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Off-axis electron holography is used to measure electrostatic
potential profiles across a silicon p-n junction,
which has been prepared for examination in the transmission electron
microscope (TEM) in two different specimen geometries using focused ion
beam (FIB) milling. Results are obtained both from a conventional
unbiased FIB-milled sample and using a novel sample geometry that
allows a reverse bias to be applied to an FIB-milled sample in
situ in the TEM. Computer simulations are fitted to the results to
assess the effect of TEM specimen preparation on the charge density and
the electrostatic potential in the thin sample.
Extended abstract of a paper presented at the Pre-Meeting Congress: Materials Research in an Aberration-Free Environment, at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004 in Savannah, Georgia, USA, July 31 and August 1, 2004.
Volumes seven and eight of The Cambridge History of China are devoted to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), the only segment of later imperial history during which all of China proper was ruled by a native, or Han, dynasty. These volumes provide the largest and most detailed account of the Ming period in any language. Summarising all modern research, volume eight offers detailed studies of governmental structure, the fiscal and legal systems, international relations, social and economic history, transportation networks, and the history of ideas and religion, incorporating original research on subjects never before described in detail. Although it is written by specialists, this Cambridge History intends to explain and describe the Ming dynasty to general readers who do not have a specialised knowledge of Chinese history, as well as scholars and students. This volume can be utilised as a reference work, or read continuously.
The subject matter of the individual chapters included in this volume is very diverse, and both the extant original sources and the secondary scholarship devoted to them varies greatly in its complexity. All the chapters provide in their footnotes references both to the major sources and to the most important secondary studies. Some of them, however, have an unusually complicated and wide ranging literature, and the authors have provided, in the following bibliographical notes, some guidance to the scholarship available on their field
THE MING AND INNER ASIA BY MORRIS ROSSABI
The Ming Shih-lu is still, despite the drawbacks described by Wolfgang Franke and others, the most important primary source on Ming relations with Inner Asia. Japanese scholars have facilitated use of the voluminous records in the Shih-lu by extracting and compiling the materials on Mongolia, Manchuria, Tibet, and the Western Regions, the Chinese designation for Central Asia. They have also extracted the materials on Korea and Manchuria found in the Yijo sillok, the Yi dynasty chronicle. I have provided a preliminary analysis of the value of these sources in my "Ming China's relations with Hami and Central Asia."
This chapter presents essays on the Liao period, history of the Hsi Hsia, and Chin dynasty. It also talks about the official history of the Yüan, the Secret history of the Mongols, and the Chinese knowledge of Mongolian history beyond China. In mainland China the focus has been largely on Yüan social structure, presented in simplistic class analysis and, in particular, on the popular rebellions of the late Yüan. A leading figure in Yüan history studies was Han Ju-lin, who was a student of Paul Pelliot in Paris in the 1930s and was thoroughly conversant with Western, including Soviet, scholarship. Modern studies of the Yüan system of social classes were initiated by the preeminent Japanese historian of the Yüan period, Yanai Wataru, in a work known in Chinese translation as Yuan tai Meng-Han se-mu tai-yii k'ao, published in the mid-1930s in a translation by Ch'en Ch'ing-ch'uan.
This volume deals with four non-Chinese regimes: the Khitan dynasty of Liao; the Tangut state of Hsi Hsia; the Jurchen empire of Chin; and the Mongolian Yuan dynasty that eventually engulfed the whole of China. It investigates the historical background from which these regimes emerged and shows how each in its own way set up viable institutions for the control of a multi-racial, multi-lingual, and multi-cultural population. It discusses these problems not just as a long negative episode in China's history, but shows the ingenuity and adaptability of these states, and their success in achieving political and social stability. The volume presents the fullest chronological account of the period, in which political, institutional, social, and economic changes are integrated as far as possible, and sees the period against a broad background of international relations in Northern and Central Asia.
The Cambridge History of China is one of the most far-reaching works of international scholarship ever undertaken, exploring the main developments in political, social, economic and intellectual life from the Ch'in empire to the present day. The contributors are specialists from the international community of sinological scholars. Many of the accounts break new ground; all are based on fresh research. The works are written not only with students and scholars but also with the general reader in mind. No knowledge of Chinese is assumed, though for readers of Chinese, proper and other names are identified with their characters in the index. Numerous maps and tables illustrate the text. Volume 3, covers the second great period of unified imperial power, 589–906, when China established herself as the centre of a wider cultural sphere, embracing Japan, Korea and Vietnam. It was an era in which there was a great deal of rapid social and economic change, and in which literature and the arts reached new heights of attainment.