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In Mexico during the protectionist economic regime a process of industrial modernization was carried out which led to the incorporation of different types of technologies into the structures and processes of production or consumption. The patent policy was implemented with the interest of encouraging the attraction of novel technologies, but their contribution was quite limited due to the nature, design and operation, with which it was conformed. Therefore, the patent policy did not drive patenting activity in a high and sustained manner. It was ineffective to contribute to the development of technologies generated by local actors, and marginally propitiated the productive exploitation of patents.
We systematically study the shape and dynamics of a Newtonian ferrofluid drop immersed in an immiscible, Newtonian and non-magnetic viscous fluid under the action of a uniform external magnetic field. We obtain the exact equilibrium drop shapes for arbitrary ferrofluids, characterize the extent of deviations of the exact shape from the commonly assumed ellipsoidal shape, and analyse the smoothness of highly curved tips in elongated drops. We also present a comprehensive study of drop deformation for a Langevin ferrofluid. Using a computational scheme that allows fast and accurate simulations of ferrofluid drop dynamics, we show that the dynamics of drop deformation by an applied magnetic field is described up to a numerical factor by the same time scale as drop relaxation in the absence of any magnetic field. The numerical factor depends on the ratio of viscosities and the ratio of magnetic to capillary stresses, but is independent of the nature of the ferrofluid in most practical cases.
An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0–24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression.
Helas, madame! Sans reigle et sans mesure chacun forge besans a lui plaisans et moins pesans, et des vostres n'ont cure. Et vrayment, madame, se ne fust le bourdon du noble moisne de Chaslis, au quel souvent je me appuye, de desesperacion je fusse cheue en abisme et ne fusse pas en vie. Mais la presence de la grant clarte de vostre reginale majeste, et les admirables vertuz de mes troys reverentes dames, qui avec vous confortent les predestinez en adroissant les corps et les ames, me presentent un grant confort pour parvenir a bon port de la gloire de voz besans et de vostre tressainte monnoye, la par laquelle on vient a pardurable joye.
Philippe de Nlézières, Le Songe du Vieil Pelerin [my italics]
[Alas, madam! Without rule and without measure each mints the bezants of less weight which suit him, and do not value yours. Truly, madam, were it not for the staff of the noble monk of Chaalis, on which i frequently lean, I would have fallen into the abyss of despair and would no longer be alive. But the presence of the great light of your royal majesty, [and] the admirable virtues of my three venerable ladies who, along with you, comfort the predestined, appealing to their bodies and their souls, represent for me a great support in arriving at the good port of the glory of your bezants and your most holy currency, through which one achieves eternal joy.]
The Castillian prose translation of PVH1, El pelegrino de la vida humana, underwent a number of transformations before even appearing in the workshop of Henrico Mayer Aleman in Toulouse, where it was eventually printed in 1490. The Spanish version is based on a French printed prose adaptation of PVH1, produced in Lyon by Mathis Husz in 1485 and reprinted in 1486, itself based on an anonymous prose adaptation of PVH1 produced for Jeanne de Laval in Angers in 1465. The translator is identified in Mayer's print as Vinçente de Maçuelo, who appears to have had close connections with the Dominican order and the university of Toulouse on the one hand, and with the Royal family of Castile and Aragon on the other. Indeed, a copy of Mayer's print was acquired by the Royal Family in 1492, presumably for the spiritual education of the young Prince John, whose training was entrusted to a fellow Dominican, Diego de Deza. The connections between Mayer, Maçuelo, the Dominican order and the Royal Family thus provide the main context for the reception of this work in Spain. Mayer's print also lends the text a more militant, combative tone, notably with the addition of a full-page frontispiece woodcut showing a hybrid figure of a pilgrim-knight. This addition may have heightened the book's appeal for an aristocratic readership, allowing the volume to serve as a ‘mirror for princes’ within the court.
The Cistercian monk Guillaume de Deguileville, also known as Guillaume de Digulleville and Guillermus de Deguilevilla, produced what could be termed both the best-known and the least known literary corpus of the fourteenth century: Deguileville's collection of compositions found a remarkable popularity in the centuries immediately following its production yet suffered almost equally striking critical neglect in modern scholarship before a rise in interest from the mid-twentieth century onwards. The corpus as it survives today consists of the allegorical French pilgrimage narratives PVH (existing in two versions, c. 1331 and c. 1355 respectively), PA (c. 1355) and PJC (c. 1358), as well as the shorter narrative Roman de la fleur de lys [Romance of the Lily] (c. 1338) and varied Latin pieces. All of Deguileville's narratives are composed for the most part in the octosyllabic couplets characteristic of late medieval French verse, yet each of the pilgrimage narratives also features accompanying or embedded French, Latin, or macaronic texts in a variety of forms, and Deguileville's period of composition interestingly coincides with the linguistic transition now described as the movement from ancien français to moyen français. Most of what we know regarding the dating of the corpus and the life of Deguileville depends upon the interpretation of passages from his allegories that appear to be autobiographical in nature. Although spellings of his name vary, the poet's name suggests an origin in the town now known as Digulleville, near Cherbourg in present day France.
The success encountered by Deguileville's Pèlerinages in the Middle Ages is undeniable, as attested by the numbers of surviving manuscripts. Yet manuscript numbers alone reveal very little about the nature of these texts' reception. Were these manuscripts read in extenso, or more discontinuously and selectively, or were they admired as a vehicle for lavish illumination? Who read the texts, in what manner and to what end? Although many manuscripts are indeed abundantly illustrated, more than fifty copies of PVH carry marginal annotations dating from the Middle Ages: the first of the Pèlerinages was thus not only the most widely circulated but also seems to have attracted the greatest amount of marginalia. Surveying the ‘tradition’ of annotation offers us a more informed understanding of the successful circulation of Deguileville's corpus.
PVH manuscripts display a wide variety of different types of annotation, both in Latin and in the vernacular, ranging from scribal annotations or rubrication to more discreet marks and comments supplied by later readers. The general tenor of annotations confirms that PVH was held in high regard during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Indeed, annotations are invariably non-polemical, and often highlight text extracts that readers seem to have found particularly edifying; exempla, proverbs, the author's elucidations of his own allegorical vocabulary and didactic narrative passages tend to attract more annotations than abstract and speculative episodes and, interestingly, annotations are found in relatively uniform density across the whole of PVH1.
For a well-read medieval monk, as Guillaume de Deguileville must have been, remembering what he read involved memory techniques centered on the visualization of unusual, if not bizarre and startling, scenes and figures. Thus, as a writer who wanted his writing to be remembered, Deguileville conveyed the content of his three Pèlerinages through vivid and detailed descriptions of unusual figures and scenes, including interactions between personifications and biblical characters, which beg for visualization. Apparently unwilling to rely entirely on the reader's ability to create these memory-images in the imagination, the author himself planned for some illustrations, though we cannot know whether he devised complete programs of miniatures or supervised the production of any illustrated manuscripts. Each of his three French pilgrimage poems appeared individually with illustrations, but manuscripts that collect all three Pèlerinages include some of the most ambitious programs of illustration. It is as if the desire for uniformity stimulated designers and artists to continue the dense level of visualization frequently found in manuscripts of the PVH into the other two poems. Images, in fact, provide the most striking evidence for the high level of familiarity with Deguileville's three Pèlerinages from the late fourteenth to mid-fifteenth centuries: in the book of hours known as the Hours of Isabella Stuart (Cambridge, Fitzwilliam Museum MS 62), picture cycles for each of the poems – in the unusual sequence PJC, PVH, PA – accompany not Deguileville's poems but the familiar cycle of texts found in this personal book of hours, an indication that the images alone enabled readers to recall the poems.