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Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
Acute respiratory dysfunction is one of the most frequent medical complications of critically ill patients, including those suffering from neurological diseases. It contributes the highest percentage of mortality from non-neurologic causes in neurocritically ill patients [1–3]. This chapter will focus on the mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, stratification of severity, and management of hypoxemia with attention to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the context of the neurocritically ill. Special consideration will be provided as well to other commonly encountered diseases in the intensive care unit (ICU) such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and venous thromboembolism.
Controlled reaction conditions in simple, template-free hydrothermal processes yield Tm-Lu2O3 and Tm-GdVO4 nanocrystals with well-defined specific morphologies and sizes. In both oxide families, nanocrystals prepared at pH 7 reaction media exhibit photoluminescence in ∼1.95 μm similar to bulk single crystals. For the lowest Tm3+ concentration (0.2 % mol) in GdVO4 measured 3H4 and 3F4 fluorescence lifetimes τ are very near to τrad.
The welding heat input has been pointed out as a main limiting factor for TWinnig Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel weldability. Scarce research works have been focused on the study of application and effects of the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) process in the TWIP steel, especially in higher thickness plate. In this research work was conducted a detailed analysis of a butt weld joint performed in plates of TWIP steel microalloyed with titanium (TWIP-Ti) of 6.3 mm thickness. The autogenous GTAW process with low heat input was applied. The analysis considered grain size measurements, second phases identification, post-weld mechanical properties (microhardness) and the welding thermal field. A Finite Element Model (FEM), validated through experimental results, allowed correlating metallurgical results with the thermal field. Likewise, the phases prediction carried out by means of JMatPro 9.0 software during solidification process as well as the estimation of particle precipitation were in good agreement with the experimental results. These predictive diagrams were calculated taking into account the TWIP-Ti steel chemical composition, the grain size measured in critical weld regions and experimental cooling rates. The low heat input improved the microstructural conditions in the heat affected zone (HAZ) whose average grain size and precipitate particles, like (C, N)Ti, promoted good mechanical properties as compared to the base material (as-solution condition). Some particles like Al2O3 y MnS produced microporosities in the HAZ. Despite this, the weld joint did not present hot cracking in the FZ-HAZ interface.
Hookworms of the genus Uncinaria parasitize pinniped pups in various locations worldwide. Four species have been described, two of which parasitize pinniped pups in the southern hemisphere: Uncinaria hamiltoni parasitizes Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis from the South American coast, and Uncinaria sanguinis parasitizes Neophoca cinerea from the Australian coast. However, their geographical ranges and host specificity are unknown. Uncinaria spp. are morphologically similar, but molecular analyses have allowed the recognition of new species in the genus Uncinaria. We used nuclear genetic markers (internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit (LSU) rDNA) and a mitochondrial genetic marker (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships of Uncinaria spp. parasitizing A. australis and O. flavescens from South American coasts (Atlantic and Pacific coasts). We compared our sequences with published Uncinaria sequences. A Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis was also used to delimit species, and principal component analysis was used to compare morphometry among Uncinaria specimens. Parasites were sampled from A. australis from Peru (12°S), southern Chile (42°S), and the Uruguayan coast, and from O. flavescens from northern Chile (24°S) and the Uruguayan coast. Morphometric differences were observed between Uncinaria specimens from both South American coasts and between Uncinaria specimens from A. australis in Peru and southern Chile. Phylogenetic and GMYC analyses suggest that south-eastern Pacific otariid species harbour U. hamiltoni and an undescribed putative species of Uncinaria. However, more samples from A. australis and O. flavescens are necessary to understand the phylogenetic patterns of Uncinaria spp. across the South Pacific.
We studied a sample of 1672 galaxies in regions where a GRB event had occurred, in order to determine if the galactic environment plays a significant role on these energetic events. The Luminosity Function distribution for these galaxies shows some interesting features. For instance, there is a decline on the Luminosity Function at Mr~ −20.5; a lack of flatness at Mr~ −14 and higher-than-expected values of Φ(Mr) for Mr < −22.5. A comparison between our data and the Void, Wall and Early galaxies Luminosity Function was performed.