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Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)
Ecological restoration is suggested as a tool to mitigate environmental problems caused by urbanization, but its utility may be hampered by conflict between ecological design and neighbouring communities’ needs. We explore this issue by comparing vegetation diversity and structure in a 21-year-old urban reforestation project in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, with a nearby reference forest, and we assessed popular perceptions about the project. Overall, density and basal area of canopy trees in the restoration plantation reached 73% and 46%, respectively, of the values found in the reference forest, but ground cover by exotic grasses was substantially higher in the planted forest. Rarefied species richness was similarly high in the plantation forest (59 species) and in the remnant forest (69 species), but species composition was markedly different. The human legacy on restoration diminished with time, reflected in the higher proportion of species and individuals of late-successional, native and not-planted species in the seedling community of the plantation forest. While community perceptions of reforestation were positive and both use and non-use values were reported, interviewees reported little involvement in the development of the project, which could have contributed to synergies between ecological and social outcomes.
The study of the chemical stability of solar selective coatings (SSC) for concentrated solar power (CSP) becomes essential for their use at high temperatures. In this paper, the short range order around Mo in Mo-Si3N4 cermets is studied for the first time by X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The information obtained by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopies gives new insights of the origin of the optical behavior of the cermets cermets after vacuum and air annealing treatments. The established optical and structural correlation becomes of great importance for the design and optimization of SSC for practical applications.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
We gathered a multiwavelength dataset of two well-known LBVs. We found a complex mass-loss, with evidence of variability, such as has been seen previously. In addition, our data reveal signatures of collimated stellar winds. We propose a new scenario for these two stars where the nebula shaping is influenced by the presence of a companion star and/or fast rotation.
We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way, making use of a large sample of 955 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This sample of stars has been classified on the basis of an automated analysis approach, in combination with other methods, in order to obtain estimates of the physical parameters of the stars, i.e., Teff, log g, [Fe/H], and should be relatively free of contamination from halo blue stragglers. the stars all have measured radial velocities and photometric distance estimates, and the sample includes objects as distant as ~ 75 kpc from the Galactic center. Application of a Bayesian likelihood method, for a specific model of the Galaxy, indicates that the total mass of the Galaxy lies in the range 1.5 − 4.0 × 1012 M⊙. Our sample appears to reveal a clear signature of a dual halo population of FHB stars, with the boundary between the inner and outer halo around 20 kpc, and the possibility of rather striking differences in the rotational properties of the Galaxy at low metallicity.
The method of perturbations of Deprit has been applied to the stellar three-body problem. The calculation, developed previously by the authors in other articles, is here systematicized for easy use and applied to various triple systems.
The luminosity profiles perpendicular to the bar of the galaxy NGC 7479 display “shoulders”, which are observationally identified as an increase in the brightness profile (see Figure 1, right). In the literature (see e.g. Buta 1986), the presence of these features in other barred spirals has been reported. The “shoulders” have been attributed to annular structures resulting from the presence of a bar (Schwarz 1981, 1984, 1985), appearing at the OLR. Their stability and the precise modelling depends on the structural parameters of the bar. We attempt to test the plausibility of this theoretical interpretation using 2D photometry of the barred galaxy NGC 7479. The key parameter is the corotation radius (CR), defined as the galactocentric distance at which the gas and the shock wave corotate. From the CR all other Lindblad resonances can be obtained. Some of the techniques used to derive the CR are:
Here we present a study of the structural components of the barred galaxy NGC 5850 using U, B and I photometry. After subtracting a bulge+disk model from the observed image, we obtain the bar and other non-axisymmetric structures. We determine the position of the ILR from the ellipticity and position angle profiles of the isophotes.
Based on Docobo’s method for the calculation of orbits of visual binaries, an algorithm is presented for the calculation of short-period orbits when observational data comprise radial velocities and polar coordinates. The method is applied to some examples.
We present surface photometry in U BV RI passbands of the barred spiral galaxies NGC 7479 and NGC 7606, for which observations were obtained at the Cassegrain focus of the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope at La Palma. Data are presented in the form of images and mean radial profiles from azimuthal fits of ellipses, giving the luminosity, ellipticities and position angles of the isophotes as functions of the galactocentric radii. Images in I-band are shown in Figure 1 of NGC 7479 (left) and NGC 7606 (right). These belong to a sample of galaxies with moderate circumnuclear starbursts. We are analyzing their structure to study the effects of departures from an axisymmetric potential for the dynamics of a galaxy. One objective of this study is to make a three-dimensional model of the bar and bulge using the method of photometric inversion. The sample consists of 27 spiral galaxies with and without a bar.
The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2/breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2/BCRP) is an efflux protein involved in the bioavailability and milk secretion of endogenous and exogenous compounds, actively affecting milk composition. A limited number of physiological substrates have been identified. However, no studies have reported the specific effect of this polymorphism on the secretion into milk of compounds implicated in milk quality such as vitamins or endogenous compounds. The bovine ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism is described as a gain-of-function polymorphism that increases milk secretion and decreases plasma levels of its substrates. This work aims to study the impact of Y581S polymorphism on plasma disposition and milk secretion of compounds such as riboflavin (vitamin B2), enterolactone, a microbiota-derived metabolite from the dietary lignan secoisolariciresinol and uric acid. In vitro transport of these compounds was assessed in MDCK-II cells overexpressing the bovine ABCG2 (WT-bABCG2) and its Y581S variant (Y581S-bABCG2). Plasma and milk levels were obtained from Y/Y homozygous and Y/S heterozygous cows. The results show that riboflavin was more efficiently transported in vitro by the Y581S variant, although no differences were noted in vivo. Both uric acid and enterolactone were substrates in vitro of the bovine ABCG2 variants and were actively secreted into milk with a two-fold increase in the milk/plasma ratio for Y/S with respect to Y/Y cows. The in vitro ABCG2-mediated transport of the drug mitoxantrone, as a model substrate, was inhibited by enterolactone in both variants, suggesting the possible in vivo use of this enterolignan to reduce ABCG2-mediated milk drug transfer in cows. The Y581S variant was inhibited to a lesser extent probably due to its higher transport capacity. All these findings point to a significant role of the ABCG2 Y581S polymorphism in the milk disposition of enterolactone and the endogenous molecules riboflavin and uric acid, which could affect both milk quality and functionality.