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The Vindhyan Supergroup represents the largest Proterozoic sedimentary basin fill in the Indian shield. In addition to some significant palaeobiological discoveries, the sedimentary sequence of the Vindhyan, particularly its argillaceous intervals, holds crucial information for our understanding of sedimentation dynamics in Proterozoic clastic shelves. Here we attempt an extensive, although not exhaustive, review of the physical characteristics of six argillaceous (shale) intervals (Arangi, Koldaha, Rampur, Bijaygarh, Rewa and Sirbu shale) from the Son valley sector, Vindhyan Basin, augmented with new observations to unravel the status of current understanding in terms of palaeo-flow dynamics, shelf sedimentation processes and dispersal pattern, depositional cyclicity and basinal tectonics. The sedimentary attributes of Vindhyan shales reveal their deposition largely in relative bathymetry fluctuating from distal shoreface or inner shelf (near to fair-weather wave base) to distal shelf below storm wave base. More often than not, the Vindhyan shelf was storm-infested and the operation of both storm-generated return flow and Coriolis-force-guided geostrophic currents are documented from different stratigraphic intervals of argillaceous successions. The thick arenaceous intervals interrupting the deposits of the Koldaha, Rewa and Sirbu shales at multiple stratigraphic levels indicate the presence of a fan delta and braided fluvial system during intermittent regressive stands of sea level or event deposition during a sea-level highstand, respectively. Based on facies pattern and flow vectors, a rift-related half-graben model is inferred for Arangi and Koldaha shale and a low-gradient stable-shelf model with well-defined energy gradient is proposed for successions from Rampur shale onwards.
Cross-stream migration of a droplet in an incipient flow turns out to be of outstanding importance in several emerging applications encompassing chemistry, engineering and biology. Here, we bring out the confluence of confinement, oscillatory axial pressure gradient and steady axial electric field towards controlling spatiotemporal characteristics of cross-stream migration of droplets in a micro-confined fluidic environment, bearing immense implications in in vitro modelling of bio-analytical procedures. Under the sole influence of an oscillatory axial pressure gradient, the time taken by a droplet to achieve a steady-state transverse position is significantly long and the direction of the droplet's motion cannot be altered at will. However, confinement-modulated electrohydrodynamic interactions enable overcoming this constraint, even when the applied electric field is orthogonal to the intended direction of droplet migration, a proposition that is not feasible in an unbounded domain. Our results reveal that depending on the relative electrical properties of the droplet and the carrier phases and a competing influence of electrical, viscous and capillary stresses, the rate of transverse migration can be controlled by effectively modulating the axial oscillations in its cross-stream motion. Beyond a threshold value of the applied electric field, simultaneous enhancement in the droplet migration rate and reversal in the direction of its lateral migration become possible, which cannot otherwise be achieved by the oscillatory pressure field alone. Furthermore, the oscillatory characteristics in the droplet migration can be dampened out completely by exploiting the addressed physical interplay. Results from in-house experiments corroborate our theoretical conjecture.
To investigate the coherent structures in turbulent wall-bounded bubbly flows, a local flow topology analysis has been performed in this work. Using the invariants of the velocity-gradient tensor, all possible small-scale flow structures can be categorized into two nodal and two focal topologies for incompressible flows. The analysed direct numerical simulation database of freely moving and deforming bubble swarms is based on a multi-marker geometrical volume-of-fluid method. It appears that bubbles are acting as mixing elements and fragmenting the large topology structures. Since the behaviour in both phases is quite different, key quantities were evaluated in a conditional manner, i.e. separately for the gaseous dispersed phase and the liquid carrier phase. Several similarities with an analytical solution for laminar creeping flows have been observed although the investigated channel flow is turbulent. It has been concluded that the inclusion of bubbles results in a partial shift from focal to nodal flow character whereas the share of stable and unstable flow types remains fairly constant at approximately 50 % in both phases. No clear analogy can be discerned in terms of the global effects of bubble inclusion and wall confinement on flow topologies. At least with respect to flow topologies, regions in the vicinity of the interface show a clearly different behaviour depending on the phase. The size distribution of coherent structures in the bubble-laden channel flow has also been analysed. The measured flow topology size spectrum in the liquid phase can be approximated by a simple model with reasonable accuracy.
Maternal education plays a central role in children’s health and nutrition. Living conditions and socioeconomic status are linked with mother’s education, which in turn determines the health and development of a child. The Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF) is a single indicator that reflects overall rate of three conventional indices of undernutrition: underweight, stunting and wasting. The study was undertaken among 621 rural Bengalee children (308 boys and 313 girls) aged 3–12 years from the Purba Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. Height (cm) and weight (kg) were recorded and NCHS standard values used to calculate z-scores (<–2SD). The same data were used to calculate CIAF as an indicator of ‘anthropometric failure’ (AF) or undernutrition. The prevalence of AF among the children was 59.40%. Chi-squared analysis was employed to evaluate the significance of differences in the prevalence of CIAF between the sexes and the association between nutritional indicators and socioeconomic parameters in the two sexes. Multiple binary logistic regression (MBLR) analyses (including the forward stepwise method) were also performed. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the risk of having AF. Results showed that mother’s education was significantly associated with undernutrition (AF) controlling for the other factors considered. A very high prevalence of undernutrition is persisting in this region of India despite national nutritional supplementation programmes being operational. More attention to the improvement of living conditions and hygiene, and more particularly the education of women, in this population might be effective in attaining improved child growth and health.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on both the physical and mental well-being of the global population. Relatively few studies have measured the impact of lockdown on utilisation of secondary mental health services in England.
To describe secondary mental health service utilisation pre-lockdown and during lockdown within Leicestershire, UK, and the numbers of serious incidents during this time frame.
Data pertaining to mental health referral and hospital admissions to adult mental health, child and adolescent mental health, intellectual disability and mental health services for older people were collated retrospectively from electronic records for both 8 weeks pre-lockdown and the first 8 weeks of lockdown in England. Serious incidents during this time frame were also analysed.
Significantly (P < 0.05) reduced referrals to a diverse range of mental health services were observed during lockdown, including child and adolescent, adult, older people and intellectual disability services. Although admissions remained relatively stable before and during lockdown for several services, admissions to both acute adult and mental health services for older people were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced during lockdown. Numbers of serious incidents in the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods were similar, with 23 incidents pre-lockdown, compared with 20 incidents in lockdown.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first UK-based study reporting patterns of use of mental health services immediately prior to and during COVID-19 lockdown. Overall numbers of referrals and admissions reduced following commencement of COVID-19 lockdown. Potential reasons for these observations are discussed.
Psychiatrists live and work in complex, clinically challenging times. Their paperwork is geared increasingly towards defensive practice, key performance indicators and risk assessment forms. Somewhere in the process, detailed understanding of patient experience and clinical formulation based on key psychiatric expertise and skill in mental state examination have taken a backseat. I review the history behind the Present State Examination, the realisation in the 1980s of the need for a common psychiatric language internationally and the current position on phenomenology in psychiatry curricula in the UK. I conclude that it is time to think seriously about a return to basics in psychiatric phenomenology and psychopathology.
To determine if a global mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) cut-off can be established to classify underweight in adults (men and non-pregnant women).
We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA) to explore the sensitivity (SENS) and specificity (SPEC) of various MUAC cut-offs for identifying underweight among adults (defined as BMI < 18·5 kg/m2). Measures of diagnostic accuracy were determined every 0·5 cm across MUAC values from 19·0 to 26·5 cm. A bivariate random effects model was used to jointly estimate SENS and SPEC while accounting for heterogeneity between studies. Various subgroup analyses were performed.
Twenty datasets from Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, North America and South America were included.
All eligible participants from the original datasets were included.
The total sample size was 13 835. Mean age was 32·6 years and 65 % of participants were female. Mean MUAC was 25·7 cm, and 28 % of all participants had low BMI (<18·5 kg/m2). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the pooled dataset was 0·91 (range across studies 0·61–0·98). Results showed that MUAC cut-offs in the range of ≤23·5 to ≤25·0 cm could serve as an appropriate screening indicator for underweight.
MUAC is highly discriminatory in its ability to distinguish adults with BMI above and below 18·5 kg/m2. This IPDMA is the first step towards determining a global MUAC cut-off for adults. Validation studies are needed to determine whether the proposed MUAC cut-off of 24 cm is associated with poor functional outcomes.
In the present investigation, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extracts of small cardamom (SC) and yellow mustard (YM) seeds have been investigated for their efficacies in combating type 2 diabetes in streptozotocin-induced Wistar albino rats. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in the rats were monitored on days 8, 15 and 21. On day 15, FBG level reduced appreciably by 31·49 % in rats treated with SC seed extract and by 32·28 % in rats treated with YM seed extract, comparable to metformin (30·70 %) and BGR-34 (a commercial polyherbal drug) (31·81 %) administered rats. Either extract exhibited desirable effects on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and catalase activities in controlling diabetes. A molecular docking exercise was conducted to identify specific compounds in the extracts which possessed augmenting effect on G6PD. The results revealed that all the bioactive compounds in the extracts have binding affinities with the enzyme and contributed to the antidiabetic efficacies of the extracts as G6PD augmenters. The effects of the extracts on insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake were investigated using non-invasive modelling by iHOMA2 software. This in vitro approach indicated that extract administration resulted in increased both insulin sensitivity of the liver and glucose uptake in the gut. The findings of the present study attest these SC-CO2 extracts of the spices as safe alternatives of metformin and BGR-34 in combating type 2 diabetes and could be safely subjected to clinical studies. These extracts could also be employed in designing proactive food supplements in mitigating the metabolic disorder.
Enhancing solute dispersion in electrically actuated flows has always been a challenging proposition, as attributed to the inherent uniformity of the flow field in the absence of surface patterns. Over the years, researchers have focused their attention towards circumventing this limitation, by employing several fluidic and geometric modulations. However, the corresponding improvements in solute dispersion often turn out to be inconsequential. Here we reveal that by exploiting the interplay between an externally imposed temperature gradient, subsequent electrical charge redistribution and ionic motion, coupled with the rheological complexities of the fluid, one can achieve enhancement of up to one order of magnitude of solute dispersion in a pressure-driven flow of an electrolyte solution. Our results demonstrate that the complex coupling between thermal, electrical, hydrodynamic and rheological parameters over small scales, responsible for such exclusive phenomenon, can be utilized in designing novel thermally actuated microfluidic and bio-microfluidic devices with favourable solute separation and dispersion characteristics.
Background: Preliminary reports and subsequent immediate management decisions of radiological scans are often performed by emergency physicians and on-call radiology residents. Many academic hospitals have resident-only coverage for after-hour shifts. Generally, these preliminary reports are eventually reviewed by a staff radiologist, during which discrepancies may be identified. Depending on the severity of the discrepancy and the time taken to notify the treating physician, there is potential for significant impact on the patient's care. Aim Statement: In an attempt to identify and minimize errors in radiological readings, and to improve the communication of discrepancies, our project aims to retrospectively audit all radiological discrepancies that have occurred at The Ottawa Hospital's emergency departments from April 2018 to May 2019. Measures & Designs: A systematic review of all cases with noted radiological discrepancies was obtained from the Picture Archive and Communication System software and EPIC platform. Analysis of these cases will allow us to define when errors occur, what is the type and severity of the error, how long it took to relay the discrepancy to a treating physician, and what was the subsequent management impact. Evaluation/Results: We discovered 712 cases with radiological reading discrepancies, 168 major, 527 minor, and 17 incidentals. Interestingly, a significant portion of major (severely affecting care/life-threatning) discrepancies were reported from radiology residents, especially on CT images, although emergency physicians had the most discrepancies (mostly minor). Radiology residents were seen to have more discrepant reports during after-hour services while emergency physicians did not show any specific pattern of discrepant reporting. The average time to report a major discrepancy to a treating physician is 8.8 hours, where the maximum time taken was 104 hours and the minimum was 0.2 hours. 56% of reports with major discrepancies made no mention of who was notified. Discussion/Impact: By identifying weak points in radiological reporting, our results will allow us to provide suggestions at an administration and teaching level to minimize discrepancies. It is critical to create a workflow where mistakes are mitigated, and communication is efficient and standardized to prevent patient harm from delayed or incorrect diagnosis.
Introduction: Suicide is the 9th leading cause of death in Canada, and a common reason for patients to present to Canadian emergency departments (ED). Little knowledge exists around Canadian emergency physicians (EPs) knowledge about the risk factors of completing suicide in patients presenting to the ED with suicidal thoughts. Methods: We developed a web-based survey on suicide knowledge, which was pilot tested by two emergency physicians and one psychiatrist for clarity and content. The survey was distributed via email to attending physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Data were described using counts, means, medians and interquartile ranges. Results: 193 EPs responded to the survey (response rate 16%), with 42% of EPs practicing in Ontario. 35% of EPs were female, the mean age was 48 (95% CI 47.3-48.7), and mean years in practice was 17 (95% CI 16.3-17.7). Academic practice location was reported by 55% of EPs, and 81% reported access to an inpatient psychiatry service. Twenty four (12%) EPs had personally considered suicide, and 45% had experience with suicide in their personal lives. The top three risk factors for suicide identified by EPs were: intent for suicide (90%); a plan for suicide (89%); prior suicide attempt (88%). A majority of EPs were able to correctly identify the other risk factors for completion of suicide except for the following: diagnosis of anxiety disorder (25%), chronic substance use (43%), prior non-suicidal self-injury (37%), low socioeconomic status (34%). Conclusion: Canadian EPs have substantial personal experience with suicide. A majority of EPs were able to correctly identify known risk factors for suicide completion, yet important gaps in knowledge exist.
Introduction: Suicide is the 9th leading cause of death in Canada, and a common reason for patients to present to Canadian emergency departments (ED). Little knowledge exists around Canadian emergency physicians (EPs) attitudes toward and understanding of individuals who have attempted suicide. Methods: We developed a web-based survey on attitudes around suicide, which was pilot tested by two EPs and one psychiatrist for clarity and content. The survey was distributed via email to attending physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Data were described using counts, means, medians and interquartile ranges. We used the Understanding of Suicidal Patients (USP) Scale, an 11-point questionnaire utilized in previous studies to assess healthcare providers’ attitudes toward individuals who have attempted suicide. Each question was graded as a five-point Likert, with a score of 1 indicating complete agreement and a 5 indicating complete disagreement. A total USP score is calculated by adding together the score from each question and ranges from 11 to 55; a lower score indicates greater empathy and understanding of individuals who have attempted suicide. Results: 193 EPs responded to the survey, with 42% of EPs practicing in Ontario. 35% of EPs were female, the mean age was 48 (95% CI 47.3-48.7), and mean years in practice was 17 (95% CI 16.3-17.7). Academic practice location was reported by 55% of EPs, and 81% reported access to an inpatient psychiatry service. The mean USP score was 21.8 (95% CI 21.1-22.5) with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.75, the median was 22 [IQR 14-29]. The item that had most agreement from EPs was “I would like to help a person who has attempted suicide” (1.58, 95% CI 1.50-1.67), while the item that had the least agreement was “patients who have attempted suicide are usually treated well in my work unit” (2.54, 95% CI 2.40-2.69). Conclusion: Canadian EPs have a generally positive attitude toward treating individuals who have attempted suicide. EPs scored highly on a scale that measured willingness to provide care for and empathize with suicidal patients, yet identified that overall care for these patients could be improved.
Introduction: Suicide is the 9th leading cause of death in Canada, and a common reason for patients to present to Canadian emergency departments (ED). Little knowledge exists around Canadian emergency physicians (EPs) current practices and barriers to screening for suicidal thoughts (ST). Methods: We developed a web-based survey on suicide knowledge, which was pilot tested by two emergency physicians and one psychiatrist for clarity and content. The survey was distributed via email to attending physician members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. Data were described using counts, means, medians and interquartile ranges. Results: 193 EPs responded to the survey (response rate 16%), with 42% of EPs practicing in Ontario. 35% of EPs were female, the mean age was 48 (95% CI 47.3-48.7), and mean years in practice was 17 (95% CI 16.3-17.7). Academic practice location was reported by 55% of EPs, and 81% reported access to an inpatient psychiatry service. 142 EPs (82%) reported no protocol for screening for ST in their ED. Of EPs reporting an existing protocol, the most common practice was routine screening at triage (43%). The most commonly identified screening tools were HEADS-ED (25%) and PHQ-9 (21%). 70% of EPs felt the ED was a good place for screening for ST, yet 66% identified slower clinical care as a potential barrier. A strong commitment to treatment and follow up was identified by 68% of EPs as a necessary requirement to implementing ST screening in their ED. A targeted 2-4 question screen was the preferred screening option for 62% of EPs responding. Conclusion: A majority of EPs report no protocol for screening for ST in their ED, yet identify the ED as a good place for screening efforts. Potential barriers to widespread ST screening in the ED include a strong commitment to patient treatment and follow up, and diminished clinical efficiency.
The interaction of motile micro-organisms with a nearby solid substrate is a well-studied phenomenon. However, the effects of hydrodynamic slippage on the substrate have received little attention. In the present study, within the framework of the squirmer model, we impose a tangential velocity at the swimmer surface as a representation of the ciliary propulsion, and subsequently obtain an exact solution of the Stokes equation based on a combined analytical–numerical approach. We illustrate how the near-wall swimming velocities are non-trivially altered by the interaction of wall slip and hydrodynamic forces. We report a characteristic transition of swimming trajectories for both puller- and pusher-type microswimmers by hydrodynamic slippage if the wall slip length crosses a critical value. In the case of puller microswimmers that are propelled by a breaststroke-like action of their swimming apparatus ahead of their cell body, the wall slip can cause wall-bound trapping swimming states, as either periodic or damped periodic oscillations, which would otherwise escape from a no-slip wall. The associated critical slip length has a non-monotonic dependence on the initial orientation of the swimmer, which is represented by novel phase diagrams. Pushers, which get their propulsive thrust from posterior flagellar action, also show similar swimming state transitions, but in this case the wall-slip-mediated reorientation dynamics and the swimming modes compete in a different fashion from that of the pullers. Although neutral swimmers lack a sufficient reorientation torque to exhibit any wall-bound trajectory, their detention time near the substrate can be significantly increased by tailoring the extent of hydrodynamic slippage at the nearby wall. The present results pave the way for understanding the motion characteristic of biological microswimmers near confinements with hydrophobic walls or strategize the design of microfluidic devices used for sorting and motion rectification of artificial swimmers by tailoring their surface wettability.
COVID-19 hits all of the cognitive triggers for how the lay public misjudges risk. Robust findings from the field of risk perception have identified unique characteristics of a risk that allow for greater attribution of frequency and probability than is likely to be aligned with the base-rate statistics of the risk. COVID-19 embodies these features. It is unfamiliar, invisible, dreaded, potentially endemic, involuntary, disproportionately impacts vulnerable populations such as the elderly and has the potential for widespread catastrophe. When risks with such characteristics emerge, it is imperative for there to be trust between those in governance and communication and the lay public in order to quell public fears. This is not the environment in which COVID-19 has emerged, potentially resulting in even greater perceptions of risk.
Ethics are important in psychiatry since psychiatrydeals mainly with human conduct and behaviour. Ethics are principles, notlaws but standards of conduct, which define the essentials of honourablebehaviour for the physician. Indian Psychiatric Society approved ethical guideline in 1989Cuttack conference.
Ethical issues depend on the following theories –
Utilitarian Theory– A fundamental obligation in making decision and is to try to producethe greatest possible happiness for the greatest benefit.
Parentalism-A person performing actions for another benefit without the person's consent.
Autonomy Theory –It is based on writing of Imanuel Kant. Relationship between a physician and anadult patient is conceived as relationship between two responsible persons.
Some common causes of malpractice in psychiatry seen in India arei) Negligence in diagnosis ii) Overlooking basic human rights iii) Consent nottaken from patient iv) Risk of suicide v) Experimentation by doctor vi)Negligence in physical methods of treatment vii) Seaxual relation with clientand Exploitation.
Now a days following forces are to be considered as new ethical challenges a)Rapidly increasing cost of mental health care b) Influence of new technologies likeMRI, CT SCAN Brain c) Societal reengineering for better mental health d)Increasing pressure by patient party e) Current market forces are demandinghigh quality health care.
Apracticing psychiatrist has to take more responsibility in management of mentaldisorders. One has to take it as normal inevitable professionalhazards.
Literature, to Rabindranāth Tagore, is an expression of being-in-relation. According to him, affective bonds with truth lead to relations of reciprocity where one wants to give back to the world in equal measure what one has received, piling up the offerings with ‘word and voice, brush and hone’. What, we wonder today, could be the implications of his idealistic standpoint across borders, in the context of global reception? This essay will take up the question and situate it within the matrix of interliterary communication from several perspectives. It will focus on the various premises of communicative acts with relation to literature in multiple reading communities, and the consequent areas of interaction involving hermeneutic impulses in approaching the texts. It will then take up areas of mutuality and transformation, the function and value of Tagore's texts in different cultures, instances of non-communication, and, finally, shifts in the mechanism of transfer in the contemporary context. This study will help us to look at the dynamics of interliterary communication in the global context, framed by organizational structures on the one hand and, on the other, by literature's ability to create its own relations and extend in many directions, generating semantic and cultural tensions as well as resolutions.
There are layers of interculturality at the core of Tagore's literary work. Before looking at his communication with the wider world, we need to briefly consider the meaning and function of his oeuvre in its immediate cultural milieu. He produced an immense body of work in almost every conceivable verbal genre. But to his own people, he is primarily a poet, and his greatest gift to them, across socio-economic groups, is a major corpus of song poems. His community found in his works a new language for a meaningful, layered, and sophisticated expression of the many varied moments of its intimate experiences, and it is this that has ensured his lasting living presence among the people of Bengal. At the same time, he played an important role in the life of the nation and was drawn into larger civilizational questions in complex circumstances during and between the two Great Wars.
This essay is an attempt to understand Tagore's idea of emancipation, locating it against the trajectory of Indian philosophy. In both classical India and ancient Greece, philosophy had a distinctly practical motive. Although many issues come up for scrutiny in the Socratic dialogues, for example, one particular question has an overriding presence: the nature of the good life, and the superiority of a good life over other types of life. The classical Indian philosopher, in his turn, is preoccupied with the search for an ideal life that is not fraught with the vagaries of mundane existence. The ideal life is to be reached by breaking all shackles of material bondage and freeing oneself from suffering of all kinds (twenty-one kinds, for instance, in the Nyāya school of philosophy). Indian philosophy is thus moulded from the beginning by the search for an ideal life.
This practical motive has left a distinct mark on Indian philosophical speculation. Classical Indian philosophical theories never lost their touch with this ultimate goal of human life. This perhaps explains why Indian philosophy never had any concern with formal logic in the way Western philosophy has. The age-old debate in Western philosophical tradition between experience and reason as sources of knowledge is conspicuous by its absence in Indian philosophy. This can be explained by the Indian philosopher's attempt to treat epistemology as a branch of the psychology of knowledge. In India, we therefore have the kind of metaphysical speculation that is ‘almost a matter-of-fact study of reality’, where it is argued that reals are either perceived or inferred from perceptual data or known through some other accredited sources of knowledge. There are held to be reliable sources of apprehension even in matters of faith. And where normal inferential methods are not applicable, we can try to grasp the truths intuitively through some esoteric exercises.
This also explains why poetry and philosophy are never at war with each other, unlike in the West: a point forcefully made by Tagore in his presidential address to the first Indian Philosophical Congress in December 1925. From this perspective, Tagore can be placed very much in the tradition of Indian philosophical inquiry. In his philosophical essays, Tagore explores some of the fundamental metaphysical issues of Indian philosophy.
Graphene enticed the scientific community for its interesting properties since its discovery. Among different synthesis routes of graphene, reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is mostly preferred because of scalability and advantage of modulation of properties of the end product. Thermal reduction of GO is considered to be the simplest and economic among different reduction techniques. The current work reports an experimental analysis of the structural evolution of GO to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) during thermal treatment. GO has been thermally annealed at an optimized temperature of 350 °C in ambient. Thermal reduction is observed after 7 min of annealing and confirmed by shifting of the first major peak from 12° to 23° in X-ray diffraction pattern. Significant carbon content enrichment and exfoliation are two aspects of the thermal reduction of GO. Carbon content suddenly enriches from 38 wt% in GO to 77 wt%. Exfoliation is confirmed by morphological alterations and decrease in carbon layers from eleven to three.