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TwinsUK is the largest cohort of community-dwelling adult twins in the UK. The registry comprises over 14,000 volunteer twins (14,838 including mixed, single and triplets); it is predominantly female (82%) and middle-aged (mean age 59). In addition, over 1800 parents and siblings of twins are registered volunteers. During the last 27 years, TwinsUK has collected numerous questionnaire responses, physical/cognitive measures and biological measures on over 8500 subjects. Data were collected alongside four comprehensive phenotyping clinical visits to the Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London. Such collection methods have resulted in very detailed longitudinal clinical, biochemical, behavioral, dietary and socioeconomic cohort characterization; it provides a multidisciplinary platform for the study of complex disease during the adult life course, including the process of healthy aging. The major strength of TwinsUK is the availability of several ‘omic’ technologies for a range of sample types from participants, which includes genomewide scans of single-nucleotide variants, next-generation sequencing, metabolomic profiles, microbiomics, exome sequencing, epigenetic markers, gene expression arrays, RNA sequencing and telomere length measures. TwinsUK facilitates and actively encourages sharing the ‘TwinsUK’ resource with the scientific community — interested researchers may request data via the TwinsUK website (http://twinsuk.ac.uk/resources-for-researchers/access-our-data/) for their own use or future collaboration with the study team. In addition, further cohort data collection is planned via the Wellcome Open Research gateway (https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/gateways). The current article presents an up-to-date report on the application of technological advances, new study procedures in the cohort and future direction of TwinsUK.
The current study aimed to examine the correspondence between sales data and dietary recall data for sugary drinks in Canada.
Repeat cross-sectional analysis of sales data for sugary drinks sold in Canada from 2004 to 2015 from two sources: GlobalData (GD) and Euromonitor (EM). Sugary drinks included ten beverage categories containing free sugars. Analyses examined sales volumes over time, with adjustment for population growth. National intake estimates were drawn from the 2004 and 2015 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Nutrition.
In 2015, daily per capita sugary drinks consumption was estimated as 356 ml (GD) and 443 ml (EM) from sales data sources, and as 277 ml from dietary recall data. Both sales data sources and dietary recall data indicated that per capita sugary drinks consumption decreased from 2004 to 2015, although the magnitude of this change differed: −23 % (GD), −17 % (EM) and −32 % (CCHS Nutrition). Market sales data showed similar trends among categories of sugary drinks, with decreases in sales of traditional beverage categories (e.g. carbonated soft drinks) and increases in novel categories (e.g. sugar-sweetened coffee).
All data sources indicate a declining trend in sugary drinks consumption between 2004 and 2015, but with considerable differences in magnitude. Consumption estimates from sales data were substantially higher than estimates from dietary recall data, likely due to under-reporting of beverage intake through dietary recall and the inability of sales data to account for beverages sold but not consumed. Despite the observed decline, sugary drinks sales volumes remain high in Canada.
Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) absorbers are considered promising alternatives to commercial thin film technologies including CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGSe) owing to the earth abundance and non-toxicity of their constituents. However, to be competitive with the existing technologies, the photovoltaic performance of CZTSSe solar cells needs to be improved beyond the current record conversion efficiency of 12.6%. In this study, nanoscale elemental mapping using Auger nanoprobe microscopy (NanoAuger) and nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) are used to provide a clear picture of the compositional variations between the grains and grain boundaries in Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 kesterite thin films. NanoAuger measurements revealed that the top surfaces of the grains are coated with a Zn-rich (Zn,Sn)Ox layer. While thick oxide layers were observed at the grain boundaries, their chemical compositions were found to be closer to SnOx. NanoSIMS elemental maps confirmed the presence of excess oxygen deeper within the grain boundary grooves, as a result of air annealing of the CZTSSe films.
How can we characterize and understand the relationship between men and women? One answer to this question involves group membership, including the relative social roles men and women “ought to” occupy and thus the extent to which men versus women hold status and power in society. Another involves intimate heterosexual relationships, such as how men and women “ought to” care for each other in their close, personal relationships. These answers highlight the complexities of the relationship between men and women, which can be considered as both intergroup and competitive and interpersonal and cooperative.
As outlined by ambivalent sexism theory (Glick & Fiske, 1996, 2001) these conflicting concerns of power and intimacy produce two related forms of sexist attitudes toward women (see Connor, Glick, & Fiske, Chapter 13, this title). Hostile sexism encompasses competitive attitudes that cast women as incompetent, overly emotional, and attempting to unfairly undermine men's power. These attitudes reinforce men's advantaged societal status by threatening and denigrating women who could challenge men's power. However, protecting societal-level advantages in this manner comes at the expense of men attaining security and satisfaction within intimate heterosexual relationships. Benevolent sexism arises to offset these costs and facilitate men's relationship needs. Benevolent sexism characterizes the relationship between men and women as mutually beneficial and based on complementary traits and social roles: Men are “completed” by cherishing and protecting female partners who, in turn, adopt the role of warm, supportive caregivers.
In their chapter, Connor et al. examined how ambivalent attitudes restrict women's political, economic, and personal power. On the basis of that foundational chapter, here we take a more fine-grained look at the central role that dynamics within romantic relationships play in the emergence, functions, and consequences of hostile and benevolent sexism toward women. Tables 14.1 and 14.2 summarize the principles derived from ambivalent sexism theory and associated research that we review in this chapter. We begin by examining men's endorsement of hostile and benevolent sexism (Table 14.1). We first outline the difficulties that men's hostile sexism creates in romantic relationships and consider how these deficits necessitate benevolent sexism. We then consider the ways men's benevolent sexism functions within intimate relationships to facilitate men's intimacy needs while maintaining and promoting their power. In the second half of the chapter, we turn to women's endorsement of benevolent and hostile sexism (Table 14.2).
Background: Advances in surgical leads have been thought to potentially enable improved low-back pain relief using SCS. A recently introduced 32-contact surgical lead, which couples multiple independent current control and anatomically-based neural targeting stimulation algorithms, allows for patient-specific programming optimization. We present a real world study of this surgical lead. Methods: A multi-center, consecutive, observational study of a new 32-contact surgical lead was carried out, using the Precision Spectra SCS System (Boston Scientific) in 100 subjects out to 12 months post-implant. We examined procedural information, programming parameters, and clinical outcomes including pain reduction (NRS), activities of daily living, and change in pain medications. Results: Surgical lead placement distribution was between T7 and L2, with most at top of T9 (26%). A mean reduction of 5.1 points (SD 2.15, p<0.001) from 7.8 (baseline) to 2.6 in overall pain was observed. A subset of subjects reporting low-back pain only exhibited a mean decrease of 6.0 points (SD 2.12, p<0.001) from 8.3 (baseline) to 2.2. Of these, 83.1% of subjects showed ≥50% back pain reduction. Increases in activities of daily living and reduction in pain medication usage were also observed in majority of subjects. Conclusions: Subjects implanted with a 32-contact surgical lead using a neural targeting algorithm demonstrated significant low-back pain reduction.
To test modifications to nutrition label serving size information on understanding of energy (calorie) content among youth and young adults.
Participants completed two online experiments. First, participants were randomly assigned to view a beverage nutrition label with a reference amount of per serving (250 ml), per container (473 ml) or a dual-column format with both reference amounts. Participants were then randomized to view a cracker nutrition label which specified a single serving in small font, a single serving in large font, or the number of servings per bag with single serving information below. In both experiments, participants estimated energy content. Logistic regression analysis modelled correct energy estimation. Finally, participants reported their preference for serving size display format.
Canadian youth and young adults (n 2008; aged 16–24 years).
In experiment 1, participants randomized to view the nutrition label with per container or dual column were more likely to correctly identify energy content than those using per serving information (P<0·01). For experiment 2, the serving size display format had no association with correct energy estimation. The majority of participants (61·9 %) preferred the serving size format that included servings per package.
Labelling foods with nutrition information using a serving size reference amount for the entire container increased understanding of energy content. Consumers prefer nutrition labels that include more prominently featured serving size information. Additional modifications that further improve consumers’ accuracy should be examined. These results have direct implications for nutrition labelling policy.
Background: Whole-slide scanning of tissue sections spatially informed by imaging studies offers the opportunity to reconstruct specimens for co-registration to 3D imaging data. Digital image analysis algorithms can be designed to analyze and reconstruct such specimens via electronic “pipelines”. Methods: A goal of the Canadian Atherosclerosis Imaging Network (CAIN) is to improve the assessment of carotid atheromatous disease through studies that inform clinical imaging with gold-standard data (plaque pathology). To achieve this, sectioned atheromas are manually annotated and analyzed by electronic algorithm for pathological features of interest. Resulting images are then reassembled in 3D for registration to ultrasound, CT, PET-CT and MRI studies. Results: Carotid endarterectomy specimens were sub-serially sectioned, stained, digitized and annotated manually and by electronic algorithms. Resulting 2D images were successfully rendered, reassembled and analyzed in 3D using ex-vivo micro-CT as a spatial reference. Furthermore, histology quantification using colour deconvolution was found to be preferred over hue-saturation-intensity methods 94.7-100% of the time in a blinded multiple rater study. Conclusion: Automated “pipelines” greatly facilitate 3D reconstruction in comparison to traditional slice-by-slice methods. Transformations spatially guided by pre-existing imaging data is not only faster, but has superior objectivity and fidelity. With embedded annotations, 3D pathology maps become a rich, micron-level, permanent digital pathological database for correlative studies.
Background: It has been hypothesized that [18F]-sodium fluoride (NaF) uptake imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) binds to hydroxyapatite molecules expressed in regions with active calcification. Therefore, we aimed to validate NaF as a marker of hydroxyapatite expression in high-risk carotid plaque. Methods: Eleven patients (69 ± 5 years, 3 female) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy were prospectively recruited for NaF PET/CT. One patient received a second contralateral endarterectomy; two patients were excluded (intolerance to contrast media and PET/CT misalignment). The bifurcation of the common carotid was used as the reference point; NaF uptake (tissue to blood ratio - TBR) was measured at every PET slice extending 2 cm above and below the bifurcation. Excised plaque was immunostained with Goldner’s Trichrome and whole-slide digitized images were used to quantify hydroxyapatite expression. Pathology was co-registered with PET. Results: NaF uptake was related to the extent of hydroxyapatite expression (r=0.45, p<0.001). Upon classifying bilateral plaque for symptomatology, symptomatic plaque was associated with cerebrovascular events (3.75±1.1 TBR, n=9) and had greater NaF uptake than clinically silent asymptomatic plaque (2.79±0.6 TBR, n=11) (p=0.04). Conclusion: NaF uptake is related to hydroxyapatite expression and is increased in plaque associated with cerebrovascular events. NaF may serve as a novel biomarker of active calcification and plaque vulnerability.
Rapid population growth and economic change on the tropical islands of Mauritius have led to one of the highest rates of urban build-out in the world. Pressure on many of the island's natural features and resources increasingly risks further degradation to the environmental services that they provide to the country. Fourteen types of marine and terrestrial environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) are critical to the nation's sustainable development. Twelve of these ESA types are currently at risk of degradation, owing to their spatial proximity to built-up areas (BUAs) and current use designation. There was a bimodal distribution in proximity; eight of the 12 ESA types analysed had an area-weighted modal peak < 500 m from the nearest BUA, and four ESAs had a modal peak 2–3 km from the nearest BUA. Six coastal and marine ESAs had limited protection from urban expansion and over-use. The Mauritian experience reflects trends that are emerging across many tropical developing countries, where the bulk of future global growth in urban area is expected to occur. The approach detailed in this case study is replicable and may be useful in assessing degradation risk as a result of urban expansion in other island countries.
This paper explores the role of a designer's sense of engagement in early stage design. In the field of virtual reality, presence and immersion are standard measures of an individual's sense of engagement and involvement in an activity. High levels of presence might indicate that the designer is highly focused on the work. The central research question is the following: do designers who are more engaged in design activity, as measured by presence and immersive tendency questionnaires, produce better designs? An experiment was conducted to assess presence and immersive tendencies within the context of a hands-on, open-ended design-and-build activity. The results indicated that the designers' sense of immersion and presence ranged widely as well as their sense of frustration and calmness while performing the design activity. It was found that higher levels of presence correlated with either high design performance or low design performance. Lower levels of presence correlated with average design performance. No correlations were found between immersive tendency and design performance. This study suggests that some level of presence can be linked with better design, and it implies that level of presence might serve as an indicator of performance and learning in similar design-and-build activities.
A retrospective cohort study was performed following several reported cases of gastrointestinal illness after a catered event. The attack rate was 45/77 (58·4%) by clinical case definition, with four individuals confirmed to have Campylobacter. There was near universal exposure to most foodstuffs served; consumption of duck liver pâté [relative risk (RR) 2·53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05–6·10], mixed leaf salad (RR 2·91, 95% CI 1·22–6·92) and table water (RR undefined, P < 0·01) were associated with illness in univariate analysis, with only the latter associated in the final multivariable model (P < 0·001). Samples of cooked duck liver pâté subsequently prepared using identical methods at the venue were contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli; water sampling was negative. Making inferences about causation in the presence of near universal exposures in this study required consideration of the limitations of statistical analysis, with the most compelling evidence of the causal role of inadequately prepared duck liver pâté provided by environmental investigation.
This study provides a detailed description of the development of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves over the first 12 months of age. GIT development was measured using a combination of computerised tomography (CT) scanning and traditional slaughter plus dissection techniques. Red deer calves of a known birth date were randomly assigned to two treatment groups. A group of five animals were repeatedly CT scanned at 31, 63, 92, 135, 207, 275 and 351 days of age to identify GIT organs and determine their volume. From a group of 20 animals, subsets of four individuals were also scanned at corresponding ages (except 135 days of age). They were immediately euthanised and dissected after CT scanning to compare CT-scanned results with actual anatomical measurements. Individual organ weights were compared with their respective organ volumes determined by CT scanning and were found to have a strong, positive relationship. The combined rumen and reticulum (RR) CT-scanned volume was compared with its volume determined by the water-displacement technique and this also showed good correlation between the two techniques (R = 0.92). The allometric growth rates of organs, relative to animal live weight gains, in descending order, were the rumen, omasum, reticulum, abomasum, caecum blind sac, kidneys, spleen and liver. The red deer GIT was continuing to grow and develop when the last measurement was taken at 351 days of age. The greatest growth of the RR, when expressed in terms of empty weight, was between 31 and 92 days of age. Compared with sheep and cattle, it appears that the red deer have a similar or greater rate of RR development up until approximately 60 to 90 days of age; however, the final increments of GIT maturity in deer may take longer to complete, with the empty weight of the RR gaining 7.5 g/day between 275 and 351 days of age. CT scanning was validated in this study as a viable technique to follow GIT development in the same animals over time, and it provided novel information on allometric organ growth. The success of CT scanning highlights the potential future use of diagnostic imaging for GIT development studies.
Energy is essential for human development and energy systems are a crucial entry point for addressing the most pressing global challenges of the 21st century, including sustainable economic and social development, poverty eradication, adequate food production and food security, health for all, climate protection, conservation of ecosystems, peace and security. Yet, more than a decade into the 21st century, current energy systems do not meet these challenges.
A major transformation is therefore required to address these challenges and to avoid potentially catastrophic future consequences for human and planetary systems. The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) demonstrates that energy system change is the key for addressing and resolving these challenges. The GEA identifies strategies that could help resolve the multiple challenges simultaneously and bring multiple benefits. Their successful implementation requires determined, sustained and immediate action.
Transformative change in the energy system may not be internally generated; due to institutional inertia, incumbency and lack of capacity and agility of existing organizations to respond effectively to changing conditions. In such situations clear and consistent external policy signals may be required to initiate and sustain the transformative change needed to meet the sustainability challenges of the 21st century.
The industrial revolution catapulted humanity onto an explosive development path, whereby, reliance on muscle power and traditional biomass was replaced mostly by fossil fuels. In 2005, some 78% of global energy was based on fossil energy sources that provided abundant and ever cheaper energy services to more than half the people in the world.
Energy is essential for human development and energy systems are a crucial entry point for addressing the most pressing global challenges of the 21st century, including sustainable economic, and social development, poverty eradication, adequate food production and food security, health for all, climate protection, conservation of ecosystems, peace, and security. Yet, more than a decade into the 21st century, current energy systems do not meet these challenges.
In this context, two considerations are important. The first is the capacity and agility of the players within the energy system to seize opportunities in response to these challenges. The second is the response capacity of the energy system itself, as the investments are long-term and tend to follow standard financial patterns, mainly avoiding risks and price instabilities. This traditional approach does not embrace the transformation needed to respond properly to the economic, environmental, and social sustainability challenges of the 21st century.
A major transformation is required to address these challenges and to avoid potentially catastrophic consequences for human and planetary systems. The GEA identifies strategies that could help resolve the multiple challenges simultaneously and bring multiple benefits. Their successful implementation requires determined, sustained, and immediate action.
The industrial revolution catapulted humanity onto an explosive development path, whereby reliance on muscle power and traditional biomass was replaced mostly by fossil fuels. In 2005, approximately 78% of global energy was based on fossil energy sources that provided abundant and ever cheaper energy services to more than half the world's population.