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To characterise subjective symptoms in patients undergoing surgical repair of superior semicircular canal dehiscence.
Questionnaires assessing symptom severity and impact on function and quality of life were administered to patients before superior semicircular canal dehiscence surgery, between June 2011 and March 2016. Questionnaire sections included general quality of life, internal amplified sounds, dizziness and tinnitus, with scores of 0–100 points.
Twenty-three patients completed the questionnaire before surgery. Section scores (mean±standard deviation) were: 38.2 ± 25.2 for general quality of life, 52.5 ± 23.9 for internal amplified sounds, 35.1 ± 28.8 for dizziness, 33.3 ± 30.7 for tinnitus, and 39.8 ± 22.2 for the composite score. Cronbach's α statistic averaged 0.93 (range, 0.84–0.97) across section scores, and 0.83 for the composite score.
The Gopen–Yang Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Questionnaire provides a holistic, patient-centred characterisation of superior semicircular canal dehiscence symptoms. Internal consistency analysis validated the questionnaire and provided a quantitative framework for further optimisation in the clinical setting.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The overall goal of this project is to enhance the use of GCRA in Latina breast cancer survivors at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer to reduce disparities in GCRA uptake. The aims of the study are to (1) develop a cultural adaptation of an evidence-based TGC intervention that consists of phone genetic counseling and a booklet, (2) evaluate the impact of TGC Versus Usual Care, and (3) explore the communication patterns in TGC and genetic counseling sessions with an interpreter. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We are conducting a 2-phase, mixed methods study. In Phase I we will develop a cultural adaption of an evidence-based intervention (TGC) for high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors using the Learner Verification and Revision Framework (n=15). In Phase II we will use a cluster randomized design with four community sites randomized to Spanish TGC (n=2 sites) or usual care (n=2 sites) (n=60; 15 per site). The primary outcome is genetic counseling uptake. Among women who receive genetic counseling either through TGC (n~30) or with an interpreter (n~15), we will assess counseling quality by reviewing 20 randomly selected audiotaped sessions (10 TGC; 10 interpreters). We will evaluate women’s HBOC knowledge and satisfaction with counseling. Communication processes and outcomes will be assessed using gold standard RIAS quantitative coding system and qualitative discourse analysis. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We elicited input from transdisciplinary team members to develop an initial adaptation of a TGC print booklet and intervention protocol for use with high-risk Latina breast cancer survivors with limited English proficiency. The booklet contains low-literacy information about HBOC, risk factors, pros and cons of testing, and management strategies. Based on these materials and prior work, we anticipate TGC will consist of one 1 hour or less TGC session by phone. Participants interested in pursuing testing will receive a saliva kit and will participate in a second TGC session (30 min) to discuss test results and management options. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Given access barriers and the shortage of Spanish-speaking genetic counselors, adapting and translating TGC intervention is a promising strategy that could reduce disparities by broadening the reach and accessibility to genetic counseling while enhancing the quality of the service for Latinas with limited English proficiency.
A conventional 14C system with either a 15cm3 or a 100cm3 methane gas proportional counting tube, each constructed from high purity copper, has been used at the Washington State University 14C laboratory for three years (Sheppard, Hopper, Westberg, 1981). The electronic components of this system included highly stable (John Fluke) power supplies, modified pre-amplifiers (Canberra), and NIM amplifiers, single channel analyzers, scalers, timers, etc, (ORTEC). Modules were selected for a highly stable low-noise system. The system was designed to minimize problems generated by ground-loops, electromagnetic noise pick-up, and line noise. It operates in a copper-lined basement room of a four-story brick and concrete building along with a second and older gas proportional system which has three 500cm3 copper counting tubes operated at 2 or 3 atmospheres of methane. Analysis of the older system's background data indicates that the background counting rate of 0.8 counts per minute is virtually independent of atmospheric pressure. It has not been possible to determine the pressure dependence of the small counting tubes.
This list of radiocarbon age measurements is for the period 1972–1974. Most of the samples are of archaeologic interest. The pretreatments of samples used are basically those described by Ralph and Michael (1971). All samples were converted to methane using the method developed by Fairhall, Schell, and Takashima (1961) and counted in .5L counting tubes at 2 to 4atm of pressure. The WSU Radiocarbon Laboratory has been relocated to the basement of Dana Hall (three stories) and additional shielding has been added. The backgrounds of the counting tubes are .90 counts/min and have an atmospheric pressure dependence of –.035 counts/min/cm Hg.
The Parkes multibeam pulsar survey uses a 13-element receiver operating at a wavelength of 20 cm to survey the inner Galactic plane with remarkable sensitivity. To date we have collected and analyzed data from 45% of the survey region (|b| < 5°; 260° < l < 50°), and have discovered 440 pulsars, in addition to re-detecting 190 previously known ones. Most of the newly discovered pulsars are at great distances, as inferred from a median dispersion measure (DM) of 400 cm−3 pc.
Irregular satellites have eccentric orbits that can be highly inclined or even retrograde relative to the equatorial planes of their planets. These objects cannot have formed by circumplanetary accretion as did the regular satellites which follow un-inclined, nearly circular, pro-grade orbits. Instead, they are likely products of early capture from heliocentric orbit. The study of the irregular satellites provides a unique window on processes operating in the young solar system. Recent discoveries around Jupiter (45 new satellites), Saturn (13), Uranus (9), and Neptune (5) have almost increased the number of known irregular satellites by a factor of ten and suggest that the gas and ice giant planets all have fairly similar irregular satellite systems. Dynamical groupings were most likely produced by collisional shattering of precursor objects after capture by their planets. Jupiter is considered as a case of special interest. Its proximity allows us to probe the fainter, smaller irregular satellites to obtain large population statistics in order to address the questions of planet formation and capture.
This is the first autopsy study in the United Kingdom to analyse the demographic and pathological characteristics of atheroma associated with sudden cardiac death in young people.
An observational retrospective study of referred cases of sudden cardiac death in the young (⩽35 years) associated with premature atheroma was carried out.
In total, 46 cases were referred, with a median age of 30 years (27, 32); 72% of the referred cases were male, with a mean body mass index of 30 kg/m2. Circumstances of death were as follows: at rest (n=21), exertion (n=7), in bed (n=7), related to drugs/alcohol (n=4), and unknown (n=7). A previous cardiac history was provided in 10 cases. A history of class A/B drug use was found in eight cases. There was macroscopic evidence of infarction in 10 cases (acute, n=3 and chronic, n=7). Microscopically, 10 cases demonstrated contraction band necrosis, 11 acute infarction, and 11 chronic infarction. Single-vessel disease predominated (n=28). The left anterior descending coronary artery was involved in 39/46 cases. Thrombosis was seen in 16 cases, mainly due to erosion; one case showed dual pathology with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and another showed left ventricular hypertrophy.
This study highlights premature atheroma mainly in a single vessel in young people with or without evidence of ischaemic damage in the ventricle. Dual pathology may occur. The role of arrhythmias and channelopathies are important considerations. Premature atheroma should prompt investigation for dyslipidaemias in family members.
The principles embodied by the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) view of ‘life history’ trajectory are increasingly underpinned by biological data arising from molecular-based epigenomic and transcriptomic studies. Although a number of ‘omic’ platforms are now routinely and widely used in biology and medicine, data generation is frequently confounded by a frequency distribution in the measurement error (an inherent feature of the chemistry and physics of the measurement process), which adversely affect the accuracy of estimation and thus, the inference of relationships to other biological measures such as phenotype. Based on empirical derived data, we have previously derived a probability density function to capture such errors and thus improve the confidence of estimation and inference based on such data. Here we use published open source data sets to calculate parameter values relevant to the most widely used epigenomic and transcriptomic technologies Then by using our own data sets, we illustrate the benefits of this approach by specific application, to measurement of DNA methylation in this instance, in cases where levels of methylation at specific genomic sites represents either (1) a response variable or (2) an independent variable. Further, we extend this formulation to consideration of the ‘bivariate’ case, in which the co-dependency of methylation levels at two distinct genomic sites is tested for biological significance. These tools not only allow greater accuracy of measurement and improved confidence of functional inference, but in the case of epigenomic data at least, also reveal otherwise cryptic information.
In August 2012, an explosive outbreak of severe lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-8 occurred in a highly vaccinated elderly institutionalized population in England. Fifteen of 23 residents developed LRTI over 4 days (attack rate 65%); 11 had confirmed S. pneumoniae serotype-8 disease, and two died. Following amoxicillin chemoprophylaxis and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) re-vaccination no further cases occurred in the following 2 months. No association was found between being an outbreak-associated case and age (P = 0·36), underlying comorbidities [relative risk (RR) 0·84 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·34–2·09], or prior receipt of PPV (RR 1·4, 95% CI 0·60–3·33). However, the median number of years since PPV was significantly higher for cases (n = 15, 10·2 years, range 7·3–17·9 years) than non-cases (n = 8, 7·2 years, range 6·8–12·8 years) (P = 0·045), provided evidence of waning immunity. Alternative vaccination strategies should be considered to prevent future S. pneumoniae outbreaks in institutionalized elderly populations.
Climate change, comprising an increase in carbon dioxide levels coupled with elevated temperature, may favor invasive plants, as they possess traits that will facilitate adaptation to a new climate. In particular, alien plants of subtropical origin introduced to a colder region are expected to increase the number and size of their populations and spread farther with climate change. Seedlings of three such woody alien species in New Zealand (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana, Psidium guajava, and Schefflera actinophylla) were grown in environmental chambers under the combination of two temperature (23.7 and 26 C [74.7 and 78.8 F]) and two CO2 (450 and 900 ppmv) regimes, simulating current conditions and conditions projected for the end of the century. Total biomass of S. actinophylla was 45% higher and total leaf area 35% larger under doubled CO2 compared to current CO2. Root : shoot ratio was higher under doubled CO2 across all species, and the number of branches was increased for P. guajava. The only significant interactive effect of elevated temperature and doubled CO2 was for relative growth rate of the height of S. actinophylla seedlings. This study provides strong evidence of more vigorous growth of S. actinophylla under future conditions, particularly increased CO2, whereas the other two species appear likely to maintain current growth rates. Better knowledge of the types of future conditions that may benefit such species, together with results of species distribution models and competition and eco-physiology studies will ensure robust weed risk assessments.
Human campylobacteriosis exhibits a distinctive seasonality in temperate regions. This paper aims to identify the origins of this seasonality. Clinical isolates [typed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST)] and epidemiological data were collected from Scotland. Young rural children were found to have an increased burden of disease in the late spring due to strains of non-chicken origin (e.g. ruminant and wild bird strains from environmental sources). In contrast the adult population had an extended summer peak associated with chicken strains. Travel abroad and UK mainland travel were associated with up to 17% and 18% of cases, respectively. International strains were associated with chicken, had a higher diversity than indigenous strains and a different spectrum of MLST types representative of these countries. Integrating empirical epidemiology and molecular subtyping can successfully elucidate the seasonal components of human campylobacteriosis. The findings will enable public health officials to focus strategies to reduce the disease burden.
Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection found in various parts of the world. A review of literature for Quebec, Canada revealed only few case reports with the most recent one dating back to 1993. However, whether Quebec represents an important endemic region for blastomycosis in North America is unknown. In this work we reviewed 158 cases of human blastomycosis documented in Quebec during 1988–2011 using microbiological records available from the provincial public health laboratory. The estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis in the province is was ∼0·133 cases per 100 000 individuals with the highest rates of 0·79 and 0·46 cases per 100 000 recorded in South-eastern and South-western Quebec. Moreover, the annual incidence rate significantly increased over the past 20 years. This study for the first time establishes Quebec as an important endemic region for Blastomyces dermatitidis.
The significance of positive cultures of organ preservation fluid (OPF) in solid organ transplantation is not known. We sought to describe the microbiology and define the clinical impact of positive OPF cultures.
Retrospective cohort study.
Tertiary care hospital.
A consecutive sample of all solid organ transplantations at our center between July 2006 and January 2009 was reviewed. A total of 331 allografts (185 kidneys, 104 livers, 31 pancreases, and 11 hearts) met the inclusion criterion of having OPF cultures taken from the transplanted allograft.
Organisms recovered from OPF were classified as high or low risk according to their virulence. Clinical outcomes were compared between recipients of organs with positive OPF cultures and recipients of organs with negative OPF cultures.
OPF cultures were positive in 62.2% of allografts and yielded high-risk organisms in 17.8%. Normal skin flora constituted the majority of positive OPF cultures, while Enterobacteriaceae spp. and Staphylococcus aureus made up the majority of high-risk organisms. Recipients of allografts with positive OPF cultures developed more frequent bacterial infections, regardless of allograft type (relative risk, 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61–3.54). Moreover, isolation of a given organism in OPF samples was associated with the development of a clinical infection with the same organism, regardless of allograft type.
Positive cultures of OPF are common events in solid organ transplantation, frequently involve high-risk organisms, and are associated with the development of postoperative clinical bacterial infections. Further study is required to determine the optimal strategies for their prevention and management.
Silver exchanged zeolites A, X and Y were used to occlude silver iodide (AgI) at 400°C. Heating to 900°C in a hot isostatic press caused decomposition of the zeolite materials and the formation of more dense phases. Silver zeolites A and X both formed sodalite, seen as a potential 129I waste form, while silver zeolite Y formed an x-ray amorphous phase containing AgI. Silver zeolite A produced the best potential waste form, a monolithic sodalite with negligible porosity.
In this study, fracture toughness of North American elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) antler and bovine femur were measured using four-point bending tests on single-edge notched compact samples (ASTM C1421). Tests were conducted on crack growth directions longitudinal and transverse to the long axis of antler and bone in both dry and hydrated conditions to study the effects of fiber orientation and hydration. Fracture toughness results in the transverse orientation were much higher than that in the longitudinal orientation and increased with degree of hydration for both antler and bovine femur. The fracture toughness of antler was ∼ 50% higher than that of bovine femur. The highest fracture toughness value was obtained from the hydrated antler in the transverse orientation, which reached 10.31 MPa·m1/2 compared to that measured from bovine femur, which was 6.35 MPa·m1/2. The crack propagation and fracture surface were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Toughening mechanisms, including crack deflection by osteons, uncracked ligament bridging, and microcracks formation, are observed and discussed. Comparisons between antler and bone are made.
SiC MESFET's have shown an RF power density of 4.6 W/mm at 3.5 GHz and a power added efficiency of 60% with 3 W/mm at 800 MHz, demonstrating that SiC devices are capable of very high power densities and high efficiencies. Single devices with 48 mm of gate periphery were mounted in a hybrid circuit and achieved a maximum RF power of 80 watts CW at 3.1 GHz with 38% PAE.
Thin films of electroconductive poly[pyrrole-co-3−(1−pyrrolyl)propionic acid] were prepared by electropolymerization onto 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane modified and 3−(1−pyrrolyl)propionic acid derivatized interdigitated microsensor electrode (IME) arrays. The ω−(1−pyrrolyl) moiety on the surface of the device provides for specific adhesion of the polymer film to the device and the (N-pyrrolyl)propionic acid moiety on the polymer backbone provides for covalent attachment of bioactive molecules, such as biotin and urease, to the polymer surface. The immobilized, bioactive urease produces an ON/OFF conductimetric response traceable to analyte concentration.