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Many Australian academics and jurists regard Australian High Court Chief Justice Sir Owen Dixon’s judgment in Parker v The Queen (1963) as Australia’s ‘declaration of judicial independence’ from Privy Council precedent and from a unified common law more generally. His expression in Parker is sharp, clear; Dixon makes no apologies for his finding. Nor does he limit the decision to its facts: he states, quite clearly, that he believes that the Australian courts should no longer be beholden to English precedent. Further, he states that has the support of the puisne justices in making this declaration. How had the Court arrived at this point, particularly in the context of its members championing ‘interdependence’ with British institutions, and close adherence to legal precedent, only years earlier? The reasons for this volte-face on the part of both Dixon and his colleagues remain unexplored in Australian legal history. This paper reveals that, notwithstanding the justices’ continuing cultural ties to Britain, their changing views as to the desirability of judicial interdependence were largely a reaction to developments in the English judiciary itself. This chapter argues that the justices’ changing conception of the role of the Australian High Court was shaped in part by a growing sense of a uniquely Australian legal identity, but more pressingly as a reaction to disappointment with the Privy Council in particular. It explores the reasons for this disappointment and suggests that Dixon’s own jurisprudence presaged the Australian Federal Parliament’s actions in the decades that followed to abolish appeals to the Privy Council.
Evidence linking subjective concerns about cognition with poorer objective cognitive performance is limited by reliance on unidimensional measures of self-perceptions of aging (SPA). We used the awareness of age-related change (AARC) construct to assess self-perception of both positive and negative age-related changes (AARC gains and losses). We tested whether AARC has greater utility in linking self-perceptions to objective cognition compared to well-established measures of self-perceptions of cognition and aging. We examined the associations of AARC with objective cognition, several psychological variables, and engagement in cognitive training.
Cross-sectional observational study.
The sample comprised 6056 cognitively healthy participants (mean [SD] age = 66.0 [7.0] years); divided into subgroups representing middle, early old, and advanced old age.
We used an online cognitive battery and measures of global AARC, AARC specific to the cognitive domain, subjective cognitive change, attitudes toward own aging (ATOA), subjective age (SA), depression, anxiety, self-rated health (SRH).
Scores on the AARC measures showed stronger associations with objective cognition compared to other measures of self-perceptions of cognition and aging. Higher AARC gains were associated with poorer cognition in middle and early old age. Higher AARC losses and poorer cognition were associated across all subgroups. Higher AARC losses were associated with greater depression and anxiety, more negative SPA, poorer SRH, but not with engagement in cognitive training.
Assessing both positive and negative self-perceptions of cognition and aging is important when linking self-perceptions to cognitive functioning. Objective cognition is one of the many variables – alongside psychological variables – related to perceived cognitive losses.
Sustainable development recognizes that the environment is the foundation for all human well-being.1 In the United States, environmental justice, environmental racism, and environmental equity are all terms that have been used to describe the social movement uniting low-income, African-American, Native American, Asian Pacific Islander, and Latino communities (environmental justice communities) in challenging the distribution of environmental burdens and benefits. Through the efforts of the environmental justice movement, the USA has been forced to address its history of racism and conquest – a history so toxic that it has left indelible marks on both the environment and people. That history is not over yet.
We propose five research tasks targeting grammar teaching and learning, focusing on extending previous research and exploring under-studied features and contexts. The first two tasks outline replications and extensions of seminal studies on pedagogical grammar, Toth (2008) and Samuda (2001), designed to advance our understanding of the teacher role in providing rich practice opportunities. Another task examines how features of peer interaction during oral communication might encourage attention to grammar among young second language (L2) classroom learners in school-based foreign language programs, a common yet under-studied context. A fourth task investigates the unique properties of spoken grammar across languages and effective approaches for its teaching and learning, and the fifth explores the (re)design and use of corpus-based tools to enhance accessibility and learner autonomy in data-driven grammar learning. Each task is designed to be feasible across a variety of classroom contexts and target languages. We highlight concrete implications for language pedagogy and include suggestions for capturing both learning outcomes and participants’ perspectives on their learning and teaching, using a range of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. We end with some thoughts on repetitive practice for learning certain features of grammar, and recommendations for collaborative research that would encourage greater replication of future studies.
On the continental shelf of the Antarctic the major disturbance to benthic ecosystems is from iceberg scouring; however, this is based on observations from the Peninsula region. We combine observation and experimentation in the McMurdo Sound region of the Ross Sea to determine if community recovery patterns there are similar to those in better-studied Antarctic regions, and if local immigration is an important factor in recovery dynamics. We found that regardless of habitat differences in depth, substrate, and oceanographic setting, iceberg disturbance strongly impacted benthic communities in McMurdo Sound. Notably, in shallow water (<30 m) where anchor ice is an annual disturbance, both the benthic communities and recovery processes were more variable than at deeper locations. A manipulative experiment performed in a shallow area indicated that recruitment might be more important than immigration to infaunal community recovery. We conclude that whilst disturbance frequency influences dominant epifauna, recovery from iceberg disturbance is a slow ecological progression that is dependent on the extremely inconsistent recruitment processes of the high Antarctic benthic ecosystem.
The logarithmic helicospiral has been the most widely accepted model of regularly coiled molluscan form since it was proposed by Moseley and popularized by Thompson and Raup. It is based on an explicit assumption that shells are isometric and grow exponentially, and an implicit assumption that the external form of the shell follows the internal shape, which implies that the parameters of the spiral could be reconstructed from the external whorl profile. In this contribution, we show that these assumptions fail on all 25 gastropod species we examine. Using a dataset of 176 fossil and modern gastropod shells, we construct an empirical morphospace of coiling using the parameters of whorl expansion rate, translation rate, and rate of increasing distance from coiling axis, plus rate of aperture shape change, from their best-fit models. We present a case study of change in shell form through geologic time in the austral family Struthiolariidae to demonstrate the utility of our approach for evolutionary paleobiology. We fit various functions to the shell-coiling parameters to demonstrate that the best morphological model is not the same for each parameter. We present a set of R routines that will calculate helicospiral parameters from sagittal sections through coiled shells and allow workers to compare models and choose appropriate sets of parameters for their own datasets. Shell-form parameters in the Struthiolariidae highlight a hitherto neglected hypothesis of relationship between Antarctic Perissodonta and the enigmatic Australian genus Tylospira that fits the biogeographic and stratigraphic distribution of both genera.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is very pervasive in Africa, with significant regional variations in the prevalence of this traditional practice. This study examined the linkages between FGM and multiple sexual partnership in Mali and Sierra Leone – two African countries with a high prevalence of FGM. Data were from the 2018 Mali and 2013 Sierra Leone Demographic and Health Surveys, and the study sample comprised 4750 women from Mali and 16,614 from Sierra Leone. Multilevel logistic regression was used for the data analysis, with reported adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and associated 95% confidence intervals. In Mali, women who had not undergone FGM were less likely to have multiple sexual partners (aOR=0.60, CI=0.38–0.96) compared with those who had undergone FGM. In Sierra Leone, women who had undergone FGM (aOR=1.15, CI=1.02–1.30) were more likely to have multiple sexual partners compared with those who had not undergone FGM. Age, level of education, wealth quintile, sex of household head, community socioeconomic status, mass media exposure, and community literacy level were found to be associated with the likelihood of multiple sexual partnership among women in Mali and Sierra Leone. Comprehensive, age-group-based risk-reduction strategies, such as abstinence education and decision-making skills (assertiveness) training, are needed to reduce girls’ and young women’s engagement in multiple sexual partnerships. Policy interventions, such as anti-FGM legislation and initiatives like the ‘Schooling for the Female Child’ initiative aimed at reducing social inequality among girls and women, might help decrease FGM and the likelihood of health-compromising behaviours like multiple sexual partnership.
To describe strategies used to recruit and retain young adults in nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity intervention studies, and quantify the success and efficiency of these strategies.
A systematic review was conducted. The search included six electronic databases to identify randomised controlled trials (RCT) published up to 6 December 2019 that evaluated nutrition, physical activity and/or obesity interventions in young adults (17–35 years). Recruitment was considered successful if the pre-determined sample size goal was met. Retention was considered acceptable if ≥80 % retained for ≤6-month follow-up or ≥70 % for >6-month follow-up.
From 21 582 manuscripts identified, 107 RCT were included. Universities were the most common recruitment setting used in eighty-four studies (79 %). Less than half (46 %) of the studies provided sufficient information to evaluate whether individual recruitment strategies met sample size goals, with 77 % successfully achieving recruitment targets. Reporting for retention was slightly better with 69 % of studies providing sufficient information to determine whether individual retention strategies achieved adequate retention rates. Of these, 65 % had adequate retention.
This review highlights poor reporting of recruitment and retention information across trials. Findings may not be applicable outside a university setting. Guidance on how to improve reporting practices to optimise recruitment and retention strategies within young adults could assist researchers in improving outcomes.
Utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services, as part of reproductive health care, presents a lifesaving chance for health promotion and the early diagnosis and treatment of illnesses throughout pregnancy. This study examines the factors associated with the number and timing of ANC visits among married women in Cameroon using data from the 2018 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variables were number of ANC visits, categorized as <8 visits or ≥8 visits, and the timing of first ANC visit, categorized as ≤3 months (early) or >3 months (late) (as per the new 2016 WHO recommendations). Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were used to analyse the data. Crude odds ratios (cOR) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and p-values with significance at <0.05 were used to interpret the results. The proportions of women who had ≥8 ANC visits and first ANC visit at ≤3 months gestation were 6.3% and 35.6% respectively. Women aged 35–39 at childbirth (aOR=3.99, 95% CI=1.30–12.23), middle wealth quintile women (aOR=3.22, 95% CI=1.01–10.27), women whose husbands had secondary (aOR=7.00, 95% CI=2.26–21.71) or higher (aOR=16.93, 95% CI=4.91–58.34) education were more likely to have ≥8 ANC visits. Early timing of first ANC visit was low among women with birth order 3–4 (aOR=0.63, 95% CI=0.46–0.85). Conversely, the likelihood of having early ANC visits was high among women whose pregnancies were intended (aOR=1.32, 95% CI=1.01–1.74), the richest women (aOR=3.89, 95% CI=2.30–6.57) and women whose husbands had secondary (aOR=2.41, 95% CI=1.70–3.64) or higher (aOR=3.12, 95% CI=2.40–7.46) education. The study highlights that age at childbirth, wealth, husband’s educational attainment, birth order and pregnancy intention could influence the utilization of ANC services among married women in Cameroon. Hence, to improve attendance and early initiation of ANC, interventions should be targeted at empowering women financially and removing all financial barriers associated with accessing ANC, improving ANC education among women and encouraging male involvement in ANC education.
This chapter explores the early twentieth-century phenomenon known as the roman-fleuve (river-novel) and proposes a model for understanding its place within French literary history. The origins of the term can be traced back to Romain Rolland’s Jean-Christophe, a multi-volume novel recounting the fictional life story of its eponymous protagonist. Although there are notable stylistic and thematic differences between it and the novel cycles of the other three proponents of the roman-fleuve form—Roger Martin du Gard, Jules Romains, and Georges Duhamel—Jean-Christophe provides the yardstick against which these later literary creations must be measured. Utilizing Rolland’s protagonist as its central reference point, the chapter contends that the roman-fleuve’s overarching ambition is to rework the notion of the modern subject in function of an alternative understanding of the individual and the collective. In a tumultuous era marked by war and the crumbling of religious and metaphysical certainties, this reconception of subjectivity inaugurated an innovative literary exploration of Bergsonian intuition and the Nietzschean overturning of ready-made systems of thought. Lying between the sentimentality of the romantics and the materialism of the positivists, the roman-fleuve was a landmark, if short-lived, example of French literary creativity blossoming in the arid ground of modernity.
When a liberal-democratic state signs a treaty or wages a war, does its whole polity do those things? In this article, we approach this question via the recent social ontological literature on collective agency. We provide arguments that it does and that it does not. The arguments are presented via three considerations: the polity's control over what the state does; the polity's unity; and the influence of individual polity members. We suggest that the answer to our question differs for different liberal-democratic states and depends on two underlying considerations: (1) the amount of discretion held by the state's officeholders; (2) the extent to which the democratic procedure is deliberative rather than aggregative.
Among 353 healthcare personnel in a longitudinal cohort in four hospitals in Atlanta, GA (May-June 2020), 23 (6.5%) had SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Spending >50% of a typical shift at bedside (OR 3.4, 95% CI: 1.2–10.5) and Black race (OR 8.4, 95% CI: 2.7–27.4) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity.
Despite broad evidence suggesting that adversity-exposed youth experience an impaired ability to recognize emotion in others, the underlying biological mechanisms remains elusive. This study uses a multimethod approach to target the neurological substrates of this phenomenon in a well-phenotyped sample of youth meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Twenty-one PTSD-afflicted youth and 23 typically developing (TD) controls completed clinical interview schedules, an emotion recognition task with eye-tracking, and an implicit emotion processing task during functional magnetic resonance imaging )fMRI). PTSD was associated with decreased accuracy in identification of angry, disgust, and neutral faces as compared to TD youth. Of note, these impairments occurred despite the normal deployment of visual attention in youth with PTSD relative to TD youth. Correlation with a related fMRI task revealed a group by accuracy interaction for amygdala–hippocampus functional connectivity (FC) for angry expressions, where TD youth showed a positive relationship between anger accuracy and amygdala–hippocampus FC; this relationship was reversed in youth with PTSD. These findings are a novel characterization of impaired threat recognition within a well-phenotyped population of severe pediatric PTSD. Further, the differential amygdala–hippocampus FC identified in youth with PTSD may imply aberrant efficiency of emotional contextualization circuits.
The importance of methodological transparency in Learner Corpus Research is paramount for correct understanding and interpretation of knowledge created using corpora. Increasing calls for open-access corpora amplify the need for transparency. This paper details a pilot study conducted to understand the importance of methodological decisions on the subsequent corpus by examining (a) the effects of language used to provide instructions on text length and L1 use and (b) the chosen elicitation tasks in terms of student interest and ability to differentiate proficiency across school grade levels. Furthermore, it details transcription and annotation challenges that had to be addressed. The aim of the chapter is to demonstrate the numerous decisions and their effects at all stages of corpus building, and the importance of working towards transparent reporting of methodologies and standardisation of transcription and annotation where possible.
Immersive teaching of a foreign language seems a priori the best way to soak in a language and culture and promote an active, participative, and transformative pedagogy. However, immersion can create a number of obstacles to students taking charge of their own learning. This chapter, which takes its examples from the experience of the French Language Department of the French War College in Paris, addresses the concepts of pedagogical disengagement and sociolinguistic insecurity, as well as the discrepancy between the language of the classroom and language as used in the culture. Solutions for managing these obstacles are proposed, such as accounting for learner differences, developing open architecture curricula, moving beyond the four walls of the classroom, and averting potential overload by promoting the expressions of the learners' own cultures in the process of becoming acquainted with the foreign culture.