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'Free will skepticism' refers to a family of views that all take seriously the possibility that human beings lack the control in action - i.e. the free will - required for an agent to be truly deserving of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Critics fear that adopting this view would have harmful consequences for our interpersonal relationships, society, morality, meaning, and laws. Optimistic free will skeptics, on the other hand, respond by arguing that life without free will and so-called basic desert moral responsibility would not be harmful in these ways, and might even be beneficial. This collection addresses the practical implications of free will skepticism for law and society. It contains eleven original essays that provide alternatives to retributive punishment, explore what (if any) changes are needed for the criminal justice system, and ask whether we should be optimistic or pessimistic about the real-world implications of free will skepticism.
The control shifting between a human driver and a semi-autonomous vehicle is one of the most critical scenarios in the road-map of autonomous vehicle development. This paper proposes a methodology to study driver's behaviour in semi-autonomous driving with physiological-sensors-integrated driving simulators. A virtual scenario simulating take-over tasks has been implemented. The behavioural profile of the driver has been defined analysing key metrics collected by the simulator namely lateral position, steering wheel angle, throttle time, brake time, speed, and the take-over time. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance changes have been considered as physiological indicators to assess cognitive workload and reactivity. The methodology has been applied in an experimental study which results are crucial for taking insights on users’ behaviour. Results show that individual different driving styles and performance are able to be distinguished by calculating and elaborating the data collected by the system. This research provides potential directions for establishing a method to characterize a driver's behaviour in a semi-autonomous vehicle.
Marinobacter sp. W1-16 from Antarctic surface seawater was analysed for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). Enhancement of the EPS biosynthesis was carried out by evaluating the influences of the carbon source (type and concentration), temperature, pH and salinity. EPS yields varied strongly depending on sugar substrate and temperature, while pH and salinity did not strongly affect levels of EPS production. Marinobacter sp. W1-16 produced the highest quantity of EPSs when growing at 15°C and pH 8, in the presence of 2% glucose and 3% NaCl. The EPS chemical characterization revealed a molecular weight of about 260 kDa. Colorimetric assays determined a higher quantity of carbohydrate than of proteins and uronic acids, as well as the presence of sulphate, in the extracted EPSs. The monosaccharidic composition resulted in Glc:Man:Gal:GalN:GalA:GlcA in relative molar proportions of 1:0.9:0.2:0.1:0.1:0.01. Some biotechnological potentialities (i.e. emulsifying and cryoprotective actions, and heavy metal binding properties) of the EPSs were proved, suggesting possible industrial and bioremediation applications.
The recent discovery of a Roman ceramics manufacturing workshop at Montelabate (Perugia, Italy), in use from the first century BC until the late-fourth to fifth centuries AD, offers a unique opportunity to study the technical processes for producing Roman amphorae. Ancient and modern clays were sampled and analysed; they do not differ significantly, supporting the hypothesis of the exploitation of the rich local clay source that allowed a continuity of production. Characterization of the clays was performed using geotechnical methods (Atterberg limits and size distribution) and by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analyses. The material was suitable for pottery making with the addition of calcite and quartz sand temper. Production waste and discarded materials as well as good-quality products were also analysed with the same methodology. It is therefore possible to reconstruct the ancient technology by defining the recipe for the production of the amphorae and their firing temperature on the basis of the decomposition of clay materials and the presence of newly formed minerals.
Current FDA-approved permanent female sterilization procedures are invasive and/or require the implantation of non-biodegradable materials. These techniques pose risks and complications, such as device migration, fracture, and tubal perforation. We propose a safe, non-invasive biodegradable tissue scaffold to effectively occlude the Fallopian tubes within 30 days of implantation. Specifically, the Fallopian tubes are mechanically de-epithelialized, and a tissue scaffold is placed into each tube. It is anticipated that this procedure can be performed in less than 30 minutes by an experienced obstetrics and gynaecology practitioner. Advantages of this method include the use of a fully bio-resorbable polymer, low costs, lower risks, and the lack of general anaesthesia. The scaffold devices are freeze-cast allowing for the custom-design of structural, mechanical, and chemical cues through material composition, processing parameters, and functionalization. The performance of the biomaterial and de-epithelialization procedure was tested in an in vivo rat uterine horn model. The scaffold response and tissue-biomaterial interactions were characterized microscopically post-implantation. Overall, the study resulted in the successful fabrication of resilient, easy-to-handle devices with an anisotropic scaffold architecture that encouraged rapid bio-integration through notable angiogenesis, cell infiltration, and native collagen deposition. Successful tubal occlusion was demonstrated at 30 days, revealing the great promise of a sterilization biomaterial.
In the second half of the eighteenth century, archaeological activities in Rome intensified considerably under the pontificate of Pius VI (1775–99), and new excavations in the Roman Campagna and the Latium, together with the erection of the Museo Pio Clementino (1776–84), excited considerable interest in Roman learned and literary circles. A young poet who had moved to Rome from Romagna, Vincenzo Monti (1754–1828), obtained his first great success by celebrating the new discoveries in a memorable poem, La prosopopea di Pericle. In it, a newly found herm of Pericles sings of Pius's pontificate as a new golden age for the arts. Monti, who was to become Italy's most authoritative man of letters in the following decades, befriended in those years, and received considerable assistance from, the leading antiquarian of that age, Ennio Quirino Visconti (1751–1818). Their relationship and its legacy provide the subject of this paper, with emphasis on Monti's early poetry, its significance for the literary history of the neoclassical age, and its role in shaping a novel poetic style intended for the praise of ancient art.
Maternal mind–mindedness (MM) reflects a caregiver's tendency to view a child as an individual with an independent mind. Research has linked higher MM with more favorable parenting and child adaptation. The aim of this study was to examine whether MM was associated with toddlers’ behavior problems and competence, and the moderating role of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample (N = 212) of adolescent mothers and their toddlers. MM was coded from maternal utterances during free play; mothers completed the University of California at Los Angeles Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index and reported on children's behavior problems and competence using the Brief Infant–Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment. The majority of mothers (84%) experienced trauma; 45% of these mothers met criteria for partial or full PTSD. Trauma was related to greater behavior problems, and PTSD moderated MM–child functioning relations. When mothers experienced full PTSD, there was no relation between MM and behavior problems. With child competence, when compared to children of mothers with no trauma exposure, children of mothers experiencing partial PTSD symptoms were more likely to have delays in competence when mothers made more MM comments. Results are discussed in light of how MM, in the context of trauma and PTSD, may affect parenting.
The aim of this study was to examine the various modern music genres and their effect on the utilization of medical resources with analysis and adjustment for potential confounders.
A retrospective review of patient logs from an open-air, contemporary amphitheater over a period of 10 years was performed. Variables recorded by the medical personnel for each concert included the attendance, description of the weather, and a patient log in which nature and outcome were recorded. The primary outcomes were associations of genres with the medical usage rate (MUR). Secondary outcomes investigated were the association of confounders and the influences on the level of care provided, the transport rate, and the nature of medical complaint.
A total of 2,399,864 concert attendees, of which 4,546 patients presented to venue Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during 403 concerts with an average of 11.4 patients (annual range 7.1-17.4) each concert. Of potential confounders, only the heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C) and whether the event was a festival were significant (P=.027 and .001, respectively). After adjustment, the genres with significantly increased MUR in decreasing order were: alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music (P<.05). Medical complaints were significantly increased with alternative rock or when the heat index was ≥90°F (32.2°C; P<.001). Traumatic injuries were most significantly increased with alternative rock (P<.001). Alcohol or drug intoxication was significantly more common in hip-hop/rap (P<.001). Transport rates were highest with alcohol/drug intoxicated patients (P<.001), lowest with traumatic injuries (P=.004), and negatively affected by heat index ≥90°F (32.2°C; P=.008), alternative rock (P=.017), and country music (P=.033).
Alternative rock, hip-hop/rap, modern rock, heavy metal/hard rock, and country music concerts had higher levels of medical resource utilization. High heat indices and music festivals also increase the MUR. This information can assist event planners with preparation and resource utilization. Future research should focus on prospective validation of the regression equation.
Westrol MS, KoneruS, McIntyreN, Caruso AT, ArshadFH, MerlinMA. Music Genre as a Predictor of Resource Utilization at Outdoor Music Concerts. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):289–296.
We explore some aspects of the optimization of amorphous semiconductors as well as low- and high-dielectric-constant (low-/high-k) materials viewed purely from the perspective of percolation and topological constraint theories. We specifically illustrate how percolation, constraint theory, and mean network coordination, 〈r〉, play underlying roles in determining the electrical and mechanical properties of amorphous semiconducting and dielectric materials as well as interfaces that are important for modern micro-/nanoelectronic devices.
This essay explores the 1950s as a space of cultural transition through two bodies of iconic images: Tazio Secchiaroli’s 1958 reportage of Aiché Nanà’s striptease and Franco Pinna’s documentation of the rituals of mourning during his work in Salento with anthropologist Ernesto de Martino. Produced on the eve of the miracolo economico, these images are iconic condensations of the contrasting cultural horizons defining the national imaginary of 1950s Italy. Challenging the self-containment of these images, the essay journeys outside the frames into the surrounding historical, cultural and geographical landscapes. To explore how, through photography, Italy visually negotiated the persistence of the past and the advent of modernity, the author traces a genealogy of Italian photography from political action to paparazzismo and examines the significance of the ethnographic journey to the south. Pinna’s photography and de Martino’s ethnography emerge as sites where post-war Italy faces the intractable realities of death and the return of a ‘bad’ past. The essay investigates how ritual mourning engages the photographic image to reveal an amnesiac culture of the spectacle exposing Italy’s relation to history as a modern repressed.
This article explores Gabriele Basilico’s photographs of the contemporary Italian environment and argues for their status as both iconic – that is to say, distinctive, highly visible, and memorable – and anti-iconic symbols or images. The discussion first explores the anti-iconic impulse in Basilico’s work. It marks out his standing as one of the most prominent proponents of the trend in contemporary Italian photography which sought to counter the mythic view of the country’s landscape and highlights his involvement in the trend’s seminal exhibition, Viaggio in Italia (1984). The article then makes a case for the simultaneous iconic nature of Basilico’s photographs by looking at the 2007/08 exhibition Milano si mostra. 1 Km con Gabriele Basilico, examining the ways in which Basilico’s images were made into icons of Milan’s urban identity.
The body partially disrobed as a visual strategy for self-branding is the theme of this article. During Fascism, photography, in synergy with the communications industry ante-literam, was an essential part of the construction of the cult of the leader that transformed the figure of Mussolini into an icon. Mussolini’s partial nudity is considered here as a powerful political tool. The Duce, in anticipation of our celebrities today, did not hesitate to undress and display his torso in what Valerie Sperling calls ‘iconic public-relations stunts’ that were both exhibitionistic and voyeuristic (Sperling 2014, 21). Deconstructing the visual language of Fascist propaganda that made the man into a myth, this article illustrates the most iconic aspects of Mussolini’s visual strategy, demonstrating his innovative capacity to take advantage of a modern attitude towards self-representation, similar to that adopted by today’s heads of state.
Italian visual propaganda often makes use of well-established imagery, to exploit its proven impact. Renaissance masterpieces with religious subject matter were recurrently reproduced on political posters in the early post-war years and during the referenda campaigns of 1974 and 1981, mostly to characterise the parties as Christian. In Italy and elsewhere these images now tend to be employed in a secular way, for instance to denounce injustices and atrocities, and invite compassion and solidarity for the victims. Symbolic motifs traditionally associated with specific ideological traditions also used to feature strongly in Italian visual propaganda; they virtually disappeared in the early 1990s with the collapse of the Christian-Democrat and Socialist parties in the wake of the Mani pulite investigations, and the Communist Party’s transformation into a social-democratic party. They have been replaced by new icons. Iconographic motifs dear to fascism and Nazism, however, continue to be used, by stealth or unabashedly, by Italian far-right organisations.
This article charts the rise to fame of Gabriele D’Annunzio by focusing on a number of key moments in his life and the strategies he employed to shape his public image. The Roman years and the 1890s saw the writer’s first iconic transformation into Italy’s aesthete par excellence, a myth and related iconography that still shapes our view of the poet. The years in Florence, spent at the Villa Capponcina, coincided with the time in which d’Annunzio re-fashioned himself into a self-appointed national poet. The war years were central to the creation of an entirely new figure, the poeta soldato, whose military heroics and charismatic leadership provided novel and dubious models of engagement with contemporary politics and culture. Finally the years of the self-imposed exile at Gardone focus on the late, and as yet undocumented, use of photographs employed by d’Annunzio to keep the myth of the national poet-soldier alive under Fascism. These subsequent transformations resulted in a highly successful and thoroughly modern staging of his personality which turned him into a national icon.
Tony Gentile’s photograph of Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino is one of the most reprinted Italian photographs of the twentieth century. Deriving a special status from its connection to the lost dead bodies of the judges, Gentile’s photograph is a cultural icon, which makes demands on viewers in the present like an uncanny revenant from 1992. This paper considers examples of ways the photograph has been visually, symbolically and materially manipulated by social agents in the years since the judges’ assassinations, to reflect on the polysemous power of the photograph. Considering visual adaptations of the photograph from anti-mafia demonstrations to monuments, and commemorative stamps; from football stadiums to political cartoons, this paper will show how Gentile’s photograph has become the quintessential visual symbol representing the struggles over the memory and meaning of the war against the mafia in contemporary Italy.