assumed to exhibit a particular material anisotropy, i.e. spherical isotropy, which includes material isotropy as a special case. The equations governing the anisotropic solid are solved in spherical coordinates using the state-space formalism, which finally establishes two separate transfer relations correlating the state vectors at the innermost surface with those at the outermost surface of the multilayered hollow sphere. By imposing the continuity conditions at the fluid–solid interface, two separate analytical characteristic equations are derived, which characterize two independent classes of vibration. Numerical examples are finally conducted to validate the theoretical derivation as well as to investigate the effects of various factors, including fluid viscosity and compressibility, fluid viscoelasticity, solid anisotropy and surface effect, as well as solid intrinsic damping, on the vibration characteristics of the submerged hollow sphere. Particularly, our theoretically predicted vibration frequencies and quality factors of gold nanospheres with intrinsic damping immersed in water agree exceptionally well with the available experimentally measured results. The reported analytical solution is truly and fully three-dimensional, covering from the purely radial breathing mode to the torsional mode to any general spheroidal mode as well as being applicable to various simpler situations, and hence can be a broad-spectrum benchmark in the study of fluid–structure interaction.
Five genera of anthaspidellid and streptosollenid demosponges are described from the Ordovician Lenoir Limestone near Lenoir City, Loudon County, Tennessee, USA including: Rhopalocoelia regularis Raymond and Okulitch, Rugocoelia loudonensis n. sp., Psarodictyum sp. (Anthaspidellidae), Allosacus pedunculatus n. sp., and Zitelella varians Raymond and Okulitch (Streptosolenidae). These findings confirm the major paleobiogeographic picture for Laurentian sponges (i.e., the differential distribution of sponge faunas along both North American margins), because none of these eastern margin species has been reported from western margin faunas. Only one genus typical of the Great Basin fauna, Rugocoelia Johns, 1994, is reported from Tennessee, but as a new species. Possible explanations are discussed for this differential distribution, mainly related to climatic constraints or sedimentary differences, preventing the free distribution of sponge species between Laurentian continental margins.
We present scanning Fabry-Perot observations of different types of star-forming galaxies from apparently isolated LIRGs to equal mass interacting galaxies. We analyze the ionized gas kinematics, its relation with the morphology of each system and the location of SF regions for different systems.
Most emerging economies have been affected to some degree by the Fed’s quantitative easing (QE) policies. This paper assesses the impact of these measures in terms of key macroeconomic variables for four inflation-targeting small open economies in Latin America. We identify a QE policy shock in a structural vector autoregressive with block exogeneity and a mixture of zero and sign restrictions. Overall, we find that these QE policies have significant effects on financial variables such as the exchange rate, and these effects are larger with respect to those in output and prices. Furthermore, the effects vary across countries, and these are more significant in Chile and Mexico than in Peru and Colombia.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of the study was to assess the acceptability of a culturally targeted narrative video and identify potential avenues for dissemination in a sample of bilingual community health workers who provide services to the Latino community in the United States. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We piloted the video in a sample of bilingual community health workers who provide services to Latinos (n=31). After watching the video, participants filled out a survey. The survey captured sociodemographic data (e.g. education), their role and experience working with Latinos (e.g. patient navigators), acceptability of the video (e.g. general satisfaction, length of the video, amount of information), and potential dissemination (e.g., dissemination channels, preferred settings to watch the video, and preferred context). Three open ended questions captured information about how the video could be useful for the Latino community, what they liked the most from the video, and suggestions for improvement. Data was entered in SPSS version 25. We used descriptive statistics to analyze the survey, and content analysis to summarize the feedback from the open-ended questions. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (n = 31) had an average age of 46 years (SD=16.99), all self-identified as Hispanic or Latinos, most were female (90.3%), and worked as patient navigators (29%) or community outreach workers (25.8%). The video’s general acceptability was very high. Participants reported high ratings for overall satisfaction, how much they liked the video, enjoyed it, and considered it to be interesting (all means >9.6, range 1-10). Most participants strongly agreed or agreed that the length was adequate (80.7%), that the information presented was very helpful (100%), that the video could be useful for the Latina community (96.8%), and that they would share the video with women at-risk of HBOC (100%). The highest endorsed channels for dissemination were Facebook (90.3) and YouTube (87.1%). The highest endorsed settings were community centers (100%), churches (96.8%), and hospitals (80.6%). Most participants (90.3%) considered that the best context to watch the video would be with relatives, followed by watching with other women at-risk of HBOC (71.0%), friends (71.0%), and lastly by oneself (41.9%) DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This study represents a multidisciplinary approach to intervention development that aims to reduce well-documented knowledge gaps and disparities in the use of GCRA among at-risk Latinas. A culturally targeted video has the potential to reach underserved populations with low literacy and English proficiency and it can be widely disseminated. The video was well received by community health workers who reported high acceptability. These findings are promising given that community health workers could play a key role in the dissemination of the video if it is proven to be efficacious.
Public approval is a crucial source of executive power in presidential systems. Does the public support female and male presidents similarly? Combining insights from gender and politics research with psychological evidence, this study theorizes sex-based differentials in popularity based on more general expectations linking gender stereotypes to diverging performance evaluations. Using quarterly analyses of eighteen Latin American democracies, South Korea and the Philippines, the analyses compare the levels, dynamics, and policy performance of macro-approval for male and female presidents. As expected, female presidents are less popular, experience exaggerated approval dynamics and their approval is more responsive to security and corruption (though not economic) outcomes. These findings have clear implications for our understandings of mass politics, political accountability and presidentialism.
The aim of this piece of research was to study the existence of clusters based on anger, empathy and cortisol and testosterone measures associated with aggressive behavior in school-aged children. The sample group comprised 139 eight-year-old children (80 boys and 59 girls). Aggressive behavior was measured using the Direct and Indirect Aggression Scale. Both psychological and biological variables were used to determine psychobiological profiles. The psychological variables considered were trait anger, measured using the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children and Adolescents, and empathy, measured using the Empathy Quotient-Child Version. Testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured through saliva samples and analyzed using an ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). A Cluster Analysis revealed three clusters which were clearly different as regards their psychological and biological characteristics. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the cluster characterized by having higher anger levels, lower empathy levels and higher testosterone and cortisol levels was more aggressive than the other two (p < .0001, η2 = .19). The results indicate that studying psychological and biological variables together may help establish differentiated aggression patterns among children.
Systematic reviews (SRs) are today's cornerstone of evidence-based medicine. However, their risk of bias (ROB) may critically impact their findings. Hence, an impartial assessment of their ROB is paramount to their interpretation. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential association between the results of the ROB assessment for a series of SRs and their corresponding journal's impact factor as determined by the citation reports.
A sample of over 500 SRs and their corresponding ROB will be employed in this study. The source for these data will be the database KSR Evidence. The corresponding impact factor (IF) for the publishing journal as reported by the Science Citation Index will also be retrieved. The total of ROBIS signaling questions answered as ‘yes’ or ‘probably yes’ will be used to approximate the awarded quality (Quality) for each systematic review. An analysis of the potential correlation between Quality and the IF will be performed with a simple linear regression.
Results will be presented in tables and figures. Preliminary results confirm that a statistically significant association between the suggested variables exists, though this is of low magnitude.
Findings confirm that the ROB of an SR and the IF of the publishing journal are correlated.
Lower to probably Middle Devonian bryozoans from western Argentina are reported. Five genera of trepostomes: Leptotrypa, Leptotrypella, Eridotrypella, Cyphotrypa, Boardmanella, and the cryptostome ?Pseudonematopora are described and figured. The paleobiogeographical significance of these bryozoans was analyzed in the context of Southern Gondwana during the Devonian. The group was considered as nearly absent from southwestern marine basins. In contrast with highly endemic groups, supporting the recognition of the Malvinokaffric Realm in this region, bryozoans reported are nearly cosmopolitan. The presence of those genera typical of warm-temperate, carbonate settings from low paleolatitudes, such as the Laurentian-European Eridotrypella, Leptotrypa, and Leptotrypella, or the Eurasians Boardmanella and ?Pseudonematopora, implies that these taxa were euritopic with remarkable capabilities for dispersion to reach high-latitude siliciclastic environments of the Southwestern Gondwanan basins.
Thousands of new asteroids are discovered every year and the rate of discovery is by far larger than the determination rate of their physical properties. In 2015 a group of researchers and students of several Mexican institutions have established an observational program to study asteroids photometrically. The program, named Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign, is aiming to derive rotation periods of asteroids based on optical photometric observations. Since then four campaigns have been carried out. The results obtained throughout these campaigns, as well as future work, are presented.
Assume that the end-effector of a serial mechanism with n-degrees of freedom arrives at the position p0, where it can change arbitrarily the direction of its movement. The physical conditions imply that this change in direction also alters its velocity. The kinematic performance ellipse represents the velocities according to the new direction of the system, and thus solving the problem of which direction will correspond to a maximum or minimum (principal directions) magnitude of the corresponding velocity. In this paper, a new procedure to calculate these principal directions is presented and contrasted with two of the most common procedures employed in the field. All three procedures are considered in some detail, in order to understand their underlying concepts and, therefore, gain a deeper understanding of the physical situation. They are all proved in standard examples.
The literature studying the behavioral effects of political corruption is rapidly growing. While some studies explore the contextual and institutional factors that can neutralize the effects of corruption, this article addresses a different mechanism for weak electoral accountability for corruption: citizen (de)mobilization. It uses a vignette experiment embedded in a nationally representative AmericasBarometer survey in Colombia to isolate the causal effect of political corruption on electoral participation. The results suggest that receiving credible information about the corrupt behavior of politicians running for office decreases the likelihood of participation in elections. It also shows that corruption demobilizes voters even when corrupt politicians are able to provide public works to their constituencies, which casts doubt on the idea that citizens exchange integrity for favorable policy outcomes.