To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article examines counter-terrorism efforts in the EU as it matures as a field of law. It sets out three critiques of EU counter-terrorism law: that of ineffectiveness, of anti-constitutionalism, and of contrariness to human rights and the rule of law. It considers these critiques in light of the development of policies and legal initiatives—against foreign terrorist fighters and against radicalisation. It concludes that there are both persistent problems, and some improvements, in the law. The EU's capacity to meet the challenges posed by terrorism and the counter-terrorism imperative, and how it does so, has global impact. The article concludes with an argument for better law-making in the EU to ensure it serves as a better exemplar of transnational law.
It may seem unusual that the concept of military identity would be a persistent and constant driving force for literary endeavour for a rural clergyman, with no direct experience of war, living in Norfolk in the pre-Civil War period. This chapter argues, however, that Ralph Knevet (1600–71) – in both his published work and private holograph writing – was consistently preoccupied with the formation, modelling and representation of contemporary military identity across a range of genres, including dedicatory poems and verse treatises, public entertainments drawing on contemporary pastoral drama and masque, and romance–epic. This chapter will examine Knevet's writings in order to demonstrate that a keener understanding of military identity can deepen our awareness of the significance of regional, national and international influences on poetic interpretations of statehood and cultural identity. The majority of this chapter establishes Knevet's representation of military identity in his first work, Stratiotikon (1628), before going on to consider how his approach changes and becomes more varied in his later works, Rhodon and Iris (1631) and the unpublished manuscript continuation of Edmund Spenser's great poem, A Supplement of the Faery Queene (c.1628–35). By examining Knevet's approach to military identity as a unifying theme for these works, I aim to juxtapose the insular and localised focus of his writings with the under-explored national and international scope of his political outlook and interests, and his wider ambitions for his writing. In doing so, the chapter positions Knevet as a significant regional voice in response to burgeoning concerns for the Protestant faith during the early stages of Charles I's Personal Rule and following the abortive attempts at re-establishing English and Protestant martial glory such as the ill-fated Ile de Re campaign of 1627.
Knevet employs a combination of classical, chivalric and contemporary examples to inform his work with the express intent of inspiring and instilling native military identity. Although, as is explored below, his purpose is underpinned by his Protestant world view, he maintains conciliatory attitudes towards representations of Catholicism in much of his work. As a tutor to William Paston (1610–63), first baronet of Oxnead, Norfolk, it is perhaps unsurprising – given the accusations of recusancy attached to the Paston family – that Knevet tempers the specifically confessional thrust of his rhetoric.
By claiming that “just war is just war,” critics suggest that just war theory both distracts from and sanitizes the horror of modern warfare by dressing it up in the language of moral principles. However, the phrase can also be taken as a reminder of why we need just war theory in the first place. It is precisely because just war is just war, with all that this implies, that we must think so carefully and so judiciously about it. Of course, one could argue that the rump of just war scholarship over the past decade has been characterized by disinterest regarding the material realities of warfare. But is this still the case? This essay examines a series of benchmark books on the ethics of war published over the past year. All three exemplify an effort to grapple with the hard facts of modern violent conflict, and they all skillfully bring diverse traditions of just war thinking into conversation with one another.
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare genetic condition caused by mutations in the Merlin gene on chromosome 22. It results in acoustic neuromas (schwannomas) and other CNS tumors including meningiomas and ependymomas. Most patients develop hearing loss as a result of neuroma-driven destruction of auditory nerves. Surgery and radiation therapy remain the two most commonly recommended treatment options. However, there is a risk of further hearing loss with these procedures. There is emerging evidence that bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against VEGF-A, can shrink acoustic neuromas and mitigate hearing loss. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old female with bilateral acoustic neuromas from NF2 suffers partial hearing loss in the left ear and total hearing loss in the right ear after removal of the right-sided neuroma. Baseline MRI showed a left-sided acoustic neuroma (15 x 13 mm) and recurrence of the right-sided neuroma (18 x 14 mm). Bevacizumab was initiated at 5 mg/kg IV every 14 days. After 8 cycles, the patient reported marked improvement in hearing. At lower frequencies (< 1,000 Hz, the range of human voice), auditory thresholds improved by up to 60% of baseline, while at higher frequencies, improvements of up to 46% were seen. Repeat imaging showed no disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: Bevacizumab led to hearing improvement and prevention of disease progression after 8 cycles of therapy. This treatment should be considered in patients with NF2 and acoustic neuromas who wish to pursue a less-invasive treatment option with the potential of delaying progression and mitigating hearing loss.
Colonic effects of extruded whole-grain sorghum diets were evaluated using a model of growing rats. In all, twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed control (C), extruded white sorghum (EWS) or red sorghum (ERS). Consumption of sorghum diets showed satiety properties, with reduction of caecal pH, and lower activity of β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Decreased copper zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase and increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels were observed in colonic mucosa. The induction of antioxidant enzymes occurred through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 protein and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus. ERS was able to decrease the proliferation of proximal mucosa of colon, demonstrating a possible effect against colorectal tumourigenesis. EWS increased proliferation and also apoptosis, ensuring the re-establishment of homoeostasis of the colonic mucosa. No antioxidant systemic effect (serum or hepatic level) was observed. It is likely that despite the extrusion the low bioavailability of the phenolic compounds of sorghum diets caused them to exert mainly acute effects at the colon level. Extruded whole-grain sorghum is a good functional ingredient that might be promising in dietary prevention of intestinal diseases.
Blastocystis spp. pathogenic potential remains unclear as these anaerobic parasitic protozoa are frequently isolated from stools of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. In silico analysis of the whole genome sequence of Blastocystis subtype 7 revealed the presence of numerous proteolytic enzymes including cysteine proteases predicted to be secreted. To assess the potential impact of proteases on intestinal cells and gut function, we focused our study on two cysteine proteases, a legumain and a cathepsin B, which were previously identified in Blastocystis subtype 7 culture supernatants. Both cysteine proteases were produced as active recombinant proteins. Activation of the recombinant legumain was shown to be autocatalytic and triggered by acidic pH, whereas proteolytic activity of the recombinant cathepsin B was only recorded after co-incubation with the legumain. We then measured the diffusion of 4-kDa FITC-labelled dextran across Caco-2 cell monolayers following exposition to either Blastocystis culture supernatants or each recombinant protease. Both Blastocystis culture supernatants and recombinant activated cathepsin B induced an increase of Caco-2 cell monolayer permeability, and this effect was significantly inhibited by E-64, a specific cysteine protease inhibitor. Our results suggest that cathepsin B might play a role in pathogenesis of Blastocystis by increasing intestinal cell permeability.