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We explain why and how the governing parties, AKP of Turkey and PT of Brazil, converged on the same path of relying on the poor as the main strategy to stay in power. With the neoliberal reorganization and internationalization of their economies, the capacity of these governments to set up developmentalist alliances with big capital, the middle classes and the organized working classes was weakened. Based on a most-different-systems design and on descriptive statistical analysis, we argue that both PT and AKP failed to build multi-class bases and thus had to mobilize the poor by using various strategies, most importantly expanding social assistance policies, which accelerated the emergence of a new welfare state.
Describe the prevalence and characteristics of psychotic symptoms in the context of cocaine injection use in a harm reduction program.
To find associations between intravenous cocaine use and other drug use in cocaine dependent patients suffering from cocaine induced psychosis (CIP). Cannabis was found to be a risk factor for developing CIP in non-intravenous cocaine dependence.
During a period of 6 months professionals from our Outpatient Drug Clinic completed a confidential questionnaire to describe the adverse clinical effects following cocaine injection. It included age, gender, ethnic group, daily consumption rate and other drugs used in the last 30 days.
Survey was achieved with a sample of 75 Caucasians patients, 69 men and 6 women with an average age of 32 years old. Seventeen percent (13/75) had psychotic symptoms, of which 84% (11/13) had hallucinations (visuals 4/11, auditive 7/11 and kinaesthetic 2/11), 15% (2/13) illusions.
Eighteen percent (14/75) had stereotypy movements and 3% (2/75) had aggressive behaviour. Drugs used by CIP patients, the previous 30 days were: 61% (8/13) cannabis, 31% (4/13) opiates and 15% (2/13) alcohol.
Intravenous cocaine use produced acute psychotic symptoms in 17% of our patients, of which 61% used cannabis. Despite the ethical and practical implications of this type of study, it is necessary to do more observational studies with bigger surveys to conclude these results with statistically significance.
Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. Cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) is common but not developed in all cases.
To describe the Risk Factors for developing cocaine-induced psychosis in cocaine dependent patients, according DSM-IV-TR criteria.
This is the first European study about the relationship of CIP with consumption pattern variables and personality disorders, we evaluated 220 cocaine dependents over 18 years, 80'5% males, mean age 33.9 years (SD = 7.6). Patients were recluted from an outpatient clinic department and subsequently systematically evaluated using SCID I and SCID II interviews for comorbidity disorders, and a clinical-based systematic psychotic symptoms form.
A high proportion of cocaine dependent patients reported psychotic symptoms (51.8%) under influence of cocaine. The most frequent reported psychotic symptoms were paranoid beliefs and suspiciousness (42.4%). After a logistic regression analysis we found that a model consisted of high cocaine consumption (mean of 12.01 grams per week), cannabis dependence history and to use intranasal or smoked rout of administration had a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 70.2%.
We conclude that is relevant to evaluate CIP in patients consuming high amounts of cocaine, with cannabis dependence history and who do not use intranasal rout. It could be useful for preventing consequences or risks of psychotic states for themselves or others.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This is typically prevented by abstinence. The term Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Impulsivity has been hypothesised are likked with CIP.
This study examined the relationship between CIP and substance consumption variables and impulsivity disorders including ADHD (Axis I) and Borderline personality disorders (BPD) (Axis II), and attempted to evaluated their link as a risk factors for CIP.
Trained psychiatrists systematically conducted a structured interview in which the conclusions from the psychotic symptoms were summarized. We used the CADDID to evaluate Adult ADHD, SCID II for axis II disorders, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11).
We evaluated 163 (34,16 yo, 85,80% men) cocaine-dependent patients, according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found statistically significant association between CIP and Early age at onset of cocaine addiction (p = 0,04), cocaine use per day 6 months before starting treatment (p = 0,03), Barrat cognitive impulsivity subscale (p < 0,004), and Adult ADHD (p < 0,041). No relationship between BPD and CIP was found.
We confirm previous findings that Impulsivity disorders as ADHD or high impulsivity trails are liked to CIP. Coinciding with our previous findings, relationship between early age of onset cocaine dependence or high amounts of cocaine use and CIP was found. CIP are related with impulsivity disorders spectrum.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. The term cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Cocaine Induce Psichotic Disorder (CIPD) have been used to describe a full psychotic state. CIP and CIPD prevalences are not well described.
To evaluate risk factors for CIPD, in cocaine-dependents according to DSM-IV criteria.
We evaluated 150 patients (mean age 34 y.o, 81.8% men) of which 143 were included, using The PRISM (Psychiatric Research for Substance and Mental Disorders) interview. Exclusion criteria were: psychotic disorder or bipolar type I disorder, intoxication at interview, severe somatic disease at interview and language barrier. We compared three groups: group I: without any psychotic symptoms (33,33%); group II: with any psychotic symptoms (28,57%) and group III: with CIPD (38,77%).
Differences were found in Patients of Group III in the Age at onset of addiction p < .0001*, past history of imprisonment p < 0,01, Alcohol Use disorders p = .006, Cannabis use disorders P < .0001* and Hallucinogens use disorders p < 0,001.All remaining after Bonferroni corrections.
CIPD is common in this population (approximately 40%). Risk factor for suffering CIPD were described, in Cocaine-dependents. Finally, professionals who work with cocaine-dependents patients should incorporate these considerations into an integral approach.
This paper focusses on the financial relations between the banking sector and the Treasury in Modern Spain. Tax systems have been insufficient, generating a chronic budget deficit. This drove to irresponsible public debt management, being the State a serial defaulter until 1987. This prevented the budget deficits could be financed by sovereign debt issued on the stock exchanges, and forced the state to resort to banks (public and private). The new series of public debt banks portfolios evolution is explained by their pursuit of returns and by changes in banking regulation and financial repression, which favoured the banking status quo. The paper analyses the causes of banking regulation, derived from the public borrowing policy and also from the banking lobbying strategy. It examines the consequences of the deadly banking-state embrace which brought about the interconnection between fiscal and banking crises.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.
Two outbreaks of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infection in dairy cattle herds were managed through the application of enhanced biosecurity measures, whole-herd antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Micro-agglutination test antibody titres were determined in paired serum samples at 3 weeks (T1: n = 125, 97% seropositivity, median 800, range 100–12 800) and 24 weeks (T2: n = 110, 88% seropositivity, median 200, range 100–6400) after vaccination and studied in relation to cows' age, herd of origin and sampling time. From T1 to T2, vaccine-elicited antibody titres decreased by 84·7% (95% CI 76·2–90·1). Consistent with increasing immunocompetence in calves (aged <12 months) and immunosenescence in adult cows (aged >36 months) associated with ageing, antibody titres correlated positively with calves' age and negatively with adult cows' age. No cow had cultivable, (histo)pathologically detectable and/or PCR-detectable leptospires in urine or kidney samples after treatment and vaccination. Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis.
This article provides a historical overview of the factors leading up to debt crises and the default mechanisms used by governments to solve them, ranging from repudiation and restructuring to inflation tax and financial repression. The paper also analyses the Spanish governments’ graduation to responsible public debt management under democracy and the last debt crisis starting in 2010. After analysing the evolution of the outstanding public debt, budget deficits, the Spanish economy's ability to borrow, the central government's debt affordability and the profile of public debt, the article concludes that the Spanish case confirms the main hypotheses of concerning international debt crises: short-term borrowing enhanced the risk of a debt crisis; insolvency problems arose when governments were unwilling or unable to repay debt; debt crises took place after large capital inflows; most outright defaults ended up being partial defaults; public debt level became unsustainable when it rose above 60-90 per cent of GDP; default trough inflation became commonplace when fiat money displaced coinage; financial repression was used as a subtle type of debt restructuring; and defaults endangered the creditworthiness of the Spanish Finance Ministry and forced disciplined fiscal policies.