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We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
The effects of growing pinto peanut mixed with elephant grass-based pastures are still little known. The aim of the current research was to evaluate the performance of herbage yield, nutritive value of forage and animal responses to levels of pinto peanut forage mass mixed with elephant grass in low-input systems. Three grazing systems were evaluated: (i) elephant grass-based (control); (ii) pinto peanut, low-density forage yield (63 g/kg of dry matter – DM) + elephant grass; and (iii) pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield (206 g/kg DM) + elephant grass. The experimental design was completely randomized with the three treatments (grazing systems) and three replicates (paddocks) in split-plot grazing cycles. Forage samples were collected to evaluate the pasture and animal responses. Leaf blades of elephant grass and the other companion grasses of pinto peanut were collected to analyse the crude protein, in vitro digestible organic matter and total digestible nutrients. The pinto peanut, high-density dry matter forage yield + elephant grass treatment was found to give the best results in terms of herbage yield, forage intake and stocking rate, as well as having higher crude protein contents for both elephant grass and the other grasses, followed by pinto peanut with low-density forage yield + elephant grass and finally elephant grass alone. Better results were found with the grass–legume system for pasture and animal responses.
Waterhemp [Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) J. D. Sauer] is a troublesome weed occurring in cropping systems throughout the U.S. Midwest with an ability to rapidly evolve herbicide resistance that could be associated with competitive disadvantages. Little research has investigated the competitiveness of different A. tuberculatus populations under similar environmental conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate: (1) the interspecific competitiveness of three herbicide-resistant A. tuberculatus populations (2,4-D and atrazine resistant [2A-R], glyphosate and protoporphyrinogen oxidase [PPO]-inhibitor resistant [GP-R], and 2,4-D, atrazine, glyphosate, and PPO-inhibitor susceptible [2AGP-S]) with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]; and (2) the density-dependent response of each A. tuberculatus population within a constant soybean population in a greenhouse environment. Amaranthus tuberculatus competitiveness with soybean was evaluated across five target weed densities of 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 plants pot−1 (equivalent to 0, 20, 40, 80, and 160 plants m−2) with 3 soybean plants pot−1 (equivalent to 300,000 plants ha−1). At the R1 soybean harvest time, no difference in soybean biomass was observed across A. tuberculatus populations. At A. tuberculatus densities <8 plants pot−1, the 2AGP-S population had the greatest biomass and stem diameter per plant. At the R7 harvest time, the 2AGP-S population caused the greatest loss in soybean biomass and number of pods compared with the other populations at densities of <16 plants pot−1. The 2AGP-S population had greater early-season biomass accumulation and stem diameter compared with the other A. tuberculatus populations, which resulted in greater late-season reduction in soybean biomass and number of pods. This research indicates there may be evidence of interspecific competitive fitness cost associated with the evolution of 2,4-D, atrazine, glyphosate, and PPO-inhibitor resistance in A. tuberculatus. Focus should be placed on effectively using cultural weed management practices to enhance crop competitiveness, especially early in the season, to increase suppression of herbicide-resistant A. tuberculatus.
The aim of this study was to re-examine the chronic effect (>7 d) of fructose consumption on postprandial TAG, in adolescents and adults. The research was carried out in March 2017 and used different electronic databases, such as Medline® (Pubmed®), Embase® and Cochrane. The review considered clinical trials (parallel or crossed) that evaluated the effect of fructose consumption for a period longer than 7 d, in humans. Two investigators independently performed data extraction. The outcome was the absolute delta of TAG concentration in a 4-h postprandial period. The results were presented with delta mean difference between treatments with 95 % CI. The calculations were made based on random-effect models. Statistical heterogeneity of treatment effects between studies was assessed by Cochrane’s ‘Q Test’ and ‘I2’ inconsistency test. The meta-analysis of the twelve selected interventions (n 318) showed that fructose generated larger variation (δ) of TAG concentrations during the postprandial period, compared with other carbohydrates (mean difference: 8·02 (95 % CI 0·46, 15·58) mg/dl (0·09 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·18) mmol/l); I2: 74 %). High heterogeneity was generated almost exclusively by one study, and its withdrawal did not alter the result. We concluded that chronic consumption of fructose (>7 d) has a negative role on postprandial TAG in healthy adolescents and adults, as well as in overweight/obese individuals, but not in diabetics.
With international demand for production systems aimed at thermal comfort and animal welfare, milk producers have become increasingly interested in compost barns. However, doubts about the behavioral aspects of cows in tropical and subtropical climates remain, because the compost barn system offers a larger bed area per animal at a lower stocking rate. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the diurnal behaviors, hygiene and lameness of crossbred dairy cows are influenced by different number of lactations when housed in a compost-bedded pack barn system under hot and humid conditions. Crossbred cows (Holstein and Jersey), which were divided into two treatments based on number of lactations (primiparous and multiparous cows), were evaluated during lactation (n=12). The study was conducted from September 2015 to February 2016 in a compost barn in the southwest region of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Daytime behavior was observed between milking schedules using focal observations with 0/1 sampling. Cow hygiene and lameness were evaluated using subjective scores ranging from 1 to 4 and 1 to 5, respectively. Animal behavior and welfare was analyzed using Bayesian inference with a mixed effects model. The probabilities of dyspnea and pushing behaviors were higher (P<0.05) in multiparous cows, and the probability increased during the hottest hours of the day. For both multiparous and primiparous cows, the agonistic behaviors of pushing, butting and chasing peaked during the afternoon. Eating behaviors had the highest likelihood values (0.8 at 0800 h). The cows preferred to remain lying down in the morning, while rest and standing rumination were preferred in the afternoon. Primiparous cows were cleaner than multiparous cows, and the hygiene score for this group was significantly lower (P<0.05). The hygiene and lameness scores for all animals were low, and the highest scores were 1 and 2. In conclusion, multiparous cows exhibited more frequent agonistic behaviors during the hottest hours of the day. Regarding hygiene and lameness scores, multiparous cows exhibited a higher degree of dirtiness compared with the primiparous cows.
Legume trees are potential sources of protein, vitamins and minerals. However, the presence of tannins may limit the utilization of many leguminous fodder trees and shrubs. The aim of this work was to investigate intake and apparent digestibility of three legume plants fed to sheep in iso-nitrogenous diets with three levels of crude protein (CP) supply.
We studied the ontogenetic growth of goat wethers (castrated male goats) of the Saanen and Swiss Alpine breeds based on a large range of intraspecific body mass (BM). The body parts and the chemical constituents of the empty body were described by the allometric function by using BM and the empty body mass (EBM) as the predictors for morphological traits and chemical composition, respectively. We fitted the allometric scaling function by applying the SAS NLMIXED procedure, but to evaluate assumptions regarding variances in morphological and compositional traits, we combined the scaling function with homoscedastic (MOD1), and the heteroscedastic exponential (MOD2) and power-of-the-mean (MOD3) variance functions. We also predicted the ontogenetic growth by using the traditional log-log transformation and back-transformed results into the arithmetic scale (MOD4). We obtained predictions from MOD4 in the arithmetic scale by a two-step process, and evaluated MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 by a model selection framework, and compared MOD4 with MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3 based on goodness-of-fit measures. Based on information criteria for model selection, heterogeneous variance functions were more likely to describe 10 over 36 traits with a low level of model selection uncertainty. One trait was predicted by averaging the MOD1 and MOD2 variance functions; and nine traits were better described by averaging the MOD2 and MOD3 variance functions. The predictions for other 16 traits were averaged from MOD1, MOD2 and MOD3. However, MOD4 better described 11 traits according to the goodness-of-fit measures. Depending on the variable being analyzed, the body parts and the chemical amounts exhibited the three types of allometric behavior with respect to BM and EBM, that is, positive, negative and isometric ontogenetic growth. Reference BMs, that is, 20, 27, 35 and 45 kg, were used to compute the net protein and energy requirements based on the first derivative of the scaling function, and the results were presented in reference to the EBM and EBM0.75. Both the net protein and energy requirements scaled to EBM0.75 increased from 20 to 45 kg of BM.
With the recent introductions of glyphosate- and dicamba-tolerant crops, such as soybean and cotton, there will be an increase in POST-applied tank-mixtures of these two herbicides. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate drift from dicamba applications. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dicamba with and without glyphosate sprayed through standard and air induction flat-fan nozzles on droplet spectrum and drift potential in a low-speed wind tunnel. Two standard (XR and TT) and two air induction (AIXR and TTI) 110015 nozzles were used. The applications were made at 276 kPa pressure in a 2.2 ms−1 wind speed. Herbicide treatments evaluated included dicamba alone at 560 gaeha−1 and dicamba+glyphosate at 560+1,260 gaeha−1. The droplet spectrum was measured using a laser diffraction system. Artificial targets were used as drift collectors, positioned in a wind tunnel from 2 to 12 m downwind from the nozzle. Drift potential was determined using a fluorescent tracer added to solutions, quantified by fluorimetry. Dicamba droplet spectrum and drift depended on the association between herbicide solution and nozzle type. Dicamba alone produced coarser droplets than dicamba+glyphosate when sprayed through air induction nozzles. Drift decreased exponentially as downwind distance increased and it was reduced using air induction nozzles for both herbicide solutions.
Licuri (Syagrus coronate) cake is a biodiesel by-product used in ruminant feed as a beneficial energy source for supplementation in managed pastures. The objective was to evaluate the performance, digestibility, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, ingestive behavior and diet profitability of eight crossbred Holstein (3/4)×Gyr (5/8) multiparous cows (480±25 kg BW and 100 days milking) grazing and supplemented with licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate (0, 200, 400 and 600 g/kg in dry matter (DM)), distributed in an experimental duplicated 4×4 Latin square design. Licuri cake partially replacing ground corn and soybean meal increased (P<0.01) the intake and digestibility of ether extract and decreased the non-fiber carbohydrates; however, there were no influences on the intakes of DM, CP, NDF and total digestible nutrients (TDN). The digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were not influenced by licuri cake addition. There was a decrease trend on TDN digestibility (P=0.08). Licuri cake replacing ground corn and soybean meal in concentrate did not affect the intake; fecal, urinary and mammary excretions; N balance; and triglycerides concentrations. However, the blood urea nitrogen (P=0.04) concentration decreased with the licuri cakes inclusion in cow supplementation. There was an increasing trend for serum creatinine (P=0.07). Licuri cake inclusion did not affect body condition score, production, yield, protein, lactose, total solids and solid non-fat contents of milk and Minas frescal cheese. There was a linear decrease in average daily weight gain (g/day). The milk fat concentration and cheese fat production (P<0.1) presented a linear increase with partial replacement of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cakes. The addition of licuri cake did not alter the time spent feeding, ruminating or idling. There was an increasing trend in NDF feeding efficiency (P=0.09). The replacing of ground corn and soybean meal with licuri cake up to 600 g/kg decreased the concentrate cost by US$0.45/cow per day. Licuri cake replacing corn and soybeans (400 g/kg) in concentrate promoted a profit of US$0.07/animal per day. Licuri cake is indicated to concentrate the supplementation of dairy cows with average productions of 10 kg/day at levels up to 400 g/kg in the concentrate supplement because it provides an additional profit of US$0.07/animal per day and increased milk and Minas frescal cheese fat without negative effects on productive parameters.
To this date ψ Per is the only classical Be star that was angularly resolved in radio (by the VLA at λ = 2 cm). Gaussian fit to the azimuthally averaged visibility data indicates a disk size (FWHM) of ~500 stellar radii (Dougherty & Taylor 1992). Recently, we obtained new multi-band cm flux density measurements of ψ Per from the enhanced VLA. We modeled the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) covering the interval from ultraviolet to radio using the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code HDUST (Carciofi & Bjorkman 2006). An SED turndown, that occurs between far-IR and radio wavelengths, is explained by a truncated viscous decretion disk (VDD), although the shallow slope of the radio SED suggests that the disk is not simply cut off, as is assumed in our model. The best-fit size of a truncated disk derived from the modeling of the radio SED is 100+5−15 stellar radii, which is in striking contrast with the result of Dougherty & Taylor (1992). The reasons for this discrepancy are under investigation.
Maternal diet-induced obesity can cause detrimental developmental origins of health and disease in offspring. Perinatal exposure to a high-fat diet (HFD) can lead to later behavioral and metabolic disturbances, but it is not clear which behaviors and metabolic parameters are most vulnerable. To address this critical gap, biparental and monogamous oldfield mice (Peromyscus polionotus), which may better replicate most human societies, were used in the current study. About 2 weeks before breeding, adult females were placed on a control or HFD and maintained on the diets throughout gestation and lactation. F1 offspring were placed at weaning (30 days of age) on the control diet and spatial learning and memory, anxiety, exploratory, voluntary physical activity, and metabolic parameters were tested when they reached adulthood (90 days of age). Surprisingly, maternal HFD caused decreased latency in initial and reverse Barnes maze trials in male, but not female, offspring. Both male and female HFD-fed offspring showed increased anxiogenic behaviors, but decreased exploratory and voluntary physical activity. Moreover, HFD offspring demonstrated lower resting energy expenditure (EE) compared with controls. Accordingly, HFD offspring weighed more at adulthood than those from control fed dams, likely the result of reduced physical activity and EE. Current findings indicate a maternal HFD may increase obesity susceptibility in offspring due to prenatal programming resulting in reduced physical activity and EE later in life. Further work is needed to determine the underpinning neural and metabolic mechanisms by which a maternal HFD adversely affects neurobehavioral and metabolic pathways in offspring.
Background: The Canadian Stroke Best Practice recommends admission of patients to a specialised stroke unit within three hours. We aimed at assessing delays in our emergency department (ED) and correlating these with medical complications and clinical outcomes. Methods: Predictors and outcomes This is a retrospective review of patients (n=353) admitted with ischemic strokes (January 2011-March 2014). We assessed the length of stay in ED, medical complications in ED and in the stroke unit, functional status (modified Rankin Scale) at discharge and survival. Results: The median delay in ED was 13.8 hours. The rate of medical complications in the ED was 14% (most common being delirium), compared to the stroke unit with 46.7% (most common being pneumonia). Worse functional outcome was correlated with diagnosis of pneumonia (standardised β coefficient=0.2, p=0.001) and presence of brain oedema in the stroke unit (standardised β coefficient=0.2, p<0.01). Increased risk of death was correlated with brain oedema (OR=649.2, 95%CI=19-2184, p<0.01) and sepsis in the stroke unit (OR=26.8, 95%CI=2.1-339, p<0.01). Conclusions: We found a significant delay in the admission of our patients from the ED to the stroke unit, which is not in keeping with the present guidelines. Medical complications were correlated with worse outcomes. Future analyses will correlate ED delays with clinical outcomes.
The notorious η Carinae was observed with the stis from 2380 Å to 3160 Å with a resolving power of ~ 130000. Over 500 absorption lines have been identified as originating from Fe i, Fe ii, Ti ii, V ii, Cr ii, Ni ii, Co ii, Mn ii, Mg i and Mg ii. Most of the lines have multiple components ranging from −145kms–1, –385kms–1 to –587kms–1. Many interstellar absorption velocity systems, also found in the spectra of other Carina stars, are seen in the spectrum of η Car. While ISM absorption lines originate from the ground energy level, the nebular lines originate from energy levels well above the ground state. We are still evaluating the origin and location of these velocity systems in line of sight.
We present a method to obtain the reference system for isolated observations of faint satellites made with CCD1. The method consists in the construction of a secondary catalogue of faint stars using ‘The Digitized Sky Survey’ and ‘The Guide Star Catalogue’ corrected by modern astrometric catalogues.
To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD.
The Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states) compared to unaffected controls were included.
Six references, which examined 13 biomarkers across 20 meta-analyses (5474 BD cases and 4823 healthy controls) met inclusion criteria. Evidence for excess of significance bias (i.e. bias favoring publication of ‘positive’ nominally significant results) was observed in 11 meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was high for (I2 ⩾ 50%) 16 meta-analyses. Only two biomarkers met criteria for suggestive evidence namely the soluble IL-2 receptor and morning cortisol. The median power of included studies, using the effect size of the largest dataset as the plausible true effect size of each meta-analysis, was 15.3%.
Our findings suggest that there is an excess of statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for BD. Selective publication of ‘positive’ results and selective reporting of outcomes are possible mechanisms.
The benefits of mycorrhizal inoculation on growth, yield and nutrition of plants are well documented. However, mycorrhiza use in pepper and sweet pepper crops (Capsicum spp.) is still rarely exploited compared to other crops of economic importance. The current paper reviews the main aspects of the association between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plants of pepper and sweet pepper. It includes topics about the effects of AM fungi on nutrition, growth and yield in Capsicum spp., paying particular attention to AM fungi–pathogen interactions, responses to some environmental stresses, as well as biochemical and physiological aspects of AM fungi–plant interaction in Capsicum annuum L.
The goal of the present study was to characterize the growth of body parts and composition of the growing empty body to infer how these aspects relate to the long-term growth of goat wethers from dairy breeds. Animals were slaughtered at several ages from birth to maturity (≅900 days old). All body parts were weighed and sampled to determine chemical constituent dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, ash and specific energy. The monomolecular (Brody), Gompertz, and Richards models, a biphasic model formed by the combined Brody and Gompertz functions, and a simple linear model were fitted to the growth profiles with different variance functions and were all evaluated using likelihood-information criteria. The effect of breed (genotype) was accounted for in all models but the resulting models were not more likely than the models without the breed effect. Remarkable differences were observed regarding inflection points, growth rates and trends for all body parts and chemical constituents of the body. The biphasic model did not supplant the monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards or the linear model in terms of likelihood-information criteria. Therefore, body parts and chemical constituents of the empty body presented monomolecular, sigmoid and linear time-trends. The growth profiles of fat, protein and energy of the empty body did not scale isometrically with the empty body proper. In addition, the variance was heteroscedastic along the time scale and was better represented by both an exponential variance over time or by a power function of the mean.