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Students come into our classrooms with many misconceptions about science in general and astronomy in particular (see numerous papers and references in Novak, 1993 and Pfundt & Duit 1993). These beliefs evolve from a variety of sources throughout childhood and adolescence (Comins, 1993a, 1993b, 1995). I have found that directly addressing these incorrect beliefs in the context of their origins helps my students replace them with correct knowledge. By understanding the origins of their misconceptions students can screen information more effectively, i.e., they learn to think more critically. My purpose in this paper is to briefly identify origins of misconceptions and classroom techniques for replacing them.
This paper focusses on the financial relations between the banking sector and the Treasury in Modern Spain. Tax systems have been insufficient, generating a chronic budget deficit. This drove to irresponsible public debt management, being the State a serial defaulter until 1987. This prevented the budget deficits could be financed by sovereign debt issued on the stock exchanges, and forced the state to resort to banks (public and private). The new series of public debt banks portfolios evolution is explained by their pursuit of returns and by changes in banking regulation and financial repression, which favoured the banking status quo. The paper analyses the causes of banking regulation, derived from the public borrowing policy and also from the banking lobbying strategy. It examines the consequences of the deadly banking-state embrace which brought about the interconnection between fiscal and banking crises.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
In this globalized world, the spread of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases has become one of the most important threats to animal production and public health. This systematic review analyses conventional and novel early detection methods applied to surveillance. In all, 125 scientific documents were considered for this study. Exotic (n = 49) and re-emerging (n = 27) diseases constituted the most frequently represented health threats. In addition, the majority of studies were related to zoonoses (n = 66). The approaches found in the review could be divided in surveillance modalities, both active (n = 23) and passive (n = 5); and tools and methodologies that support surveillance activities (n = 57). Combinations of surveillance modalities and tools (n = 40) were also found. Risk-based approaches were very common (n = 60), especially in the papers describing tools and methodologies (n = 50). The main applications, benefits and limitations of each approach were extracted from the papers. This information will be very useful for informing the development of tools to facilitate the design of cost-effective surveillance strategies. Thus, the current literature review provides key information about the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and potential application of methodologies for the early detection of new, exotic and re-emerging diseases.
Two outbreaks of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infection in dairy cattle herds were managed through the application of enhanced biosecurity measures, whole-herd antibiotic treatment and vaccination. Micro-agglutination test antibody titres were determined in paired serum samples at 3 weeks (T1: n = 125, 97% seropositivity, median 800, range 100–12 800) and 24 weeks (T2: n = 110, 88% seropositivity, median 200, range 100–6400) after vaccination and studied in relation to cows' age, herd of origin and sampling time. From T1 to T2, vaccine-elicited antibody titres decreased by 84·7% (95% CI 76·2–90·1). Consistent with increasing immunocompetence in calves (aged <12 months) and immunosenescence in adult cows (aged >36 months) associated with ageing, antibody titres correlated positively with calves' age and negatively with adult cows' age. No cow had cultivable, (histo)pathologically detectable and/or PCR-detectable leptospires in urine or kidney samples after treatment and vaccination. Vaccination together with proper biosecurity measures and chemoprophylaxis are an affordable insurance to control bovine leptospirosis.
This article provides a historical overview of the factors leading up to debt crises and the default mechanisms used by governments to solve them, ranging from repudiation and restructuring to inflation tax and financial repression. The paper also analyses the Spanish governments’ graduation to responsible public debt management under democracy and the last debt crisis starting in 2010. After analysing the evolution of the outstanding public debt, budget deficits, the Spanish economy's ability to borrow, the central government's debt affordability and the profile of public debt, the article concludes that the Spanish case confirms the main hypotheses of concerning international debt crises: short-term borrowing enhanced the risk of a debt crisis; insolvency problems arose when governments were unwilling or unable to repay debt; debt crises took place after large capital inflows; most outright defaults ended up being partial defaults; public debt level became unsustainable when it rose above 60-90 per cent of GDP; default trough inflation became commonplace when fiat money displaced coinage; financial repression was used as a subtle type of debt restructuring; and defaults endangered the creditworthiness of the Spanish Finance Ministry and forced disciplined fiscal policies.
From the Netherlands to the Ottoman Empire, to Japan and India, this groundbreaking volume confronts the complex and diverse problem of the formation of fiscal states in Eurasia between 1500 and 1914. This series of country case studies from leading economic historians reveals that distinctive features of the fiscal state appeared across the region at different moments in time as a result of multiple independent but often interacting stimuli such as internal competition over resources, European expansion, international trade, globalisation and war. The essays offer a comparative framework for re-examining the causes of economic development across this period and show, for instance, the central role that the more effective fiscal systems of Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries played in the divergence of east and west as well as the very different paths to modernisation taken across the world.
This study aimed to investigate the relationships between the constructs subjective well-being (SWB), dyadic adjustment (DA) and marital satisfaction (MS). Participants were 106 married Brazilians, of both sexes, with a mean age of 42 (± 11) years. Instruments used for the sociodemographic characterization and socioeconomic classification were the Subjective Well-being Scale (SWBS), the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Through the analysis of correlations and of stepwise multiple regression, it was verified that all the factors of the dyadic adjustment showed correlation with the marital satisfaction. The satisfaction with life (factor of the SWBS) and dyadic satisfaction (factor of the DAS), were positively and significantly correlated (r = .20; p = .04), which reveals that people who say they are satisfied with life in different domains also do so in relation to the marital experience.