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Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with inflammation and immunosenescence, as well as hyporeactivity of the HPA axis. Because the immune system and the HPA axis are tightly intertwined around the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), we examined peripheral GR functionality in the EpiPath cohort among participants who either had been exposed to ELA (separation from parents and/or institutionalization followed by adoption; n = 40) or had been reared by their biological parents (n = 72).
Expression of the strict GR target genes FKBP5 and GILZ as well as total and 1F and 1H GR transcripts were similar between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences in GR sensitivity, examined by the effects of dexamethasone on IL6 production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Although we did not find differences in methylation at the GR 1F exon or promoter region, we identified a region of the GR 1H promoter (CpG 1-9) that showed lower methylation levels in ELA.
Our results suggest that peripheral GR signaling was unperturbed in our cohort and the observed immune phenotype does not appear to be secondary to an altered GR response to the perturbed HPA axis and glucocorticoid (GC) profile, although we are limited in our measures of GR activity and time points.
The 2015 changes in the catheter-associated urinary tract infection definition led to an increase in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-related candidemia in some health systems due to the change in CLABSI attribution. However, our rates remained unchanged in 2015 and further declined in 2016 with the implementation of new vascular-access guidelines.
Theoretical Perspectives on Mental Health and Illness: Introduction to Part I
Jerome C. Wakefield, University Professor, Silver School of Social Work and Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, New York University,
Mark F. Schmitz, Associate Professor, School of Social Administration, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA
This chapter examines the assessment and measurement of mental disorders. Researchers must distinguish between clinical prevalence (people who are treated for mental disorder) and true prevalence (the actual rate of disorder in a community, including those not in treatment). The measurement of mental illness must be conceptually valid; that is, there must be criteria that successfully distinguish cases of disorder from cases of non-disorder. In the past, researchers relied upon general symptom checklists, which identify a threshold above which an individual is considered disordered, but without specifying a particular disorder. An alternative to checklists is provided by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of mental disorders, which provides sets of diagnostic criteria for specific disorders. The assumption behind the DSM is that mental disorders result from internal psychological dysfunctions (i.e., failures of proper functioning of mental processes), a presumption that Wakefield and Schmitz accept but demonstrate is often violated by the DSM's own criteria for mental disorder. Their critique of the DSM's approach to measurement is illustrated with several DSM diagnoses. In addition to thoroughly discussing the conceptual basis of the DSM, Wakefield and Schmitz provide examples of the attempts to use DSM-derived criteria to measure prevalence of mental disorder in the community. These examples demonstrate the recurrent problems with creating conceptually valid measures for use in psychiatric epidemiology. It is unclear whether these problems can be overcome or circumvented with methodological innovations. The student should consider why it is so difficult to determine who is mentally disordered, and to distinguish mental disorder from intense normal distress. Is a conceptually valid resolution of these problems possible?
How many people in the United States suffer from mental disorder in general and from each specific mental disorder, and what characteristics are correlated with each disorder? The answers to such questions are important in formulating mental health policy, in evaluating theories of the causes of disorder, in planning efficient distribution of mental health care, and in justifying funding for mental health services and research. Thus, there have long been efforts to measure the rate, or prevalence, of mental disorder both in the population as a whole and in various segments of the population. Psychiatric epidemiology, the discipline that pursues such studies, is logically part of medical epidemiology, the study of the occurrence and correlates of medical disorders in various populations.
The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Laboratory (WiPAL) is a flexible user facility designed to study a range of astrophysically relevant plasma processes as well as novel geometries that mimic astrophysical systems. A multi-cusp magnetic bucket constructed from strong samarium cobalt permanent magnets now confines a
, fully ionized, magnetic-field-free plasma in a spherical geometry. Plasma parameters of
provide an ideal testbed for a range of astrophysical experiments, including self-exciting dynamos, collisionless magnetic reconnection, jet stability, stellar winds and more. This article describes the capabilities of WiPAL, along with several experiments, in both operating and planning stages, that illustrate the range of possibilities for future users.
We present a radio survey of molecules in a sample of Galactic center molecular clouds, including M0.25 + 0.01, the clouds near Sgr A, and Sgr B2. The molecules detected are primarily NH3 and HC3N; in Sgr B2-N we also detect non-metastable NH3, vibrationally-excited HC3N, torsionally-excited CH3OH, and numerous isotopologues of these species. 36 GHz Class I CH3OH masers are ubiquitous in these fields, and in several cases are associated with new NH3 (3,3) maser candidates. We also find that NH3 and HC3N are depleted or absent toward several of the highest dust column density peaks identified in submillimeter observations, which are associated with water masers and are thus likely in the early stages of star formation.
The term “religion” is oversupplied with meaning. There is no corresponding universal cultural taxon. The inefficiency of cultural recurrence is problematic for meme theories of cultural and religious evolution, despite the notion’s attractive fit with evolutionary biology. Reducing religion to intergroup competition – “a space in which competing sets of social interests meet” – postpones the question of definition indefinitely. A useful taxonomy of religion may be possible, and seems necessary, but is beyond the scope of the present undertaking. Rather than delineate a subspecies “Punic religion,” the following discussion will depend on traditional categories of religious behaviors: sacrifice, offerings, prayer, purity regulations, cultic sites, cultic personnel, festivals, and funerary practices.
The word “Phoenician” derives from phoinīkes, which Homer (Il. 23.744; Od. 13.272; 14.288; 15.415, 419, 473) and later Greek writers used to designate foreign traders from the Levant. The Greek word entered Latin as Poeni, “Punic” being derived from the Latin adjective Punicus. Thus both the Greek and Latin terms label the same group. English uses “Phoenician” to refer to the East and “Punic” for the West, particularly in reference to language. The Phoenician language developed new features in the West, warranting the distinct label Punic. With respect to the practice of religion there are fewer contrasts between East and West, weakening the rationale for distinct labels. Religious practice within the Phoenician and Punic city-states remained largely a matter of local custom.
An ecosystem is often defined simply as a community of organisms interacting with each other and their biophysical environment. This definition arose from early conceptions of how the natural world is organized and is elegant in its simplicity because it captures the basic elements of a functioning system (Tansley 1935; Leopold 1939; Lindeman 1942). But those trying to develop a synthetic, empirical understanding of how ecosystems function and how they will respond to environmental change are abundantly aware that there is much inherent complexity implied by this seemingly simple definition. To cope with this complexity, ecologists have traditionally abstracted one part of the definition and elaborated the other. For example, ecosystem ecologists have long assumed that interacting organisms can be simply assigned to different compartments (e.g., producer, primary and secondary consumer, decomposer) and focused on environmental and biophysical aspects that dictate the transformation and flow of materials and energy among various compartments (Lindeman 1942; Odum 1969; Likens et al. 1970). In contrast, community ecologists have downplayed the biophysical aspects of materials and energy transfer and focused on organismal populations (Shelford 1913; Elton 1927; Hutchinson 1957; Paine 1966; MacArthur 1972), their diversity and the myriad interactions (e.g., predation, competition, facilitation) that determine their distribution and abundance (Reiners 1986; DeAngelis 1992).
Modern efforts to integrate organismal and abiotic factors into the study of ecosystems arguably were inspired by Hairston, Slobodkin and Smith’s (HSS) classic paper (Hairston et al. 1960), which sought to merge Lindeman’s trophic dynamic perspective (Lindeman 1942) and MacArthur’s population ecology perspective (MacArthur 1958) to explain why, in the face of putatively abundant herbivores, the world is still largely green rather than denuded by herbivory. HSS made the simple argument that the world is green because predators limit the impact of herbivores on plants. This paper highlighted the ecological significance of indirect effects by viewing the biological component of ecosystems as being comprised of linear food chains where interacting species (who eats whom) determine the flow of materials and energy through the ecosystem (Paine 1988; Cohen et al. 1990).
In this paper we review recent progress achieved in our development of type-I GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum-well (QW) lasers with emission wavelength in the 1.74–2.34 μm range. Triple-QW (3-QW) and single-QW (SQW) diode lasers having broadened waveguide design emitting around 2.26 μm have been studied in particular. Comparing the two designs we have find that the threshold current density at infinite cavity length as well as the transparency current density scale with the number of QWs. Maximum cw operating temperature exceeding 50°C and 90°C has been obtained for ridge waveguide lasers emitting above and below 2 μm, respectively. Ridge waveguide diode lasers emitting at 1.94 μm exhibited internal quantum efficiencies in excess of 77%, internal losses of 6 cm−1, and threshold current density at infinite cavity length as low as 121 A/cm2 reflecting the superior quality of our diode lasers, all values recorded at 280 K. A high characteristic temperature TOof 179 K for the threshold current along with a value of T1 = 433 K for the characteristic temperature of the external efficiency have been attained for the 240–280 K temperature interval. Room temperature cw output powers exceeding 1.7 W have been demonstrated for broad area single element devices with highreflection/ antireflection coated mirror facets, mounted epi-side down. The latter result is a proof for the high power capabilities of these GaSb-based mid-ir diode lasers.
This paper addresses the optimization of ion implantation and rapid thermal annealing for the fabrication of shallow junctions and the activation of polycrystalline silicon gates in deepsubmicron CMOS transistors. Achieving ultrashallow, low-resistance junctions was studied by combining low-energy B and As implantation with spike annealing. In addition, experiments using B doping marker superlattices were performed to identify the critical physical effects underlying dopant activation and diffusion. The combination of high ramp rates (∼100 °C/s) and ∼1 s cycles at temperatures as high as 1100 °C can be used to improve dopant activation without inducing significant thermal diffusion after TED has completed. MOS capacitors were used to identify the implantation and annealing conditions needed for adequate activation of the gate electrode. In comparison to the conventional recrystallized amorphous Si gates, it was found that fine-grained poly-Si allows for the use of lower processing temperatures or shorter annealing times while improving the gate activation level. The fine-grained crystal structure enhances the de-activation of B dopants in PMOS gates during the thermal treatments following gate activation. Yet, the resulting dopant loss stays within acceptable limits as verified by excellent 0.18 μm device performance. The feasibility of spike annealing and poly-Si gate materials for 100-nm technology was proven by full integration using gate lengths down to 80 nm.
Dry etch damage on n-GaN has been investigated using Pd Schottky diodes fabricated on surfaces etched by conventional reactive ion etching with SiCl4 plasma. The Schottky barrier height and ideality factor were investigated as a function of the plasma self-bias voltage. Current-voltage measurements revealed severe degradation of both the forward and reverse characteristics for plasma self-bias voltages in excess of -150 V.
We report on room temperature cw operation of type-I semiconductor quantum well (QW) laser diodes based on the GaInAsSb/AIGaAsSb/GaSb material system emitting beyond 2.2 µm. Lasing is observed in cw mode up to at least 320 K. A high internal quantum efficiency of 65% and a low internal loss coefficient of 5 cm1have been achieved for a single QW (SQW)large optical cavity laser at 280 K. An extrapolated threshold current density for infinite cavity length of 144 A/cm2and 55 A/cm2has been deduced for the 3 QW and SQW lasers, respectively, which scales with the number of QWs. A maximum cw light output power of 230 mW at 280 K heatsink temperature was obtained for a 3 QW large optical cavity laser with HR/AR coated mirror facets, mounted substrate-side down.
The promise of new applications continues to drive research on ceramic precursor and sol-gel routes to materials preparation. These routes offer flexibility in the fabrication of materials in forms such as films, coatings, fibers, foams, and powders, etc. Our interest in ceramic precursors stems from their potential in the low cost fabrication of films. Such films can be employed in a variety of new automotive applications. In this article, we summarize our efforts to prepare soluble ceramic precursors and their conversion to group IV metal nitrides. A comparison of some properties of electrically conducting titanium nitride films prepared by dipcoat-fire cycle and low pressure CVD is presented. We also describe the fabrication of indium tin oxide films by a sol-gel process. These films are candidates in the low cost fabrication of electrically heatable catalyst devices.