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As government welfare programming contracts and NGOs increasingly assume core aid functions, they must address a long-standing challenge—that people in need often belong to stigmatized groups. To study other-regarding behavior, we fielded an experiment through a text-to-give campaign in Greece. Donations did not increase with an appeal to the in-group (Greek child) relative to a control (child), but they were halved with reference to a stigmatized out-group (Roma child). An appeal to fundamental rights, a common advocacy strategy, did not reduce the generosity gap. Donations to all groups were lower near Roma communities and declined disproportionately for the Roma appeal. Qualitative research in 12 communities complements our experiment. We conclude that NGO fundraising strategies that narrowly emphasize either in-groups or out-groups, or fundamental rights language, may not be as effective as broader appeals, and we discuss implications for public goods provision in an era of growing nationalism.
Since first contact with Europeans, Native American nations have strived to maintain and strengthen their sovereignty. Yet, non-Native individuals and groups, as well as federal, state, and local governments, continue to challenge this sovereignty. Despite the critical importance of sovereignty, the only academic study focused on U.S. public attitudes toward Native nation sovereignty predated the rise of Native nation gaming and relied on samples from three universities. In our study, we surveyed over 2000 White Americans from across the United States to examine attitudes toward Native nation sovereignty. Of the many factors that may influence these attitudes, we focused on three: belief in “the casino Indian” stereotype, the perception that Native American interests conflict with the interests of Whites, and the presence of Native nation gaming in participants’ states.
We find two significant models predicting attitudes towards Native nation sovereignty. First, greater endorsement of the casino Indian stereotype is associated with more negative attitudes toward Native nation sovereignty. This relationship is explained, at least in part, by the perception that Native American interests conflict with the interests of Whites. That is, the more White participants endorsed the casino Indian sterereotype, the more apt they were to believe that their interests conflict with Native Americans, which in turn is related to more negative attitudes towards Native nation sovereignty. The second model revealed that the presence of Native nation gaming in the participant’s state has important indirect implications for attitudes towards Native nation sovereignty. Specifically, White participants living in states with Native nation gaming are more likely to endorse the casino Indian stereotype, which is related to greater perceived conflict of interest with Native Americans, and, ultimately perceived conflict of interest is associated with more negative attitudes toward Native nation sovereignty. We situate our findings relative to group position theory and discuss practical implications for Native nation sovereignty.
Maternal obesity is an established risk factor for poor infant neurodevelopmental outcomes; however, the link between maternal weight and fetal development in utero is unknown. We investigated whether maternal obesity negatively influences fetal autonomic nervous system (ANS) development. Fetal heart rate variability (HRV) is an index of the ANS that is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in the infant. Maternal–fetal magnetocardiograms were recorded using a fetal biomagnetometer at 36 weeks (n = 46). Fetal HRV was represented by the standard deviation of sinus beat-to-beat intervals (SDNN). Maternal weight was measured at enrollment (12–20 weeks) and 36 weeks. The relationships between fetal HRV and maternal weight at both time points were modeled using adjusted ordinary least squares regression models. Higher maternal weight at enrollment and 36 weeks were associated with lower fetal HRV, an indicator of poorer ANS development. Further study is needed to better understand how maternal obesity influences fetal autonomic development and long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes.
If a droplet smaller than the capillary length is placed on a substrate with a conical shape, it spreads by itself in the direction of growing fibre radius. We describe this capillary spreading dynamics by developing a lubrication flow approximation on a cone and by using the perturbation method of matched asymptotic expansions. Our results show that the droplet appears to adopt a quasi-static shape and the predictions of the droplet shape and the spreading velocity from the two mathematical models are in excellent agreement. At the contact line regions, a large pressure gradient is generated by the mismatch between the equilibrium contact angle and the apparent contact angle that maintains the viscous flow. It is the conical shape of the substrate that breaks the front/rear droplet symmetry in terms of the apparent contact angle, which is larger at the thicker part of the cone than at its thinner part. Consequently, the droplet is predicted to move from the cone tip to its base, consistent with experimental observations.
Listeners can adapt to errors in foreign-accented speech, but not all errors are alike. We investigated whether exposure to unsystematic tone errors in second language Mandarin impacts responses to accurately produced words. Native Mandarin speakers completed a cross-modal priming task with words produced by foreign-accented talkers who either produced consistently correct tones, or frequent tone errors. Facilitation from primes bearing correct tones was unaffected by the presence of tone errors elsewhere in the talker's speech. However, primes bearing tone errors inhibited recognition of real words and elicited stronger accentedness ratings. We consider theoretical implications for tone in foreign-accent adaptation.
Prolactin (PRL) data from adolescents treated with olanzapine are presented.
Data from 454 adolescents (13-18, mean=15.9 yrs) with schizophrenia or bipolar mania were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5-20.0mg/day) studies (4-32 weeks; 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies [combined for acute phase endpoint PRL levels] with open-label extensions; 2 open-label studies). Age- and sex-specific Covance reference ranges defined normal PRL; categorical increases were based on multiples of the upper limit of normal (ULN). Baseline-to-endpoint PRL changes in adolescents were compared with data pooled from 84 olanzapine clinical trials in adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had mean PRL increases at both the acute (11.4μg/L) and open-label endpoints (4.7μg/L). Of those patients with normal PRL levels at baseline (N=311), high PRL occurred in 54.7% at anytime; 32.2% at endpoint. The percentage of patients in which PRL levels shifted from normal-to-abnormal was smaller at endpoint than at anytime during treatment; 26.7% shifted to a higher category. Among patients with normal baseline PRL, 32.7% remained <=1X ULN; 32.3% increased to 1¬<=2X; 6.0%, >2-<=3X; and 1.2%, >3X at anytime; 4.6% had at >=1 potentially PRL-related adverse event. Adolescents had significantly higher mean changes at endpoint (p=.004), and a greater incidence of high PRL levels at anytime during olanzapine treatment (p<.001) versus adults.
Incidence of high PRL was significantly higher, and mean increases in PRL were significantly greater in adolescents versus adults. Mean increases and high PRL incidence were lower at the open-label compared with the acute phase endpoint.
The aim of this systematic review was to locate and analyze United States state crisis standards of care (CSC) documents to determine their prevalence and quality. Following PRISMA guidelines, Google search for “allocation of scarce resources” and “crisis standards of care (CSC)” for each state. We analyzed the plans based on the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, which provided guidance for establishing CSC for use in disaster situations, as well as the 2014 CHEST consensus statement’s 11 core topic areas. The search yielded 42 state documents, and we excluded 11 that were not CSC plans. Of the 31 included plans, 13 plans were written for an “all hazards” approach, while 18 were pandemic influenza specific. Eighteen had strong ethical grounding. Twenty-one plans had integrated and ongoing community and provider engagement, education, and communication. Twenty-two had assurances regarding legal authority and environment. Sixteen plans had clear indicators, triggers, and lines of responsibility. Finally, 28 had evidence-based clinical processes and operations. Five plans contained all 5 IOM elements: Arizona, Colorado, Minnesota, Nevada, and Vermont. Colorado and Minnesota have all hazards documents and processes for both adult and pediatric populations and could be considered exemplars for other states.
The changes in metabolic parameters in olanzapine-treated adolescents were examined.
Data from 454 adolescents (13–18, mean=15.9 years) with schizophrenia or bipolar I disorder were pooled from 4 olanzapine (2.5–20.0mg/day) studies (4–32 weeks). Changes in metabolic parameters in adolescents were compared with those of olanzapine-treated adults (pooled from 84 clinical trials); changes in weight and BMI were compared with US age- and sex-adjusted standardized growth curves.
Olanzapine-treated adolescents had significant increases from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (p=.021); total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p<.001); and significant decreases in HDL (p<.001). Significantly more adolescents gained >=7% of their baseline weight versus adults (65.1% vs. 35.6%, p<.001); mean change from baseline-to-endpoint in weight was significantly greater in adolescents (7.0 vs. 3.3kg, p<.001). Adolescents had significantly lower mean changes from baseline-to-endpoint in fasting glucose (0.3 vs. 0.1mmol/L, p=.002) and triglycerides (0.3 vs. 0.2mmol/L, p=.007) versus adults. Significantly more adults experienced treatment-emergent normal-to-high changes at anytime in fasting glucose (4.8% vs. 1.2%, p=.033), total cholesterol (6.9% vs. 1.1%, p=.001), LDL (5.8% vs. 1.5%, p=.014), and triglycerides (25.7% vs. 17.4%, p=.030). Compared with standardized growth curves, olanzapine-treated adolescents had greater increases from baseline-to-endpoint in weight (1.0 vs. 7.1kg, p<.001), height (0.5 vs. 0.7cm, p<.001), and BMI (0.2 vs. 2.2kg/m2, p<.001).
Olanzapine-treated adolescents may gain significantly more weight compared with adults, but may have smaller changes in other metabolic parameters. Clinicians may want to consider both efficacy and changes in metabolic parameters when selecting treatment options for individual adolescent patients.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) mental and substance use disorders will surpass all physical diseases as the major cause of disability by the year 2020. The abuse of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths annually, including 320,000 young people between the age of 15 and 29, and at least 15.3 million people have drug use disorders (WHO, 2013). The Indiana University Center for Health Policy studied the economic impact of substance abuse in Indiana and found that substance abuse and addiction have a powerful impact on all sectors of our society including education, criminal justice, health, workforce and public safety. Total cost for the state in 2008 was $7.3 billion and the professional capacity for nurturing the health of our citizens is woefully inadequate. With funding from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, faculty at Indiana University's Schools of Nursing, Social Work, and Medicine integrated Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) into our health care education systems in order to improve the health of the large number of adolescents and adults at risk for one or more substance use disorders. SBIRT training was incorporated in select courses in each of the three schools using tailored webbased educational modules and face-to-face motivational interview (MI) training to prepare participants' for clinical practica. Innovative curricular materials will be presented as well as preliminary data on participants' knowledge, skills and attitudes related to training.
Alcohol and other substance use contribute to a major, preventable, international healthcare burden. The evidentiary bases for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol are well-established, while research on SBIRT for other substance use is ongoing. In the United States, funding for SBIRT education among medical professionals recently has expanded beyond physicians to include other healthcare providers such as nurses and social workers.
This brief study measured characteristics of nurses, social workers, and physicians at the beginning of the first year of graduate education (nurses, social workers) or post-graduate year 1 (physician residents) to assess potential baseline differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors related to SBIRT.
The aim of this study was to inform targeted modification of SBIRT education programs based on baseline differences between professions.
Participants (n = 81 [16 physicians, 27 nurses, 38 social workers]) completed a 36-item assessment of baseline behaviors (modified from Hettema et al., 2012) and knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes predictive of SBIRT performance (Gassman et al., 2003). Differences between groups were assessed using ANOVA and the Tukey or Games-Howell post-hoc test (contingent on homogeneity of variance).
The study identified differences among professionals for 13 of 36 measured variables across several domains: SBIRT behaviors, beliefs about time utilization, satisfaction working with at-risk clients, self-efficacy, and perceived organizational resources.
Preliminary data suggest that SBIRT training for medical professionals might be improved by attending to specific differences among nurses, physicians, and social workers in several key areas.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alternative protocols to improve oocyte selection, embryo activation and genomic reprogramming on in vitro development of porcine embryos cloned by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In Experiment 1, in vitro-matured oocytes were selected by exposure to a hyperosmotic sucrose solution prior to micromanipulation. In Experiment 2, an alternative chemical activation protocol using a zinc chelator as an adjuvant (ionomycin + N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) + N-6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP)) was compared with a standard protocol (ionomycin + 6-DMAP) for the activation of porcine oocytes or SCNT embryos. In Experiment 3, presumptive cloned zygotes were incubated after chemical activation in a histone deacetylase inhibitor (Scriptaid) for 15 h, with the evaluation of embryo yield and total cell number in day 7 blastocysts. In Experiment 1, cleavage rates tended to be higher in sucrose-treated oocytes than controls (123/199, 61.8% vs. 119/222, 53.6%, respectively); however, blastocyst rates were similar between groups. In Experiment 2, cleavage rates were higher in zygotes treated with TPEN than controls but no difference in blastocyst rates between groups occurred. For Experiment 3, the exposure to Scriptaid did not improve embryo development after cloning. Nevertheless, the total number of cells was higher in cloned zygotes treated with Scriptaid than SCNT controls. In conclusion, oocyte selection by sucrose as well as treatments with zinc chelator and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases did not significantly improve blastocyst yield in cloned and parthenotes. However, the histone deacetylases inhibitor produced a significant improvement in the blastocyst quality.
The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of studies employing psychophysiological methods to explain variation in political attitudes and behavior. However, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of physiological data present novel challenges for political scientists unfamiliar with the underlying biological concepts and technical skills necessary for utilizing this approach. Our objective in this article is to maximize the effectiveness of future work utilizing psychophysiological measurement by providing guidance on how the techniques can be employed most fruitfully as a complement to, not a replacement for, existing methods. We develop clear, step-by-step instructions for how physiological research should be conducted and provide a discussion of the issues commonly faced by scholars working with these measures. Our hope is that this article will be a useful resource for both neophytes and experienced scholars in lowering the start-up costs to doing this work and assessing it as part of the peer review process. More broadly, in the spirit of the open science framework, we aim to foster increased communication, collaboration, and replication of findings across political science labs utilizing psychophysiological methods.
Psychological interventions for psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) show promising results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate and synthesize the available evidence from the previous 20 years regarding the utility of psychological interventions in the management of PNES.
Studies were retrieved from MEDLINE via OvidSP and PsychINFO. Selection criteria included controlled and before-after non-controlled studies including case series, using seizure frequency as an outcome measurement. Studies were required to assess one or more types of psychological intervention for the treatment of PNES in adults. Data from 13 eligible studies was pooled to examine the effectiveness of psychological interventions in treating PNES on two primary outcomes: seizure reduction of ≥ 50% and seizure freedom. A meta-analysis was conducted with data extracted from 228 participants with PNES.
Interventions reviewed in the analysis included CBT, psychodynamic therapy, paradoxical intention therapy, mindfulness, psychoeducation and eclectic interventions. Meta-analysis synthesized data from 13 studies with a total of 228 participants with PNES, of varied gender and age. Results showed 82% of people with PNES who complete psychotherapy experience a reduction in seizures of ≥50%. Additional meta-analysis synthesized data from 10 studies with a total of 137 participants with PNES. This analysis found 47% of people with PNES are seizure free upon completion of a psychological intervention.
The studies identified were diverse in nature and quality. Findings highlight the potential for psychological interventions as a favorable alternative to the current lack of treatment options offered to people with PNES.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his/her declaration of competing interest.
The long-term effects of pediatric concussion on white matter microstructure are poorly understood. This study investigated long-term changes in white matter diffusion properties of the corpus callosum in youth several years after concussion.
Participants were 8–19 years old with a history of concussion (n = 36) or orthopedic injury (OI) (n = 21). Mean time since injury for the sample was 2.6 years (SD = 1.6). Participants underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging, completed cognitive testing, and rated their post-concussion symptoms. Measures of diffusivity (fractional anisotropy, mean, axial, and radial diffusivity) were extracted from white matter tracts in the genu, body, and splenium regions of the corpus callosum. The genu and splenium tracts were further subdivided into 21 equally spaced regions along the tract and diffusion values were extracted from each of these smaller regions.
White matter tracts in the genu, body, and splenium did not differ in diffusivity properties between youth with a history of concussion and those with a history of OI. No significant group differences were found in subdivisions of the genu and splenium after correcting for multiple comparisons. Diffusion metrics did not significantly correlate with symptom reports or cognitive performance.
These findings suggest that at approximately 2.5 years post-injury, youth with prior concussion do not have differences in their corpus callosum microstructure compared to youth with OI. Although these results are promising from the perspective of long-term recovery, further research utilizing longitudinal study designs is needed to confirm the long-term effects of pediatric concussion on white matter microstructure.
Stressful experiences affect biological stress systems, such as the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Life stress can potentially alter regulation of the HPA axis and has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. Little, however, is known about the relative influence of stressors that are encountered at different developmental periods on acute stress reactions in adulthood. In this study, we explored three models of the influence of stress exposure on cortisol reactivity to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) by leveraging 37 years of longitudinal data in a high-risk birth cohort (N = 112). The cumulative stress model suggests that accumulated stress across the lifespan leads to dysregulated reactivity, whereas the biological embedding model implicates early childhood as a critical period. The sensitization model assumes that dysregulation should only occur when stress is high in both early childhood and concurrently. All of the models predicted altered reactivity, but do not anticipate its exact form. We found support for both cumulative and biological embedding effects. However, when pitted against each other, early life stress predicted more blunted cortisol responses at age 37 over and above cumulative life stress. Additional analyses revealed that stress exposure in middle childhood also predicted more blunted cortisol reactivity.
Affirming the presence of mind in so-called affairs of the heart is a signal Wollstonecraft achievement. The conviction emerges out of her intense experiences of the shaping realities of family life. The range of familial settings in which Mary Wollstonecraft lived play a defining role in her reflections on what it means to be born into a particular family and how this beginning affects what follows. The topic informs her life, writing career, reputation, and legacy for a number of interconnected reasons. Wollstonecraft comes of age in an era when familial roles and their connection to civic duties and the rights of men and women are being hotly contested. The contestation is sharpened by debates about the revolution occurring in France, but is not synonymous with it. Wollstonecraft enters an unusually wide range of familial arrangements that heighten her perspectives on the desirability of social and domestic reform. They include the households she resides in as a child with her biological parents and siblings, aristocratic households where she works as a lady’s companion and governess, residences in Europe as a single woman and then single mother, and households she occupies as the lover and then wife of William Godwin along with daughter Fanny Imlay and, for a few days, baby Mary Godwin. In addition, Wollstonecraft is a sex radical in her practice and occasionally in her writings. Her legacy is governed by changing estimations of feminism, egalitarian family roles, sexual liberation, and intersectional identity politics. It is also animated by glaring inconsistencies in what she says, writes, and does as a family member and how these divergences continue even today to shape the contours of family life.