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To explore relationships among post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depressive spectrum symptoms, and intrusiveness in subjects who survived the crash of a train derailed carrying liquefied petroleum gas and exploded causing a fire.
A sample of 111 subjects was enrolled in Viareggio, Italy. AMOS version 21 (IBM Corp, 2012) was utilized for a structural equation model-path analysis to model the direct and indirect links between the exposure to the traumatic event, the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and intrusiveness. Subjects were administered with the SCID-IV (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV), the Questionnaire for Mood Spectrum (MOODS-SR)-Last Month version, the Trauma and Loss Spectrum Questionnaire (TALS-SR), and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R).
Sixty-six (66/111; 59.4%) subjects met SCID-IV criteria for PTSD. Indices of goodness of fit were as followed: χ2/df = 0.2 P = .6; comparative fit index = 1 and root mean square error of approximation = 0.0001. A significant path coefficient for direct effect of potential traumatic events on depressive symptoms (β = 0.25; P < .04) and from depressive symptoms to intrusiveness (β = 0.34; P < .003) was found. An indirect effect was also observed: standardized value of potential traumatic events on intrusiveness was 0.86. The mediating factor of this indirect effect path was represented by depressive symptoms. Potential traumatic events explained 6.2% of the variance of depressive symptoms; 11.8% of the variance of intrusiveness was accounted for traumatic event and depressive symptoms.
Path analysis led us to speculate that depression symptoms might have mediated the relationship between the exposure to potential traumatic events and intrusiveness for the onset of PTSD.
Hereditary Angioedema (HAE) is considered an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by a quantitativeand/or qualitative deficit of C1 esterase inhibitor.
The aim of the study is to establish the relationshipbetween HAE, clinical events, and neurobiological and psychopathologicalparameters, which could influence the phenotype of the disease and thereforeits manifestation in terms of quality, severity and duration of symptoms.
Materialsand Methods: observational study, cross-sectional, non-interventional, cohortof 46 patients with diagnosis of hereditary angioedema. ExclusionCriteria: current pharmacological treatment with ACE-inhibitors,glucocorticoids, psychotropic drugs, immunomodulators, anesthetics. A blood sampling was performed to measure cortisol,IL-6, TNF-α and catecholamines, medical examination, psychiatric examination toinvestigate the clinical characteristics of HAE and presence of life events, psychometric evaluation. Any correlation was assessed by Spearman Rho.
the sample consists of 46 patients, including 22 women (47,8%) e 24 men (52,2%). Averageage of onset of symptoms is equal to 14,61 ± 12,46. High values ??of IL-6 (1,83 ± 3,9) and TNF-α (10,2 ± 27,5) were relatedwith severity of pathology .
levels of IL-6and TNF-α are in agreement with the increase in the number of attacks of HAE.
There is a relationshipbetween increased levels of IL-6 and high scores on Hamilton Depression RatingScale and on Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and a higher subjective perceptionof disease severity. The higher was the perceived stress, the greater will bethe subjective perception of disease severity and the presence of pathologicalattachment styles.
The screen for cognitive impairment in psychiatry (SCIP) is a brief, accessible scale designed for detecting cognitive deficits in psychiatric disorders.
The objective of this study is to test the SCIP's validity as a cognitive test by comparison with standard neuropsychological scale using the Pearson's correlation.
Aims Test the convergent and discriminant validity of the SCIP within the Italian SCIP validation project.
Patients between 18 and 65 years who are in a stable phase of the disease, diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or bipolar I disorder were enrolled in this study, from the community mental health department of Ferrara.
The tests were administered to 110 patients (mean age: 45 ± 11,4) and to 86 controls (mean age: 35 ± 12,6) of both sex. SCIP presents high correlation with the R-BANS total score (P < 0.01) and the subscales (verbal learning test-immediate, working memory, verbal fluency test, verbal learning test-delayed, processing speed test, P < 0.01). There are significant differences (P < 0.01) in all SCIP dimensions between patient and control group (Table 1).
Our analysis confirm the results of the English, French and Spanish version of the SCIP regarding convergent and discriminant validity. The SCIP represents a valid, simple and brief screening tool for the cognitive evaluation of patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Increasingly, basic, translational, and clinical research has become more collaborative, resulting in multi-institutional studies that involve common approaches to a central question. For multi-institutional projects that involve recombinant or synthetic nucleic acids, Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) review is generally required at each separate site. Duplicative review may result in both administrative costs and delays, without evidence of increased safety or protections, and investigator frustration. To address these inefficiencies, IBC leaders drafted a collaborative IBC Reliance Authorization Agreement. The Agreement allows one or more institutions to cede IBC review to a reviewing IBC that accepts the responsibility. The ability to cede IBC review, and the ability to rely on one decision on behalf of all collaborating institutions for a given protocol, removes delays in approval of multi-center protocols, and collaborating principal investigators are able to focus on research rather than administrative tasks. In the process, we found promotion of this collaborative model led to stronger connections among institutions and among IBC members. The requirement for IBC member representation from the local community, however, limits its broader dissemination; we make several recommendations to mitigate this challenge.
Throughout its range in Latin America, the jaguar Panthera onca is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation, and by conflict as a result of coexistence with people. This Near Threatened species is a top predator, and is often illegally hunted. Understanding people's attitudes and perceptions and the factors that could influence them is crucial for the conservation of this species. In this study we assess how knowledge, attitudes and perceptions among people in northern Argentina regarding jaguars vary depending on their level of education, age and occupation. We interviewed 810 people living in and around 10 protected areas in northern Argentina. Positive perceptions and attitudes towards the jaguar were associated with economic benefits that people may receive from the species’ presence, such as income from tourism. Unexpectedly, higher levels of formal education were not associated with more positive attitudes and perceptions. Negative attitudes and perceptions towards the species were determined by fear; people see jaguars as a threat to their lives. This study shows that the socio-economic factors that affect the level of tolerance towards jaguars are not related only to economic losses. Our findings provide information for the design, implementation and evaluation of jaguar conservation projects in Argentina.
The dominant conceptions of emotional intelligence can be categorized into “ability” models and “mixed” models. Ability models view emotional intelligence as a construct related to other intelligences and consisting of a set of mental abilities whereas mixed models view emotional intelligence as a blend of standard personality traits and various abilities. In this chapter, we review these models of emotional intelligence, including the measures associated with each, and provide a brief summary of the debate between ability models and mixed models. Narrowing in on the ability conception of emotional intelligence, we then discuss its behavioral and neural correlates, development, and malleability, as well as a school-based intervention designed to promote these skills. We conclude with an exploration of possibilities for the emotional intelligence research landscape in the next thirty years.
With cancer incidence increasing over time worldwide, attention to the burden of psychiatric and psychosocial consequences of the disease is now mandatory for both cancer and mental health care professionals. Psychiatric disorders have been shown to affect at least 30–35% of cancer patients during all phases of the disease trajectory, and differ in nature according to stage and type of cancer. Other clinically relevant distressing psychosocial and existential conditions (e.g. demoralisation, health anxiety, loss of meaning and existential distress) not included as ‘disorders’ in the usual diagnostic and nosological systems (i.e. meta-diagnostic conditions) have also been shown to be present in another 15–20% of cancer patients. In this editorial, we will present a summary of the extensive literature regarding the epidemiology of the several psychosocial disorders affecting cancer patients as a cause of distress and burden to be taken into consideration and addressed in cancer care through evidence-based intervention.
This chapter considers the practical implications of free will skepticism and discusses recent empirical work that has just begun to investigate the matter. It argues that there are good philosophical and empirical reasons for thinking that belief in free will, rather than providing the pragmatic benefits many claim, actually has a dark side; i.e., it is too often used to justify punitive excess in criminal justice, to encourage treating people in severe and demeaning ways, and to excuse and perpetuate social and economic inequalities. After addressing recent empirical findings in social psychology that purport to show that diminishing one’s belief in free will increases antisocial behavior – findings that are overblown and questionable – the chapter discusses contrary findings in moral and political psychology that reveal interesting and troubling correlations between people’s free will beliefs and their other moral, religious, and political beliefs. It concludes that we would be better off without the notions of free will and just deserts.
“Free will skepticism” refers to a family of views that all take seriously the possibility that human beings lack the control in action – i.e. the free will – required for an agent to be truly deserving of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Critics fear that adopting this view would have harmful consequences for our interpersonal relationships, society, morality, meaning, and laws. Optimistic free will skeptics, on the other hand, respond by arguing that life without free will and so-called basic desert moral responsibility would not be harmful in these ways, and might even be beneficial. In this chapter, we attempt to provide a brief sketch of the traditional free will debate, define the various positions, and frame the debate over the practical implications of free will skepticism. We focus especially on the implications of free will skepticism for the criminal law and the retributive justification of punishment.
The two instruments the state uses to maintain order are the corrective and the preventive. Those who reject the notion of moral responsibility either prefer to abandon punishment in favor of preventive techniques or seek to justify (nonretributive) punishment. Although I think punishment is essentially retributive and cannot be justified, I also think we must, if possible, avoid yielding to the preventive worldview. We must distinguish the lengths to which we are willing to go with incompetent or irrational individuals who are dangerous from the lengths to which we are willing to go with rational and competent offenders. My view is that borrowing from punishment its harsh methods we maintain the dignity of competent offenders when we subject them to these methods with the aim of leading them to abandon the defective motivational traits that resulted in the crime. I call this approach correction rather than punishment, because it lacks the retributive element that makes punishment punishment. Here I suggest how this view might be defended if we start, as Fichte does, from the assumption that those who violate any law deserve to be made outlaws; in current terminology, to be subjected to preventive detention and preventive techniques generally.
Recent free will denialism (FWD) tends to be optimistic, claiming that not only will the rejection of the belief in free will and moral responsibility not make matters dreadful but that we are indeed better off without them. I address the denialist claim that FWD has the philosophical resources to effectively safeguard human rights and respect for persons in the context of punishment, even without belief in free will, moral responsibility, and desert. I raise seven reasons for doubt concerning the ability of FWD to maintain deontological constraints. Together they present a strong case for doubting the optimism of FWD.
The free will skeptic aims to articulate a theory for treatment of criminals that rejects retributivism, since this justification for punishment is inconsistent with the skeptic’s outlook, but nevertheless actually works in the real world. In past versions of such an account I’ve emphasized the quarantine analogy for incapacitation together with the value of rehabilitation and reintegration (Pereboom 2001, 2014), and I’ve endorsed Gregg Caruso’s embedding of the view within a public health model (Caruso 2016, 2017; Pereboom and Caruso 2018). Recently I’ve paid special attention to the permissibility and the limits of special and general deterrence (Pereboom 2017b, 2019). Here I set out this view and develop it in certain key respects in response to the latest objections raised against it.
'Free will skepticism' refers to a family of views that all take seriously the possibility that human beings lack the control in action - i.e. the free will - required for an agent to be truly deserving of blame and praise, punishment and reward. Critics fear that adopting this view would have harmful consequences for our interpersonal relationships, society, morality, meaning, and laws. Optimistic free will skeptics, on the other hand, respond by arguing that life without free will and so-called basic desert moral responsibility would not be harmful in these ways, and might even be beneficial. This collection addresses the practical implications of free will skepticism for law and society. It contains eleven original essays that provide alternatives to retributive punishment, explore what (if any) changes are needed for the criminal justice system, and ask whether we should be optimistic or pessimistic about the real-world implications of free will skepticism.
The control shifting between a human driver and a semi-autonomous vehicle is one of the most critical scenarios in the road-map of autonomous vehicle development. This paper proposes a methodology to study driver's behaviour in semi-autonomous driving with physiological-sensors-integrated driving simulators. A virtual scenario simulating take-over tasks has been implemented. The behavioural profile of the driver has been defined analysing key metrics collected by the simulator namely lateral position, steering wheel angle, throttle time, brake time, speed, and the take-over time. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance changes have been considered as physiological indicators to assess cognitive workload and reactivity. The methodology has been applied in an experimental study which results are crucial for taking insights on users’ behaviour. Results show that individual different driving styles and performance are able to be distinguished by calculating and elaborating the data collected by the system. This research provides potential directions for establishing a method to characterize a driver's behaviour in a semi-autonomous vehicle.
Marinobacter sp. W1-16 from Antarctic surface seawater was analysed for the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). Enhancement of the EPS biosynthesis was carried out by evaluating the influences of the carbon source (type and concentration), temperature, pH and salinity. EPS yields varied strongly depending on sugar substrate and temperature, while pH and salinity did not strongly affect levels of EPS production. Marinobacter sp. W1-16 produced the highest quantity of EPSs when growing at 15°C and pH 8, in the presence of 2% glucose and 3% NaCl. The EPS chemical characterization revealed a molecular weight of about 260 kDa. Colorimetric assays determined a higher quantity of carbohydrate than of proteins and uronic acids, as well as the presence of sulphate, in the extracted EPSs. The monosaccharidic composition resulted in Glc:Man:Gal:GalN:GalA:GlcA in relative molar proportions of 1:0.9:0.2:0.1:0.1:0.01. Some biotechnological potentialities (i.e. emulsifying and cryoprotective actions, and heavy metal binding properties) of the EPSs were proved, suggesting possible industrial and bioremediation applications.