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Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
There is no suitable vaccine against human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and available drugs are toxic and/or present high cost. In this context, diagnostic tools should be improved for clinical management and epidemiological evaluation of disease. However, the variable sensitivity and/or specificity of the used antigens are limitations, showing the necessity to identify new molecules to be tested in a more sensitive and specific serology. In the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed in Leishmania infantum promastigotes and amastigotes employing sera samples from VL patients. Aiming to avoid undesired cross-reactivity in the serological assays, sera from Chagas disease patients and healthy subjects living in the endemic region of disease were also used in immunoblottings. The most reactive spots for VL samples were selected, and 29 and 21 proteins were identified in the promastigote and amastigote extracts, respectively. Two of them, endonuclease III and GTP-binding protein, were cloned, expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments against a large serological panel, and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of disease. In conclusion, the identified proteins could be considered in future studies as candidate antigens for the serodiagnosis of human VL.
To compare the accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in tracking mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).
A Systematic review of the PubMed, Bireme, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo databases was conducted. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria and staring with 1,629 articles, 34 articles were selected. The quality of the selected research was evaluated through the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2).
More than 80% of the articles showed MoCA to be superior to MMSE in discriminating between individuals with mild cognitive impairment and no cognitive impairment. The area under the curve varied from 0.71 to 0.99 for MoCA, and 0.43 to 0.94 for MMSE, when evaluating the ability to discriminate MCI in the cognitively healthy elderly individuals, and 0.87 to 0.99 and 0.67 to 0.99, respectively, when evaluating the detection of AD. The AUC mean value for MoCA was significantly larger compared to the MMSE in discriminating MCI from control [0.883 (CI 95% 0.855-0.912) vs MMSE 0.780 (CI 95% 0.740-0.820) p < 0.001].
The screening tool MoCA is superior to MMSE in the identification of MCI, and both tests were found to be accurate in the detection of AD.
Polymorphisms in the growth hormone (GH) and IGF type-1 (IGF1) genes have been associated with the economic traits in farm animals, including BW of some sheep breeds. However, it remains unknown if these polymorphisms also affect carcass traits in sheep. Thus, we aimed to identify polymorphisms in the GH and IGF1 genes in Santa Ines sheep in order to describe their allelic and genotypic frequencies as well as to test the hypotheses that they are associated with the carcass traits. Fragments of 4550 bp (IGF1) and 1194 bp (GH) were sequenced in up to 191 lambs. In all, 18 polymorphisms were identified in the IGF1 and 21 in the GH gene. The IGF1 polymorphisms rs430457475, rs412470350, rs409110739 and rs400113576 showed an additive effect on the internal carcass length (−0.9265±0.4223), rump girth (−2.9285±1.1473), rib yield (−1.0003±0.4588) and neck weight (−0.0567±0.0278), respectively. In addition, the polymorphisms rs58957314 in the GH affected the rib weight (−0.4380±0.1272) and rib yield (−2.2680±0.6970), loin weight (−0.1893±0.0516) and loin yield (−0.9423±0.3259), palette weight (−0.2265±0.0779) and palette yield (−0.9424±0.4184), leg weight (−0.3960±0.1375), neck weight (−0.0851±0.0394) and carcass finishing score (−0.1700±0.0839). These results allow us to conclude that there are polymorphisms in the IGF1 and GH genes associated with carcass traits in Santa Ines sheep, which can provide important information for marker-assisted selection.
In vivo experiments are the preferred method for ruminant feed evaluation, but they are very expensive, laborious and time-consuming. In situ and in vitro techniques are commonly used as a routine all over the world as a predictor of in vivo results. In situ assays have been the basis of many feed evaluation systems due to its ease of use and low cost. In vitro techniques, such as gas production, give an opportunity to get similar information plus a better description of fermentative kinetics. The aim of this work was to compare data obtained from in vivo, in vitro and in situ assays for the evaluation of three tropical forages used in ruminant nutrition in Brazil.
ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and particularly Escherichia coli ST131 isolates producing CTX-M enzymes are commonly found colonizing the intestine of nursing home (NH) residents, but ST131 subclonal structure has been scarcely explored in this vulnerable population. Our goal was to perform a pilot study to assess the faecal carriage rate and epidemiological features of ESBL- and/or carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E and CPE, respectively) among NH residents. For this purpose, faecal samples from residents at 4 different NHs in the North of Portugal (representing 9·5% of the residents’ population, July 2014) were screened for ESBL-E and/or CPE by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Clonal structure and plasmid typing of ESBL-producing E. coli (ESBL-Ec) was performed by PCR and sequencing. Four ESBL-Ec isolates (2 CTX-M-15/2 CTX-M-14) were found in 20% of the samples, all belonging to the pandemic clonal lineage B2-ST131-O25b:H4. Two different clades were identified, the C2/H30-Rx-virotype C producing CTX-M-15 and an atypical B/H22-like-virotype D5 (producing CTX-M-14 and fluoroquinolone-resistant), firstly described in Portugal. This pilot study highlights the role of NH residents as a source of different ST131 clades, besides emphasizing the importance of E. coli B2-ST131 subtyping in different clinical settings, and understanding the transmission dynamics of the different variants.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
The δ Scuti stars are pulsating variables located in the lower part of the Cepheid instability strip with spectral types from A2 to F0 on the main sequence, and from A3 to F5 at luminosity class III. These variables show short periods (< 0.3day) and luminosity amplitudes ranging from a few thousandths of a magnitude to several tenths. Over the last few years, significant progress has been made in the detection of pulsating modes in the framework of the multisite campaigns, e.g. STACC (Frandsen et al. 1996), DSN (Breger et al. 1998), STEPHI (Michel et al. 2000). For the 1998 STEPHI IX photometry campaign, the δ Scuti star V534 Tau of the Pleiades cluster (see Table 1) was monitored during a three week, three continent run. Preliminary results are reported here.
Some results of the photometry multi-site observations of two δ Scuti stars, V624 Tau and HD 23194, are presented. The observations were carried out in the framework of a STEPHI network in 1999. We collected 343 hours of useful data and detected seven frequencies in V624 Tau and two frequencies in HD 23194.
Certain trypanosomatids co-evolve with an endosymbiotic bacterium in a mutualistic relationship that is characterized by intense metabolic exchanges. Symbionts were able to respire for up to 4 h after isolation from Angomonas deanei. FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) similarly increased respiration in wild-type and aposymbiotic protozoa, though a higher maximal O2 consumption capacity was observed in the symbiont-containing cells. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, did not affect A. deanei respiration, whereas TTFA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone), a complex II activity inhibitor, completely blocked respiration in both strains. Antimycin A and cyanide, inhibitors of complexes III and IV, respectively, abolished O2 consumption, but the aposymbiotic protozoa were more sensitive to both compounds. Oligomycin did not affect cell respiration, whereas carboxyatractyloside (CAT), an inhibitor of the ADP-ATP translocator, slightly reduced O2 consumption. In the A. deanei genome, sequences encoding most proteins of the respiratory chain are present. The symbiont genome lost part of the electron transport system (ETS), but complex I, a cytochrome d oxidase, and FoF1-ATP synthase remain. In conclusion, this work suggests that the symbiont influences the mitochondrial respiration of the host protozoan.
Exoplanetary transit observations were carried out for the first time with all the three telescopes at the San Pedro Mártir National Astronomical Observatory in Baja California, Mexico.
We present preliminary results on WASP-39 and WASP-43, two Hot Jupiters known for the presence of a highly-inflated radius. Using the defocused photometry technique, we observed these systems, achieving photometric precision of ± 3–5mmag peak-to-valley. The preliminary fit of their lightcurves shows physical and orbital parameters consistent with published results.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of dietary-induced insulin enhancement during the late luteal phase on subsequent fertility of gilts. Fifty-two littermate cyclic gilts were subjected to dietary treatments where two energy sources were tested: corn starch (T1) and soybean oil (T2). The experimental diets were supposed to provide similar amounts of dietary energy, but from different sources. Gilts were fed ad libitum, starting day 8 of the estrous cycle, until the next standing heat. Blood sampling was performed in a subgroup of 20 gilts on days 14 and 21 of the cycle for analyses of glucose and insulin, and after ovulation detection until 18 h after ovulation for progesterone. All gilts were slaughtered on day 28 of pregnancy and the reproductive tracts recovered for further analysis. T1 gilts showed higher postprandial insulin peak on days 14 and 21 and lower glucose levels 4 h after feeding on day 14 (P<0.05), however, there were no treatment effects on plasma progesterone concentrations. Dietary energy sources did not affect average daily feed intake, body weight and backfat on day 28 of pregnancy. Estrous cycle length, estrus duration and time of ovulation were not affected by previous nutritional treatments either. T1 gilts showed higher ovulation rates, number of embryos, embryo weight and placental weight (P<0.05). There were no treatment effects on pregnancy rate, embryo survival rate and volume of amniotic fluid. A positive correlation between progesterone concentration 18 h after ovulation and ovulation rate was observed (r=0.75; P<0.01). These results suggest that it is possible to manipulate dietary insulin response in cyclic gilts and, thus, improve reproductive efficiency when feeding starch as the main energy source during the late luteal and follicular phases of the cycle.
Glutamine may be a precursor for NO synthesis, which may play a crucial role in bacterial translocation (BT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of glutamine on BT and the immunological response in an experimental model of NO synthase inhibition by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). Mice were randomly assigned to four groups: sham; intestinal obstruction (IO); IO+500 mg/kg per d glutamine (GLN); IO+GLN plus 10 mg/kg per d l-NAME (GLN/LN). The groups were pretreated for 7 d. BT was induced by ileal ligation and was assessed 18 h later by measuring the radioactivity of 99mTc-Escherichiacoli in the blood and organs. Mucosal damage was determined using a histological analysis. Intestinal permeability (IP) was assessed by measuring the levels of 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid in the blood at 4, 8 and 18 h after surgery. IgA and cytokine concentrations were determined by ELISA in the intestinal fluid and plasma, respectively. BT was increased in the GLN/LN and IO groups than in the GLN and sham groups. IP and intestinal mucosa structure of the sham, GLN and GLN/LN groups were similar. The GLN group had the highest levels of interferon-γ, while IL-10 and secretory IgA levels were higher than those of the IO group but similar to those of the GLN/LN group. The present results suggest that effects of the glutamine pathway on BT were mediated by NO. The latter also interferes with the pro-inflammatory systemic immunological response. On the other hand, IP integrity preserved by the use of glutamine is independent of NO.
Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius is a threatened Brazilian bird, and very little is known about its ecology and behaviour. In this study we aimed to verify the use of habitats in different stages of plant succession and the circadian activity pattern of the species. The study was conducted in Santa Catarina state (27º43’S, 48º49’W). Six camera traps were used to record the species in three areas of different successional stages during a 12-month period. Traps remained at each sample site for two months, after which they were moved to a new site, a minimum distance of 100 m apart. A total of 76 independent records of Solitary Tinamou were obtained, and its habitat use was found to be different within the three successional stages (P = 0.02). The majority of 54 independent records were obtained in the secondary forest; not one photo of the species was taken in the most degraded area. Solitary Tinamou exhibited a crepuscular pattern of activity, with most records (n = 38) taken at 07h00 and 06h00, and it appears to be sensitive to forest clearance.
The economics of coffee plantations is intrinsically linked to pruning, which can improve the canopy architecture and thereby increase productivity. However, recommended pruning times on conilon coffee plantations have been made on an entirely empirical basis. In this study, by evaluating growth, photosynthetic gas exchanges, starch accumulation and crop productivity, the effects of pruning at different times between harvest and flowering were investigated for six conilon coffee clones with distinct stages of fruit maturation (early, intermediate and late). Clones with an early maturation stage were pruned at four different times: 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after harvest (DAH). Intermediate clones were pruned at 0, 30 and 60 DAH, and late clones were pruned at 0 and 30 DAH. Overall, the rates of shoot growth and net photosynthesis, the stomatal conductance and the crop yield were not affected by the pruning treatments in any of the clones. In addition, pruning times did not affect the concentrations of starch or the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The carbon isotope composition ratio was marginally affected by the treatments. These results suggest that the pruning time after harvests is relatively unimportant and pruning operations can be scheduled to optimise the use of labour, which directly impacts the production costs of coffee.
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious and costly clinical problem. Specifically, receiving mechanical ventilation over 24 hours increases the risk of VAP and is associated with high morbidity, mortality and medical costs. This complication is especially hard to diagnose in children because of non-specific clinical signs and lack of established diagnostic methods. Cost effective endotracheal tubes (ETTs) that are resistant to bacterial infection would be essential tools for the prevention of VAP. In addition to their bacterial resistance, ETT with magnetic nanoparticles could aid in the diagnosis of VAP allowing physicians to locate infections with greater accuracy.
The objective of this study was twofold, first to develop strategies to decrease bacterial adhesion on nano-rough ETT and secondly to develop better methods to assess in vitro bacterial adhesion or biofilm formation on ETT. In preliminary tests, nanomodified polyvinyl chloride (PVC) ETTs has been shown to be effective at reducing bacterial colonization. This study also sought to evaluate the bacterial resistance of these ETTs more effectively by creating a bench top airway model, which can create a similar environment to the flow system that ETTs are exposed to in vivo.
The airway model designed to test ETTs has two Plexiglas chambers representing the oropharynx and the lungs, a tube representing the trachea and finally an intricate pumping system to the oropharynx with bacteria flow and to the lung with simulated compliance and resistance. ETTs were connected to a ventilator and passing the oropharynx into the trachea and observed under the mechanical ventilation and continuous bacterial flow system. In addition, the study examined dual gas flow conditions and their effect on bacterial growth of ETT.
In no less than three separate trials in the airway chamber, each ETT will be tested for its effectiveness at the reduction of bacterial growth within the airway by sampling from both lung and oropharynx chambers during continuous operation. Special attention will be given to the long-term effects on the ETT by including a study that lasts longer than ten days. Both the bacterial proliferation in the two chambers and on the ETT itself will be carefully analyzed. This specialized testing should yield valuable information on the efficacy of nanomodified ETT in airway conditions and will provide further evidence to determine if nanomodified ETTs are a valid solution to VAP.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different trough types on the water consumption and drinking behaviour of pasture-based beef heifers. Two trials were implemented with 32 beef heifers to test two different types of water troughs, namely a rectangular concrete trough (RC) and a round polyvinyl chloride water tank (PVC). In Trial 1, both troughs were simultaneously available to groups of four animals within eight paddocks. In Trial 2, the animals were distributed in pairs throughout 16 paddocks and, in a crossover design, were exposed to one type of trough at a time. In both trials, estimated water intake was per four animals. Number of drinking bouts, time spent drinking and amount of water intake from the RC and PVC trough were recorded in both trials. Data were statistically analysed by analysis of variance. In Trial 1, group and trough effect were in the model. In Trial 2, stage, pair and trough were tested. In Trial 1, where both types of troughs were available, animals had a higher number of drinking bouts (3.32 v. 0.57 ± 0.09; P < 0.01), longer drinking periods (144.21 v. 22.81 ± 7.3 s; P < 0.01) and greater intake (160.21 v. 23.76 ± 13.06 l; P < 0.01) from the PVC water tank, compared to the RC trough. In Trial 2, all groups drank more often (5.10 v. 3.28 ± 0.32; P < 0.001), for longer periods (167.23 v. 115.23 ± 15.61 s; P < 0.02) and with higher intake (141.36 v. 118.47 ± 5.01 l; P < 0.02) from the PVC than from the RC trough. Thus, heifers not only prefer, but also drink more from a PVC water tank in comparison to a RC trough.
Age at weaning affects the behaviour of piglets weaned in conventional confined environments. The adaptation of piglets to this event, which exposes piglets to important stressors, has not been examined in detail in outdoor systems. The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of piglets weaned at 3 or 4 weeks of age in an outdoor production system. Six replicates of four piglets born and raised outdoors, originated from different litters but previously acquainted, were weaned at the age of approximately 20 (D20) or 30 (D30) days in 36 m2 outdoor pens and offered high-quality diets. Their behaviour was recorded by direct visual observation during four consecutive days after weaning (days 1 to 4). Data were analysed by repeated measures ANOVA. An effect of weaning age was observed on feeding and rooting ( P < 0.01), and a day-by-weaning age interaction for escape attempts, vocalizing, walking and fighting ( P < 0.01), and playing ( P < 0.03). Compared to D30 piglets, D20 piglets showed a higher frequency of escape attempts on day 1, vocalized more during days 1 and 2, and walked more during days 1 to 3 ( P < 0.05). Feeding behaviour, on the other hand, was higher in D30 piglets on days 1 to 3 ( P < 0.05). On days 3 and 4, D30 piglets spent more time interacting with peers (playing and fighting; P < 0.05) and on day 4 were more active than D20 piglets ( P < 0.05). As previously reported in confined environments, age at weaning affected the behaviour of piglets raised on the outdoors system. Weaning appeared to be more stressful for the piglets at 3 than at 4 weeks of age. The impact of weaning age on welfare cannot be ignored, especially when outdoor breeding of pigs is proposed to address welfare concerns of the public.
Our aim was to evaluate the ability of prenatal ultrasound scans to predict fetal growth discordance, and to examine the correlation between fetal weight estimated by ultrasound with actual birthweight in twin pregnancies. The study consisted of 221 twin pregnancies with ultrasound fetal weight estimates based on Hadlock's 4 parameter formula. Prediction of intertwin birthweight discordance was examined at 4 different intervals between ultrasound examination and delivery (0–7 days, n = 96; 8–14 days, n = 66; 15–21 days, n = 58; 22–28 days, n = 59 pregnancies), with a total of 279 ultrasound examinations. Birthweight discordance was considered as a difference of 20% or greater. The correlation between fetal weight estimated between 0 and 7 days and actual birthweight was calculated by intraclass correlation coefficient. The predictive values for intertwin discordance of 20% or more in the 0 to 7 days group were: sensitivity = 93.6%, specificity = 79.4%, positive predictive value = 89.2%, negative predictive value = 87.1% and accuracy = 88.6%. In the groups with scans carried out between 8 and 14 days, 15 and 21 days, and 22 and 28 days, the sensitivity and accuracy values were 95.8% and 84.9%, 95.6% and 84.5%, 90.9% and 84.8%, respectively. Fetal growth discordance in twins can be accurately predicted by ultrasound examination performed up to 28 days before birth. There is a good correlation between fetal weight estimated between 0 and 7 days and actual birthweight.