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The study of prosocial behavior has been an active area of research in social psychology that dates back to the beginnings of the last century. (For a review see Penner et al., 2005,) This large body of literature includes a diverse range of phenomena centering around the origins and tendencies of humans helping other humans, including traits such as empathy. In psychology the term “prosocial behavior” is typically used to indicate a behavior that provides benefit to another person. However, this same term, and all that it implies, has been increasingly applied to nonhuman vertebrate animal behavior and the neural mechanisms regulating these behaviors. It is within this latter context that the term prosocial has been used rather loosely with no clear definitions provided.
The psalter is the only book of the bible that survived more or less intact as a constituent part of late medieval breviaries and antiphonals. In the breviary, noted or otherwise, the other biblical books are more widely dispersed and much abbreviated; in the antiphonal, while a psalter usually came to be incorporated, the other books are not represented at all beyond the briefest passages. The integrity of the psalter is explained by the way it was used in the Divine Office, while the details of its arrangement and annotation were the result of an increasing concern for liturgical precision, particularly among the compilers of secular Uses.
The early history of the Latin psalter is a familiar one. It was a translation from the Greek, itself a translation of a Hebrew version that differed in some ways from what became the standard ‘Masoretic’ text. What is referred to as the ‘Hebrew’ numbering of the psalms is a product of the Masoretic arrangement, but it is not the numbering traditionally used in Catholic and Orthodox Christianity. According to Hilary of Poitiers, the Greeks were the first to number the psalms, and theirs is the numbering adopted in Greek and Latin psalters and bibles. Even when St Jerome translated the psalter directly from the Hebrew, he (or the manuscripts representing his translation) retained the Greek numbering.
The division of the psalms into verses is even more significant for performance. Again the Hebrew numbering, or rather the numbering derived from the Masoretic punctuation, differs from the arrangement of verses in the Greek and Latin translations. The Hebrew numbering has gained importance as a means of reference, but it is of no significance for the singing of the psalms in Greek or Latin. It was adopted in the Sixto/Clementine Latin bibles, although these latter retained the liturgical versification in their paragraphing; it is also the numbering found in modern (non-liturgical) editions of the Septuagint. The liturgical verses are not normally (if ever) numbered in medieval psalters, and not often in modern Latin ones. The traditional versification is foreshadowed in the early complete Greek bibles, where a single line was usually sufficient to represent what later became a complete verse, or one half, or one third of a verse.
Five years before the famous Seneca Falls Meeting in which a gathering of women demanded suffrage, Levi Suydam already had encountered the problem that sex posed for suffrage. Suydam, a 23-year-old man who supported the Whigs, petitioned to vote in 1843. The opposing party challenged his petition “on the grounds that ‘he was more a female than a male, and that, in his physical organization, he partook of both sexes’” (Reis 2009, 34). Because the Whigs won by one vote, Suydam’s status was central to the election outcome. After several medical exams in which different doctors reached different conclusions about Suydam’s true sex, Suydam was determined to be “more female than male” (Reis 2009, 35). Suydam’s case presents an important corollary to a more famous case of voting “fraud” after Susan B. Anthony voted in the 1872 presidential election. The 1873 trial and conviction of Anthony was straightforward: as a woman, she could not vote. Suydam posed a greater challenge to political order insofar as neither law nor medicine could pin down Suydam’s sex within a framework of binary sex. The Nineteenth Amendment, which prohibited the denial of the vote “on account of sex,” might have rendered the uncertainty of sex politically and legally moot. It did not.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Navigating the NIH Single IRB Policy has been challenging for investigators, study teams, and Human Research Protection Programs (HRPP). In response, the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CTSI) created an innovative Single IRB Project Manager role (sIRB PM), uniquely placed within the Indiana CTSI. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: The Single IRB Project Manager role was created in 2018 by the Indiana CTSI in response to the NIH Single IRB Policy for Multi-Site Research. The role of the sIRB PM is to serve as a liaison between the Indiana University HRPP, lead site, coordinating center, and participating sites when Indiana University serves as the Single IRB. This model has proven useful to both the IRB and lead site, notably in the following ways:
At study start-up, the sIRB PM can handle complicated communications among sites and the IRB at the same time the lead site is responsible for many other administrative tasks related to start-up. By absorbing the workload of IRB approval for multiple sites, the sIRB PM provides the lead site more capacity to handle other essential tasks.
The sIRB PM translates new terminology and facilitates processes that are new for sites.
RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Early assessment of this program is predominantly positive. The sIRB PM currently supports 24 external sites. In an NIA-funded 13 site study, all sites were added within 9 months of initial IRB approval of the protocol. This role fills a gap that benefits:
IRB staff by allowing them to fulfill their duties of screening and review while leaving some of the reliance organization to the sIRBPM.
Lead PI by allowing them to focus on conducting the research instead of the many administrative tasks required for single IRB review.
Participating sites by having a liaison to enter their amendments and reportable events into an otherwise closed IRB software system.
All parties by having the sIRB PM manage document organization, storage, and distribution study-wide.
DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The CTSI sIRB PM role effectively shifts administrative work caused by the sIRB mandate by merging research coordinator experience with regulatory experience while building upon an existing strong relationship with the HRPP. Future focus is on process education, standardizing pricing structure, and ensuring sufficient budget support in grants.
Evidence suggests that the subjective experience of AVHs cannot be explained by any of the existing cognitive models, highlighting the obvious need to properly investigate the actual, lived experience of AVHs, and derive models/theories that fit the complexity of this.
Via phenomenological interviews and ethnographic diary methods, we aim to gain a deeper insight into the experience of AVHs.
To explore the phenomenological quality of AVHs, as they happen/reveal themselves to consciousness,   without relying on existing suppositions.
Participants with First Episode Psychosis were recruited from the Birmingham Early Intervention Service (EIS), BSMHFT. In-depth 'walking interviews' were carried out with each participant, together with standardised assessment measures of voices. Prior to interviews, participants were asked to complete a dairy and take photographs, further capturing aspects of their AVH experiences.
20 participants have completed interviews to date. Emerging themes cover the form and quality of voices (i.e. as being separate to self, imposing, compelling etc.), and participants' understanding and management of these experiences.
Authentic descriptions gleaned from participants have the potential to increase our understanding of the relationship between the phenomenology and neurobiology of AVHs and, in turn, the experience as a whole.
The aim of this presentation is to summarize the results of the published systematic reviews / meta-analyses of the randomized controlled trials that have investigated the effectiveness of medications for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in children/adolescents and adults and to present preliminary results from a new review study using network meta-analytical techniques
Medline, Cochrane database, and the register of controlled trials maintained by the Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety & Neurosis Group (CCDAN) were searched for relevant trials, systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses.
Regarding the new review study we were able to extract 103 pharmacological arms (preliminary results: 9 for Fluoxetine, 16 for Fluvoxamine, 11 for Paroxetine, 10 for Sertraline, 16 for Clomipramine, 7 for Citalopram / escitalopram, 2 for Venlafaxine, and 32 for Placebo) with a total number of 6572 patients randomized. The previous meta-analyses have confirmed the efficacy for all SSRIs and Clomipramine in all age groups while for other drugs further evidence is required. In the context of this presentation preliminary results of the relative efficacy of each drug, using network meta-analysis techniques will also be reported.
Several antidepressants have established their efficacy and acceptability for the management of non-resistant OCD. The major weakness of the literature so far is that head to head comparisons between antidepressants are few and therefore it is difficult to establish a clear hierarchy of the efficacy and acceptability of the various agents. This gap in the present literature will be filled by the present review.
This chapter surveys violence imposed by medieval western-European Christians upon their chief religious “others”: heretics, Jews, and Muslims. Modern scholars have often found it useful to understand such violence collectively, echoing medieval Christians’ own frequent grouping together of those “others.” Yet it is important to disassemble the differences in why and how Christians wielded violence against each, and to recognize how violence took variegated forms, was committed by diverse actors, and resulted from multiple, coexisting motivations. Violence against Jews interpenetrated with their increasing demonization in Christian polemic and with their subject status in Europe. Both church and state, increasingly ambitious institutions, assisted in the general transformation of European Jews from protected minorities to not “real” Jews rightly deserving toleration. Violence against heretics (a more subjective identity than that of Jews and Muslims) was only rarely and early the object of mob violence. That was soon succeeded by “crusade” and the institutional violence of inquisitions, which owed a debt to monastic and penitential violence. While Christian violence against Muslims in Europe was geographically limited, key there was the evolution of Muslims from rulers to ruled, and even an acceptance of Muslims as agents of violence. Despite the varying circumstances, motivations, agents, and forms of Christian violence against all three, it was nevertheless embedded within a universalizing Latin-Christian theology and ecclesiology.
Scientific quality and feasibility are part of ethics review by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Scientific Review Committees (SRCs) were proposed to facilitate this assessment by the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) SRC Consensus Group. This study assessed SRC feasibility and impact at CTSA-affiliated academic health centers (AHCs).
SRC implementation at 10 AHCs was assessed pre/post-intervention using quantitative and qualitative methods. Pre-intervention, four AHCs had no SRC, and six had at least one SRC needing modifications to better align with Consensus Group recommendations.
Facilitators of successful SRC implementation included broad-based communication, an external motivator, senior-level support, and committed SRC reviewers. Barriers included limited resources and staffing, variable local mandates, limited SRC authority, lack of anticipated benefit, and operational challenges. Research protocol quality did not differ significantly between study periods, but respondents suggested positive effects. During intervention, median total review duration did not lengthen for the 40% of protocols approved within 3 weeks. For the 60% under review after 3 weeks, review was lengthened primarily due to longer IRB review for SRC-reviewed protocols. Site interviews recommended designing locally effective SRC processes, building buy-in by communication or by mandate, allowing time for planning and sharing best practices, and connecting SRC and IRB procedures.
The CTSA SRC Consensus Group recommendations appear feasible. Although not conclusive in this relatively short initial implementation, sites perceived positive impact by SRCs on study quality. Optimal benefit will require local or federal mandate for implementation, adapting processes to local contexts, and employing SRC stipulations.
Exoskeletons are wearable devices intended to physically assist one or multiple human joints in executing certain activities. From a mechanical point of view, they are kinematic structures arranged in parallel to the biological joints. In order to allow the users to move while assisted, it is crucial to avoid mobility restrictions introduced by the exoskeleton’s kinematics. Passive degrees of freedom and other self-alignment mechanisms are a common option to avoid any restrictions. However, the literature lacks a systematic method to account for large inter- and intra-subject variability in designing and assessing kinematic chains. To this end, we introduce a model-based method to assess the kinematics of exoskeletons by representing restrictions in mobility as disturbances and undesired forces at the anchor points. The method makes use of robotic kinematic tools and generates useful insights to support the design process. Though an application on a back-support exoskeleton designed for lifting tasks is illustrated, the method can describe any type of rigid exoskeleton. A qualitative pilot trial is conducted to assess the kinematic model that proved to predict kinematic configurations associated to rising undesired forces recorded at the anchor points, that give rise to mobility restrictions and discomfort on the users.
Wearable devices, such as exoskeletons, are becoming increasingly common and are being used mainly for improving motility and daily life autonomy, rehabilitation purposes, and as industrial aids. There are many variables that must be optimized to create an efficient, smoothly operating device. The selection of a suitable actuator is one of these variables, and the actuators are usually sized after studying the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the target task, combining information from motion tracking, inverse dynamics, and force plates. While this may be a good method for approximate sizing of actuators, a more detailed approach is necessary to fully understand actuator performance, control algorithms or sensing strategies, and their impact on weight, dynamic performance, energy consumption, complexity, and cost. This work describes a learning-based evaluation method to provide this more detailed analysis of an actuation system for our XoTrunk exoskeleton. The study includes: (a) a real-world experimental setup to gather kinematics and dynamics data; (b) simulation of the actuation system focusing on motor performance and control strategy; (c) experimental validation of the simulation; and (d) testing in real scenarios. This study creates a systematic framework to analyze actuator performance and control algorithms to improve operation in the real scenario by replicating the kinematics and dynamics of the human–robot interaction. Implementation of this approach shows substantial improvement in the task-related performance when applied on a back-support exoskeleton during a walking task.
To reduce the incidence of occupational musculoskeletal disorders, back-support exoskeletons are being introduced to assist manual material handling activities. Using a device of this type, this study investigates the effects of a new control strategy that uses the angular acceleration of the user’s trunk to assist during lifting tasks. To validate this new strategy, its effectiveness was experimentally evaluated relative to the condition without the exoskeleton as well as against existing strategies for comparison. Using the exoskeleton during lifting tasks reduced the peak compression force on the L5S1 disc by up to 16%, with all the control strategies. Substantial differences between the control strategies in the reductions of compression force, lumbar moment and back muscle activation were not observed. However, the new control strategy reduced the movement speed less with respect to the existing strategies. Thanks to improved timing in the assistance in relation to the typical dynamics of the target task, the hindrance to typical movements appeared reduced, thereby promoting intuitiveness and comfort.
Actors collaborate via message exchanges to reach a common goal. Experience has shown, however, that pure message-based communication is limiting and forces developers to use design patterns. The recently introduced dataspace actor model borrows ideas from the tuple space realm. It offers a tightly controlled, shared storage facility for groups of actors. In this model, actors assert facts that they wish to share and interests in such assertions. The dataspace notifies interested parties of changes to the set of assertions that they are interested in. Although it is straightforward to add the dataspace model to untyped languages, adding a typed interface is both necessary and challenging. Without restrictions on exchanged data, a faulty actor may propagate erroneous data through a malformed assertion, causing an otherwise well-behaved actor to crash—violating the key principle of failure isolation. A properly designed type system can prevent this scenario and rule out other kinds of uncooperative actors. This paper presents the first structural type system for the dataspace model of actors; it does not address the question of behavioral types for assertion-oriented protocols.
We consider the evolutionary plausibility of Osiurak and Reynaud's (O&R) arguments. We argue that technical reasoning is not quite the magic bullet that O&R assume, and instead propose a co-evolutionary account of the interplay between technical reasoning and social learning, with language emerging as a vital issue neglected in O&R's account.
To evaluate the sex differences in cognitive course over 4 years in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to controls.
Four-year longitudinal cognitive scores of 257 cognitively intact PD, 167 PD-MCI, and 140 controls from the Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative were included. Longitudinal scores of men and women, and PD with and without MCI were compared.
Women had better verbal memory, men had better visuospatial function. There was no interaction between sex, diagnostic group, and/or time (4-year follow-up period).
Sex differences in cognitive course in de novo PD are similar to healthy aging. Cognitive decline rates in PD with and without MCI are similar for the first 4 years of PD.
School reform policies, such as the closure of “low-performing” schools and the competitive introduction of school choice and charters, were presented to communities of color as the fix to educational inequities and the lifeline needed for urban Black students to have a chance at a quality education and social mobility. The ways in which reforms have under-delivered on this promise, and in some cases exacerbated negative academic outcomes, particularly for Black boys, are documented. Yet, research on the experience of Black adolescent girls is sparse. We explore ways that policies aimed at delivering a school choice environment have affected daily life for Black adolescent girls. We examine this issue in the context of the Detroit metropolitan area with Black adolescent girls, reflecting on their high school education experiences that spanned a time-period of rapid transitions in the schooling environment (2014–2016) prompted by a series of school reforms in Michigan. Through in-depth interviews we found that girls sought to invest in their high school education as a path to college; yet the very reforms advanced as ways to clear this path hindered their ability to spend time on the human and social capital activities believed to be important to their academic success and social mobility. Our findings suggest advantages for those students with proximal access to high quality neighborhood schools cannot be replicated in a choice environment. There may also be health consequences of the coping strategies girls are compelled to employ to carry on under adverse educational circumstances.