To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This article explores the phenomenon of ‘disaggregation’ of disputes in international law, that is, the carving up of broader disputes into discrete legal claims based on different international legal rules and subject to the jurisdiction of different international tribunals. In particular, its focus is on certain under-explored consequences of this phenomenon for the jurisdiction of international tribunals, asking whether the relationship between the specific claims and the broader dispute might affect the jurisdiction of the tribunals. Employing the ongoing Ukraine/Russia dispute, which has yielded multiple claims before different international tribunals, the article offers an original analysis of these jurisdictional questions. It presents three approaches discernible from case law where tribunals face claims over which they appear to have jurisdiction that implicate a broader dispute over which they do not. The article ends with a consideration of possible explanations for why a tribunal might follow one approach over the others in any given case.
Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata (S. Wangata) is an important cause of endemic salmonellosis in Australia, with human infections occurring from undefined sources. This investigation sought to examine possible environmental and zoonotic sources for human infections with S. Wangata in north-eastern New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The investigation adopted a One Health approach and was comprised of three complimentary components: a case–control study examining human risk factors; environmental and animal sampling; and genomic analysis of human, animal and environmental isolates. Forty-eight human S. Wangata cases were interviewed during a 6-month period from November 2016 to April 2017, together with 55 Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) controls and 130 neighbourhood controls. Indirect contact with bats/flying foxes (S. Typhimurium controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–6.48)) (neighbourhood controls (aOR 8.33, 95% CI 2.58–26.83)), wild frogs (aOR 3.65, 95% CI 1.32–10.07) and wild birds (aOR 6.93, 95% CI 2.29–21.00) were statistically associated with illness in multivariable analyses. S. Wangata was detected in dog faeces, wildlife scats and a compost specimen collected from the outdoor environments of cases’ residences. In addition, S. Wangata was detected in the faeces of wild birds and sea turtles in the investigation area. Genomic analysis revealed that S. Wangata isolates were relatively clonal. Our findings suggest that S. Wangata is present in the environment and may have a reservoir in wildlife populations in north-eastern NSW. Further investigation is required to better understand the occurrence of Salmonella in wildlife groups and to identify possible transmission pathways for human infections.
Efficient VLBI tests of relativistic models for superluminal motion require a complete sample of sources free from selection effects in orientation, coupled with an observational requirement for bright cores. Probably the best way to construct such a sample is to extract from a low frequency sample those sources with the highest radio luminosity, since these tend to have the strongest cores. One must then ask whether there are any sources included which would not be if they were differently oriented; that is, either the flux or the power falls below the limit for the sample when the core and jet flux is removed.
This article provides a holistic examination of the international legal frameworks which regulate targeted killings by drones. The article argues that for a particular drone strike to be lawful, it must satisfy the legal requirements under all applicable international legal regimes, namely: the law regulating the use of force (ius ad bellum); international humanitarian law and international human rights law. It is argued that the legality of a drone strike under the ius ad bellum does not preclude the wrongfulness of that strike under international humanitarian law or international human rights law, and that since those latter obligations are owed to individuals, one State cannot consent to their violation by another State. The article considers the important legal challenges that the use of armed drones poses under each of the three legal frameworks mentioned above. It considers the law relating to the use of force by States against non-State groups abroad. This part examines the principles of self-defence and consent, in so far as they may be relied upon to justify targeted killings abroad. The article then turns to some of the key controversies in the application of international humanitarian law to drone strikes. It examines the threshold for non-international armed conflicts, the possibility of a global non-international armed conflict and the question of who may be targeted in a non-international armed conflict. The final substantive section of the article considers the nature and application of the right to life in armed conflict, as well as the extraterritorial application of that right particularly in territory not controlled by the State conducting the strike.
The major distinguishing features of BL Lacertae Objects are weak or absent line emission and strong and variable optical, infrared, and radio polarization (Angel and Stockman 1980; Kollgaard 1994). The radio emission and much of the optical emission is believed to be synchrotron radiation. There are now some 20 BL Lacertae objects for which VLBI polarization (VLBP) images have been made at λ = 6 cm (Gabuzda et al. 1994 and references therein). In nearly every BL Lacertae object in which polarization structure has been detected, the polarization position angles in knots in the jets are nearly parallel to the VLBI structural axis. Assuming the jet components to be optically thin, the magnetic fields inferred by this orientation are nearly perpendicular to the direction of the jet; perhaps the most natural interpretation of this is that the knots are associated with shocks that compress an initially tangled magnetic field as they propagate down the VLBI jet, enhancing the magnetic field transverse to the compression (Laing 1980; Hughes, Aller, & Aller 1989).
BL Lacertae objects are active galactic nuclei with weak or undetectable line emission and strong variability in total intensity and linear polarization over a wide wavelength range from optical to radio. The radio emission and much of the optical emission is believed to be synchrotron radiation. Sources in the complete sample of BL Lac objects defined by Kühr and Schmidt (1990) have: 5 GHz fluxes of at least 1 Jy, radio spectral index α ≥ −0.5 (Sv ˜ v+α), rest frame equivalent width of the strongest emission lines less than 5 Å, and optical counterparts on the Sky Survey plates with brightness greater than 20m.
Parsec-scale polarization observations of the quasar 4C 71.07 show a misalignment between the inferred magnetic field direction and the structural direction of the jet. Dual frequency VLBI polarimetry was used to to determine whether Faraday rotation was the origin of the misalignment. We find insufficient rotation to realign the field and jet. Other possible mechanisms which may result in a misalignment are discussed.
Many layered intrusions are considered to have been repeatedly inflated by magma additions, but rates of magma mixing relative to rates of layer accumulation are difficult to model. The nature of magma recharge through the interval including the Pyroxenite Marker (PM), Main Zone, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, is examined with regard to such processes. The plagioclase compositions (An value) in five previously published and three new profiles (presented here and focusing on the core compositions) that are at least 600 m in vertical extent and spread along a strike length of 110 km are evaluated. The compilation of the eight profiles shows the following trends. Upward reversals in compositions show considerable lateral as well as vertical variations. Lateral variations show a range in: (1) the minimum An value reached in each profile prior to the onset of magma recharge (An51 to An59); (2) the depth below the PM at which the minimum value is observed (50 to 575 m); (3) the An value close to the PM (An54 to An75); (4) the maximum value recorded above the PM (An63 to An76); (5) the height above the PM at which this maximum value is reached (0 to 300 m) – in all cases, the highest values of An occur at the northern end of the studied sections; and (6) the vertical extents over which the reversals occur range from 150 to over 600 m indicating very protracted magma additions and/or slow mixing. The PM terminates toward the south, and close to this termination the immediate footwall rocks to the PM change from north to south from gabbronorite to magnetite gabbronorite. A cross-section through these profiles defines two basins, with an intervening structural upwarp. The magma pulses that were added to produce very gradual and protracted reversals in mineral compositions through the PM interval ponded initially at the base of the northern basin, and did not homogenize the entire magma column. These added magmas did not overflow and have an effect on mineral compositions in the southern basin until after considerable replenishment and crystallization (including the PM) had taken place in the northern basin. We emphasize the prolonged period(s) of magma input and slow rate of vertical homogenization of the magma column during the formation of this sequence of as much as 400 m of the Main Zone.
Various foods are associated with effects against metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes; however, their mechanisms of action are mostly unclear. Fatty acids may contribute by acting as precursors of signalling molecules or by direct activity on receptors. The medium- and long-chain NEFA receptor FFA1 (free fatty acid receptor 1, previously known as GPR40) has been linked to enhancement of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, whereas FFA4 (free fatty acid receptor 4, previously known as GPR120) has been associated with insulin-sensitising and anti-inflammatory effects, and both receptors are reported to protect pancreatic islets and promote secretion of appetite and glucose-regulating hormones. Hypothesising that FFA1 and FFA4 mediate therapeutic effects of dietary components, we screened a broad selection of NEFA on FFA1 and FFA4 and characterised active compounds in concentration–response curves. Of the screened compounds, pinolenic acid, a constituent of pine nut oil, was identified as a relatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist, and its suitability for further studies was confirmed by additional in vitro characterisation. Pine nut oil and free and esterified pure pinolenic acid were tested in an acute glucose tolerance test in mice. Pine nut oil showed a moderately but significantly improved glucose tolerance compared with maize oil. Pure pinolenic acid or ethyl ester gave robust and highly significant improvements of glucose tolerance. In conclusion, the present results indicate that pinolenic acid is a comparatively potent and efficacious dual FFA1/FFA4 agonist that exerts antidiabetic effects in an acute mouse model. The compound thus deserves attention as a potential active dietary ingredient to prevent or counteract metabolic diseases.
This article offers a fresh examination of the distinction drawn in international humanitarian law (IHL) between international and non-international armed conflicts. In particular, it considers this issue from the under-explored perspective of the influence of international human rights law (IHRL). It is demonstrated how, over time, the effect of IHRL on this distinction in IHL has changed dramatically. Whereas traditionally IHRL encouraged the partial elimination of the distinction between types of armed conflict, more recently it has been invoked in debates in a manner that would preserve what remains of the distinction. By exploring this important issue, it is hoped that the present article will contribute to the ongoing debates regarding the future development of the law of non-international armed conflict.
The circular 625 km2 alkaline Pilanesberg Complex, South Africa, contains coeval eruptive and several distinctive intrusive syenitic and foyaitic components, concentrically arranged at the surface. However, owing to poor outcrop the relationships between the different intrusive rocks, and their shape in the third dimension cannot be convincingly determined in the field. The original interpretation was a laccolith, whereas later models suggested a funnel shape, and appealed to ring-dyke and cone-sheet emplacement mechanisms. However, the radial widths of these coarse-grained bodies are over 1 km and so cannot have been emplaced as ring dykes or cone sheets, which are usually quite thin and fine grained. Creating the space for emplacement and removal of pre-existing country rocks for each postulated subsequent intrusive event presents a major challenge to this latter hypothesis. Extensive previously published and new field relationships are re-evaluated here to suggest that the body is a gently inward-dipping sheet and that subsequent injections of magma merely pumped up an existing and evolving magma chamber rather than intruded into solid rocks. A Bouguer gravity anomaly model is presented that supports the concept of a shallow, flat-bottomed body rather than one that continues to significant depth. There are many analogies with the Kangerlussuaq Intrusion, Greenland.
Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate of numerous crustacean species, including the economically important Atlantic snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. The parasite was cultured in vitro in modified Nephrops medium at 0°C and a partial characterization of the life stages was accomplished using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In haemolymph from heavily infected snow crabs two life stages were detected; amoeboid trophonts and sporonts. During in vitro cultivation, several Hematodinium sp. life stages were observed: trophonts, clump colonies, sporonts, arachnoid sporonts, sporoblasts and dinospores. Cultures initiated with sporonts progressed to motile dinospores; however, those initiated with amoeboid trophonts proliferated, but did not progress or formed schizont-like stages which were senescent artefacts. Plasmodial stages were associated with both trophonts and sporonts and could be differentiated by the presence of trichocysts on TEM. Macrodinospores were observed but not microdinospores; likely due to the low number of Hematodinium sp. cultures that progressed to the dinospore stage. No early life stages including motile filamentous trophonts or gorgonlocks were observed as previously noted in Hematodinium spp. from other crustacean hosts. All Hematodinium sp. life stages contained autofluorescent, membrane-bound electron dense granules that appeared to degranulate or be expelled from the cell during in vitro cultivation.
The 3.5 Ga Bon Accord Ni deposit occurs within the lowest serpentinized mafic–ultramafic lavas of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (South Africa). Though now completely mined out, it comprised a suite of rare Ni-rich minerals that led to its interpretation as either an extraterrestrial body or as an oxidized fragment of Fe-Ni alloy originating from the terrestrial core. In this study, we draw on detailed petrographic observation and mineral chemical data, as well as previous work, to re-evaluate these ideas. The balance of evidence, from thin section (<1 mm) to regional (∼10s of km) scales, appears to support an alternative origin for Bon Accord, possibly as an oxidized Ni-sulfide deposit formed in association with ocean floor komatiite eruptions.
The nature of armed conflict has changed dramatically in recent decades. In particular, it is increasingly the case that hostilities now occur alongside ‘everyday’ situations. This has led to a pressing need to determine when a ‘conduct of hostilities’ model (governed by international humanitarian law – IHL) applies and when a ‘law enforcement’ model (governed by international human rights law – IHRL) applies. This, in turn, raises the question of whether these two legal regimes are incompatible or whether they might be applied in parallel. It is on this question that the current article focuses, examining it at the level of principle. Whilst most accounts of the principles underlying these two areas of law focus on humanitarian considerations, few have compared the role played by necessity in each. This article seeks to address this omission. It demonstrates that considerations of necessity play a prominent role in both IHL and IHRL, albeit with differing consequences. It then applies this necessity-based analysis to suggest a principled basis for rationalising the relationship between IHL and IHRL, demonstrating how this approach would operate in practice. It is shown that, by emphasising the role of necessity in IHL and IHRL, an approach can be adopted that reconciles the two in a manner that is sympathetic to their object and purpose.
An infant's early developmental environment plays a pivotal role in the programming of its physiological phenotype. The identification of the factors in the maternal environment that mediate the effects of maternal obesity and diet is essential to the development of clinical intervention strategies. Maternal hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, hyperleptinaemia and altered inflammatory cytokines concentrations are potentially important predictive factors of her future offspring's susceptibility to metabolic disease. Using a diet-induced obese mouse model, we have investigated which of these maternal factors could induce adverse metabolic programming in the offspring. Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed either laboratory chow (10% fat) or high fat diet (42% fat) for 10 weeks before mating and throughout gestation. At day 18 of pregnancy, maternal body weight, body composition and glucose tolerance were measured, as well as plasma insulin, adiponectin, RBP4, leptin, resistin and the inflammatory cytokines (IL6, IL10, IL12, IL1β, IFNγ, KC, TNF-α). At day 18 of pregnancy, high fat-fed dams were significantly heavier than the chow dams and had increased fat mass. High fat-fed dams had higher 5 h fasting blood glucose than chow dams and elevated plasma insulin. Although the obese dams had both reduced plasma adiponectin and resistin levels compared with lean dams, their plasma IL6, IL10 and IFNγ levels were all increased. High fat feeding in pregnancy leads to altered plasma concentrations of both adipokines and adipocytokines in the dam that may directly pass to the fetus and affect their development.
SCFA are produced in the gut by bacterial fermentation of undigested carbohydrates. Activation of the Gαi-protein-coupled receptor GPR41 by SCFA in β-cells and sympathetic ganglia inhibits insulin secretion and increases sympathetic outflow, respectively. A possible role in stimulating leptin secretion by adipocytes is disputed. In the present study, we investigated energy balance and glucose homoeostasis in GPR41 knockout mice fed on a standard low-fat or a high-fat diet. When fed on the low-fat diet, body fat mass was raised and glucose tolerance was impaired in male but not female knockout mice compared to wild-type mice. Soleus muscle and heart weights were reduced in the male mice, but total body lean mass was unchanged. When fed on the high-fat diet, body fat mass was raised in male but not female GPR41 knockout mice, but by no more in the males than when they were fed on the low-fat diet. Body lean mass and energy expenditure were reduced in male mice but not in female knockout mice. These results suggest that the absence of GPR41 increases body fat content in male mice. Gut-derived SCFA may raise energy expenditure and help to protect against obesity by activating GPR41.
Monoclonal antibodies have become an important treatment option for a number of serious conditions. Concerns have arisen about the potential association of these products with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). A list of monoclonal antibodies authorized for sale was derived from the Health Canada Drug Product Database. Case reports of PML after exposure to a monoclonal antibody authorized for use in Canada were retrieved by searching Canada Vigilance and WHO adverse event databases and through a Pub MED/Medline literature search. 182 adverse event case reports were retrieved (adalimumab -1 case, alemtuzumab-14, bevacizumab -3, cetuximab -1, efalizumab - 8, ibritumomab tiuxetan-5, infliximab-4, natalizumab-32, and rituximab-114). The Canadian Product Monographs for natalizumab and ritiximab contain box warnings for PML. A natalizumab registry has been established.
Computations are presented of the upward force on a two-dimensional wedge descending towards a plane surface due to the Stokes flow of an intervening viscous fluid. The predictions are compared with those of lubrication theory and an approximate analytical solution; all three predict a logarithmic divergence of the force with the minimum separation. An object falling vertically under gravity will therefore make contact with an underlying plane surface in finite time if roughened by asperities with sharp corners (with smooth surfaces, contact is made only after infinite time). Contact is still made in finite time if the roughened object also moves horizontally or rotates as it falls.
A lubrication theory is presented for the effect of fluid compressibility and solid elasticity on the descent of a two-dimensional smooth object falling under gravity towards a plane wall through a viscous fluid. The final approach to contact, which takes infinite time in the absence of both effects, is determined by numerical and asymptotic methods. Compressibility can lead to contact in finite time either during inertially generated oscillations or if the viscosity decreases sufficiently quickly with increasing pressure. The approach to contact is invariably slowed by allowing the solids to deform elastically; specific results are presented for an underlying elastic wall modelled as a foundation, half-space, membrane or beam.