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This essay discusses a series of links connecting Caribbean literature and the visual arts, paying particular attention to shared conceptual, critical preoccupations and visual vocabularies, as well as rhetorical strategies and aesthetic across art forms. It traces important stages in the ongoing dialogue between literature and art, including the foundational role of interdisciplinary movements, journals, art spaces and collaborations among writers and artists.
To assess whether higher adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) was associated with lower consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPF) and lower free sugar intake.
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline information among participants in the SENDO project, a Spanish paediatric cohort. Dietary information was collected through a semi-quantitative FFQ. Food items were classified according to the NOVA classification. Adherence to the MedDiet was evaluated through the KIDMED index.
Three hundred eight-six children (52 % boys) with a mean age of 5·3 years old (sd 1·0) were included in the analysis.
74·4 % of the children had moderate adherence to the MedDiet (mean KIDMED score: 5·9 points; sd 1·7) and overall, 32·2 % of the total energy intake came from UPF. Each two additional points in the KIDMED score was associated with 3·1 % (95 % CI 2·1, 4·0) lower energy intake from UPF. Compared to those with low adherence to the MedDiet, children with medium and high adherence reported 5·0 % (95 % CI 2·2, 7·7) and 8·5 % (95 % CI 5·2, 11·9) lower energy intake from UPF, respectively. We also found that 71·6 % of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability in UPF consumption.
Adherence to the traditional MedDiet was inversely associated with energy intake from UPF. Furthermore, most of the variability in free sugar intake was explained by the variability of UPF consumption. Public health strategies are needed to strengthen the adherence to the MedDiet in pre-schoolers while regulating the production, marketing and advertising of UPF.
In Mexico during the protectionist economic regime a process of industrial modernization was carried out which led to the incorporation of different types of technologies into the structures and processes of production or consumption. The patent policy was implemented with the interest of encouraging the attraction of novel technologies, but their contribution was quite limited due to the nature, design and operation, with which it was conformed. Therefore, the patent policy did not drive patenting activity in a high and sustained manner. It was ineffective to contribute to the development of technologies generated by local actors, and marginally propitiated the productive exploitation of patents.
We systematically study the shape and dynamics of a Newtonian ferrofluid drop immersed in an immiscible, Newtonian and non-magnetic viscous fluid under the action of a uniform external magnetic field. We obtain the exact equilibrium drop shapes for arbitrary ferrofluids, characterize the extent of deviations of the exact shape from the commonly assumed ellipsoidal shape, and analyse the smoothness of highly curved tips in elongated drops. We also present a comprehensive study of drop deformation for a Langevin ferrofluid. Using a computational scheme that allows fast and accurate simulations of ferrofluid drop dynamics, we show that the dynamics of drop deformation by an applied magnetic field is described up to a numerical factor by the same time scale as drop relaxation in the absence of any magnetic field. The numerical factor depends on the ratio of viscosities and the ratio of magnetic to capillary stresses, but is independent of the nature of the ferrofluid in most practical cases.
An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0–24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression.
For a well-read medieval monk, as Guillaume de Deguileville must have been, remembering what he read involved memory techniques centered on the visualization of unusual, if not bizarre and startling, scenes and figures. Thus, as a writer who wanted his writing to be remembered, Deguileville conveyed the content of his three Pèlerinages through vivid and detailed descriptions of unusual figures and scenes, including interactions between personifications and biblical characters, which beg for visualization. Apparently unwilling to rely entirely on the reader's ability to create these memory-images in the imagination, the author himself planned for some illustrations, though we cannot know whether he devised complete programs of miniatures or supervised the production of any illustrated manuscripts. Each of his three French pilgrimage poems appeared individually with illustrations, but manuscripts that collect all three Pèlerinages include some of the most ambitious programs of illustration. It is as if the desire for uniformity stimulated designers and artists to continue the dense level of visualization frequently found in manuscripts of the PVH into the other two poems. Images, in fact, provide the most striking evidence for the high level of familiarity with Deguileville's three Pèlerinages from the late fourteenth to mid-fifteenth centuries: in the book of hours known as the Hours of Isabella Stuart (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum MS 62), picture cycles for each of the poems – in the unusual sequence PJC, PVH, PA – accompany not Deguileville's poems but the familiar cycle of texts found in this personal book of hours, an indication that the images alone enabled readers to recall the poems.
As Fabienne Pomel's contribution to this volume demonstrates vividly, Deguileville's corpus reads like nothing so much as a collection of legal documents. The saga of Deguileville's poetic persona. Here distinguished by the Latinized name Guillermus de Deguilevilla, resembles a case file; both narrator and author are put on trial repeatedly, and poetic and juridical authority are closely related. Two instances of judgment stand out in particular, found respectively in PVH2 and in PA. First, in PVH2. Guillermus loses a judgment aboard the Ship of Religion, from which he is exiled as a result and deprived of his good name. Because of the poet's insistence on the (pseudo-) autobiographical nature of the episode, modern scholars have usually seen in it a reflection of Deguileville's own legal troubles, presumably at the hands of fellow monks at Chaalis. And because Deguileville linked this affair to the high-profile literary scandals of other authors – namely, Abelard and Ovid – it is plausible that he suffered for something he wrote. If so, this would doubtless have been the earlier PVH1, which the 1355 version (PVH2) was destined to correct and supplement.
The Castillian prose translation of PVH1, El pelegrino de la vida humana, underwent a number of transformations before even appearing in the workshop of Henrico Mayer Aleman in Toulouse, where it was eventually printed in 1490. The Spanish version is based on a French printed prose adaptation of PVH1, produced in Lyon by Mathis Husz in 1485 and reprinted in 1486, itself based on an anonymous prose adaptation of PVH1 produced for Jeanne de Laval in Angers in 1465. The translator is identified in Mayer's print as Vinçente de Maçuelo, who appears to have had close connections with the Dominican order and the university of Toulouse on the one hand, and with the Royal family of Castile and Aragon on the other. Indeed, a copy of Mayer's print was acquired by the Royal Family in 1492, presumably for the spiritual education of the young Prince John, whose training was entrusted to a fellow Dominican, Diego de Deza. The connections between Mayer, Maçuelo, the Dominican order and the Royal Family thus provide the main context for the reception of this work in Spain. Mayer's print also lends the text a more militant, combative tone, notably with the addition of a full-page frontispiece woodcut showing a hybrid figure of a pilgrim-knight. This addition may have heightened the book's appeal for an aristocratic readership, allowing the volume to serve as a ‘mirror for princes’ within the court.