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The user's gaze can provide important information for human–machine interaction, but the analysis of manual gaze data is extremely time-consuming, inhibiting wide adoption in usability studies. Existing methods for automated areas of interest (AOI) analysis cannot be applied to tangible products with a screen-based user interface (UI), which have become ubiquitous in everyday life. The objective of this paper is to present and evaluate a method to automatically map the user's gaze to dynamic AOIs on tangible screen-based UIs based on computer vision and deep learning. This paper presents an algorithm for automated Dynamic AOI Mapping (aDAM), which allows the automated mapping of gaze data recorded with mobile eye tracking to the predefined AOIs on tangible screen-based UIs. The evaluation of the algorithm is performed using two medical devices, which represent two extreme examples of tangible screen-based UIs. The different elements of aDAM are examined for accuracy and robustness, as well as the time saved compared to manual mapping. The break-even point for an analyst's effort for aDAM compared to manual analysis is found to be 8.9 min gaze data time. The accuracy and robustness of both the automated gaze mapping and the screen matching indicate that aDAM can be applied to a wide range of products. aDAM allows, for the first time, automated AOI analysis of tangible screen-based UIs with AOIs that dynamically change over time. The algorithm requires some additional initial input for the setup and training, but analyzed gaze data duration and effort is only determined by computation time and does not require any additional manual work thereafter. The efficiency of the approach has the potential for a broader adoption of mobile eye tracking in usability testing for the development of new products and may contribute to a more data-driven usability engineering process in the future.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
Firestone & Scholl (F&S) rely on three problematic assumptions about the mind (modularity, reflexiveness, and context-insensitivity) to argue cognition does not fundamentally influence perception. We highlight evidence indicating that perception, cognition, and emotion are constructed through overlapping, distributed brain networks characterized by top-down activity and context-sensitivity. This evidence undermines F&S's ability to generalize from case studies to the nature of perception.
Relatively lower executive functioning is characteristic of individuals with schizophrenia. As low socio-economic status (SES) early in life (i.e. parent SES) has been linked with lower executive skills in healthy children, we hypothesized that parental SES (pSES) would be more strongly related to executive functioning in individuals with schizophrenia than in controls and have a greater impact on prefrontal cortical morphology.
Healthy controls (n = 125) and individuals with schizophrenia (n = 102) completed tests assessing executive functioning and intelligence. The groups were matched on pSES, which was evaluated with the Hollingshead–Redlich scale. A principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted on 10 variables from six executive tests, yielding three specific components (fluency, planning and response inhibition). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to evaluate effects of pSES on gray matter (GM) concentration.
Lower pSES was associated with lower scores across the three executive functioning components, and a significant group by pSES interaction was observed such that low pSES, in particular, affected individuals with schizophrenia. These effects remained significant when intellectual ability, education and self-SES (sSES) were added as covariates. VBM revealed that lower pSES was associated with reduced GM volume in several anterior brain regions, especially the superior frontal gyrus, in patients but not in controls.
These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia may be particularly vulnerable to the adverse impact of low pSES, in terms of both lower executive skills and reduced anterior GM volumes.
Previous studies have suggested that motivational aspects of executive functioning, which may be disrupted in schizophrenia patients with negative symptoms, are mediated in part by the striatum. Negative symptoms have been linked to impaired recruitment of both the striatum and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Here we tested the hypothesis that negative symptoms are associated primarily with striatal dysfunction, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).
Working-memory load-dependent activation and gray matter volumes of the striatum and DLPFC were measured using a region-of-interest (ROI) approach, in 147 schizophrenia patients and 160 healthy controls. In addition to testing for a linear relationships between striatal function and negative symptoms, we chose a second, categorical analytic strategy in which we compared three demographically and behaviorally matched subgroups: patients with a high burden of negative symptoms, patients with minimal negative symptoms, and healthy subjects.
There were no differences in striatal response magnitudes between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, but right DLPFC activity was higher in patients than in controls. Negative symptoms were inversely associated with striatal, but not DLPFC, activity. In addition, patients with a high burden of negative symptoms exhibited significantly lower bilateral striatal, but not DLPFC, activation than schizophrenia patients with minimal negative symptoms. Working memory performance, antipsychotic exposure and changes in gray matter volumes did not account for these differences.
These data provide further evidence for a robust association between negative symptoms and diminished striatal activity. Future work will determine whether low striatal activity in schizophrenia patients could serve as a reliable biomarker for negative symptoms.
According to the embedded liberalism thesis, governments committed to
free trade provide insurance and other transfers to compensate those who
lose economically from expanded trade. The goal of this spending is to
maintain public support for trade liberalization. We provide a micro-level
test of the critical assumption behind the embedded liberalism thesis that
government programs designed to protect individuals harmed by imports
reduce opposition to free trade. Our micro results have important
implications for the macro relationship between trade and government
spending, which we also test. We find empirical support for the embedded
liberalism thesis in both our micro- and macro-level analyses.Earlier versions of this article were presented
at the Midwest Political Science Association's 2002 Meeting and at
the University of Illinois during summer 2003. We thank the respective
panel and seminar participants for their feedback. In addition, we want to
acknowledge valuable comments from William Bernhard, Rebecca Blank, Kerwin
Charles, Alan Deardorff, John DiNardo, John Freeman, Brian Gaines, Jim
Granato, Nathan Jensen, William Keech, Layna Mosley, Robert Pahre, Ken
Scheve, Marina Whitman, two anonymous reviewers, and Lisa Martin. They, of
course, are not responsible for any errors.
Things made of clay are easily broken. When a piece is on the point of being broken and yet retains its integrity – this is the point at which it is beautiful.
Teshigahara (quoted in Ashton, 1997)
When first released, in 1964, Woman in the Dunes an independent production made on a limited budget (about $100,000) achieved a kind of cult status in the West. In the film, and in the novel by Abe Kôbô on which it was based, we can recognize an updated version of the myth of Sisyphus the man imprisoned in the Absurd and tormented by the need to find a meaning to his circumstances as an allegory of our time. The pit and the desert are represented as places of synthesis, based on a dynamism of opposition and of merging rules. These are the qualities that make this film both accessible and obscure, universal and specific.
Woman in the Dunes is a meditation on identity. This is made explicit by Teshigahara, the director, from the opening credit scene in which a mass of hanko (name-seals) fills the screen. The woman is never named and the man's proper name – Junpei Niki is given only at the end of the film. The entomologist is first introduced as a character tied to identity cards that are his social credentials. The novel, divided into two parts, opens with the statement “One day in August a man disappeared” and closes with the man's decision that “there was no particular need to hurry about escaping.”
A clear understanding of human population growth, consumption patterns, and their effects on the environment, particularly amongst our future leaders, is essential for proper allocation of conservation efforts. We report on the results of a written questionnaire assessing the knowledge and attitudes of undergraduate university students majoring in a range of disciplines in the United States of America (USA) and in Costa Rica (CR) regarding population- and environment-related issues. Our results indicated limited knowledge about human population growth and the environment, with USA students and male students more often responding correctly to factual questions on demography and global environmental change than CR students, who nonetheless were generally more pessimistic about environmental quality and the carrying capacity of the planet. USA students, however, more often recognized the link between human population size and environmental quality. Education on population and environmental issues will be improved if: (1) linkages between population size, consumption, and environmental quality are taught; (2) the effects of individual actions on environmental quality are emphasized; and (3) environmental education is tailored to local issues.
We investigate the effect of Fe substitution for Co on the lattice thermal conductivity of CoSb3 skutterudites. The polycrystalline materials are formed from uniaxially hot-pressed powders. Three alloys were prepared with 0, 3% and 10% Fe, respectively. Thermal conductivity measurements were made between 80 K to 450 K. The lattice thermal conductivity of 10%Fe:CoSb3 is approximately two times smaller than the lattice thermal conductivity of CoSb3 over the entire temperature range. This effect cannot be accounted for by the phenomenlogical theory considering only the mass difference and strain field due to the alloying (Fe) atom. Other phonon scattering mechanisms are discussed. Comparison is made with the partially-filled skutterudite alloy, La0.65Fe2.8Co1.1Sb12.
The use of chemical solution routes to form inorganic thin films is a relatively new method which represents an alternative to vapor phase routes. The present study involves the use of a chemical solution route, the decomposition of metal carboxylates, to prepare bismuth thin films of controlled porosity. Such morphologies offer the opportunity to disrupt phonon transport without greatly affecting electrical conductivity and bismuth represents a well known system in which to investigate these effects. Porous bismuth thin films have been prepared using bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate (Bi[OOCCH(C2H5)C4H9]3) as the precursor in a solvent of 2-methyl- 1-propanol. The solution is deposited on glass, Kapton, silicon, alumina or magnesia substrates by spin coating and heated to between 250 – 300°C in hydrogen. Heat treatment temperature and time are important for controlling film microstructure as both pore volume (25 to 50%) and preferred orientation depend upon heat treatment conditions. Bismuth films (62 nm thick) with 32% porosity exhibit conductivities in the range of 150 S/cm with Seebeck coefficients comparable to that of bulk materials.
In order to characterize GATA transcription factors in Echinococcus granulosus, a PCR-based cloning strategy was developed. Degenerate oligonucleotides were designed for the most conserved sequence in GATA proteins that include 20 amino acids of the zinc domain. A 60 bp fragment was isolated that had high homology among this sequence and those reported in other species. An analogous sequence was obtained by performing the same procedure with DNA from the free living platyhelminth Dugesia tigrina. High stringency Southern blotting experiments confirmed the presence of this sequence in the parasite genome.
The traveler dreams of destinations, of familiar faces, of sites whose names have been sung by poets, painters, and other travelers of the past. The suitcases are packed with necessities and with one or two objects that will lead the traveler's thoughts back to home. Loved ones, like the youngest daughter, Kyoko, in Tokyo monogatari (Tokyo Story, 1953) by Ozu Yasujiro, might go to see the traveler off at the station.
As we all know, however, the destination is not always as imagined. Once-familiar faces have aged, perhaps growing into more rigid masks with the years. Children seen years ago might be transformed completely. The splendors of one's destination might be as tarnished as an old brass pot too long in need of cleaning.
Then again, there is another possibility: someone at the end of the journey who had seemed a relative stranger could be discovered to be warm and caring, like Noriko, the young war widow of one of the sons of the Hirayama family. A city or house considered merely a point of passing could turn out to hold unexpected charms. The journey traveled is never the journey dreamed. The journey has its own logic and its own necessities. As several of the characters in Tokyo Story learn, the traveler who does not bend to this logic is broken by it.
When a new and promising thermoelectric material is discovered, an effort is undertaken to improve its “figure of merit”. If the effort is to be more efficient than one of trial and error with perhaps some “rule of thumb guidance” then it is important to be able to make the connection between experimental data and the underlying material characteristics, electronic and phononic, that influence the figure of merit. Transport and fermiology experimental data can be used to evaluate these material characteristics and thus establish trends as a function of some controllable parameter, such as composition. In this paper some of the generic-materials characteristics, generally believed to be required for a high figure of merit, will be discussed in terms of the experimental approach to their evaluation and optimization. Transport and fermiology experiments will be emphasized and both will be outlined in what they can reveal and what can be obscured by the simplifying assumptions generally used in their interpretation.
Although improvements in human health represent a crucial aspect of development worldwide, many trends associated with development and global change appear to be reducing health security. In this article, we define the human epidemiological environment and describe key biophysical, economic, sociocultural, and political factors that shape it. The potential impact upon the epidemiological environment of aspects of both development and global change are then examined: the influences of human population size, mobility, geographic distribution, and nutritional status; modernization; loss of indigenous medicinal knowledge; microbial evolution of antibiotic resistance; land conversion and biodiversity loss; agricultural intensification; stratospheric ozone depletion; and climate change. Human vulnerability to infectious disease is often strongly and deleteriously influenced by ongoing, intensifying changes in these factors. An unprecedented level of communication and cooperation between experts, institutions, and nations is required to respond to the increasing threat of epidemic disease, which points to a promising area for enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration.
Structural studies, electrical resistivity, and Seebeck coefficient measurements are reported in the range 4.2 − 300 K for single crystals of NiS2−xSex (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.71) grown from a Te melt. Over the entire temperature and composition ranges there are no large scale structural changes concomitant to a variety of magnetic ordering phenomena, and to a changeover from insulating to metallic characteristics as x increases. Thus, the evolution in transport characteristics with x can be studied without interference from the lattice; moreover, the electron count is unaffected by substitution of Se for S. The existence of anomalous peaks in resistivity as a function of temperature is attributed to significant electron correlation phenomena which allow the entropy of charge carrier to play a dominant role. The complex temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient is attributed to the participation of both electrons and holes in charge transport.
The decline and subsequent above-replacement plateau in Costa Rican fertility rates illustrates a demographic pattern that is apparent in other developing countries. This paper discusses the complexity of factors that contribute to the fertility plateau in Costa Rica. These contributory factors include the social and economic status of women, socio-economic conditions in general, lack of government commitment to and supply of family planning services relative to demand, deficient sex and family-planning education, and the powerful institutional influence of the Catholic Church.
We then discuss possible strategies, for developing and developed nations alike, to slow and eventually halt the exponential growth of the global human population. For this quintessential need the most important strategies, we suggest, are targeted education for both sexes and provision of comprehensive contraceptive and abortion services.