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Bilingual infants vary in when, how, and how often they hear each of their languages. Variables such as the particular languages of exposure, the community context, the onset of exposure, the amount of exposure, and socioeconomic status are crucial for describing any bilingual infant sample. Parent report is an effective approach for gathering data about infants’ language experience. However, its quality is highly dependent on how information is elicited. This paper introduces a Multilingual Approach to Parent Language Estimates (MAPLE). MAPLE promotes best practices for using structured interviews to reliably elicit information from parents on bilingual infants’ language background, with an emphasis on the challenging task of quantifying infants’ relative exposure to each language. We discuss sensitive issues that must be navigated in this process, including diversity in family characteristics and cultural values. Finally, we identify six systematic effects that can impact parent report, and strategies for minimizing their influence.
Previous research suggests that English monolingual children and adults can use speech disfluencies (e.g., uh) to predict that a speaker will name a novel object. To understand the origins of this ability, we tested 48 32-month-old children (monolingual English, monolingual French, bilingual English–French; Study 1) and 16 adults (bilingual English–French; Study 2). Our design leveraged the distinct realizations of English (uh) versus French (euh) disfluencies. In a preferential-looking paradigm, participants saw familiar–novel object pairs (e.g., doll–rel), labeled in either Fluent (“Look at the doll/rel!”), Disfluent Language-consistent (“Look at thee uh doll/rel!”), or Disfluent Language-inconsistent (“Look at thee euh doll/rel!”) sentences. All participants looked more at the novel object when hearing disfluencies, irrespective of their phonetic realization. These results suggest that listeners from different language backgrounds harness disfluencies to comprehend day-to-day speech, possibly by attending to their lengthening as a signal of speaker uncertainty. Stimuli and data are available at <https://osf.io/qn6px/>.
Historically, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have been documented as central features of Intermountain West and Great Plains Native American camps. Some of these dogs were bred specifically for largeness and stamina to haul travois and to carry pannier-style packs. Ethnographic accounts frequently highlight the importance of dogs in moving through the Intermountain West and the plains, reporting loads as heavy as 45 kg (100 lbs). We calculated body mass from skeletal morphometric data and used these to estimate prehistoric and historic dog load capacities for travois and pannier-style packs in the Intermountain West, Great Plains, and Great Basin. Specimens of large dogs recovered from sites in the Birch Creek Valley in Idaho and on the Great Plains indicate the animals could carry weights comparable to ethnographically recorded loads. Further, direct dating of the Birch Creek dog specimens indicated that dogs of this size have been present in the Intermountain West for more than 3,000 years. These data have important implications for our understanding of prehistoric mobility in the Intermountain West and the plains and suggest that the use of dogs in transporting cargo may have begun as early as 5,000 years ago.
This article compares Russian–Western cooperation in the Arctic and Space, with a focus on why cooperation continued after the 2014 annexation of Crimea. On the basis of this comparative approach, continued cooperation is linked to the following factors: (1) the Arctic and Space are remote and extreme environments; (2) they are militarised but not substantially weaponised; (3) they both suffer from ‘tragedies of the commons’; (4) Arctic and Space-faring states engage in risk management through international law-making; (5) Arctic and Space relations rely on consensus decision-making; (6) Arctic and Space relations rely on soft law; (7) Arctic states and Space-faring states interact within a situation of ‘complex interdependence’; (8) Russia and the United States are resisting greater Chinese involvement in these regions. The article concludes with the following contribution to international relations theory: The more that states need to cooperate in a particular region or issue-area, and the more they become accustomed to doing so, the more resilient that cooperation will become to tensions and breakdowns in other regions and issue-areas. This phenomenon can be termed ‘complex and resilient interdependence’, to signify that complex independence is more than a description. It can, sometimes, affect the course of state-to-state relations.
The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua has witnessed relatively little archaeological research. In the last decade, however, there has been a substantial effort to record regional archaeological sites. First excavated in the early 1970s, the Angi shell-matrix site has been subject to new investigations, which have identified the first burial to be recorded on the Nicaraguan Caribbean coast. Although collagen preservation was insufficient for direct radiocarbon dating, samples obtained from surrounding deposits date the burial to c. 3900 BC. This represents both the earliest archaeological feature recorded to date on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua and the oldest-known human remains from the region.
In an attempt to utilize large amounts of Japanese beetles, Popillia japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) that were captured using a mass trapping system, compost using Japanese beetle carcasses was prepared with the layer method. Carbon sources included shredded paper, wood chips and leaves, while the sole nitrogen source was frozen Japanese beetles. In addition, Japanese beetle-based vermicompost was prepared in the greenhouse by mixing the Japanese beetle-based compost with sphagnum peat moss and moist shredded paper and exposing this mixture to composting earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Chemical analyses of the Japanese beetle carcasses indicated that 10.8% of their body weight is nitrogen (N). Analyses of the resulting Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost indicated that both types of materials are good quality soil amendments. Greenhouse studies were conducted to quantify the effects of varying proportions of Japanese beetle-based vermicompost and compost mixed with a potting medium and varying dosages of synthetic fertilizer 20-0-0, on mean fresh and dry weight of lettuce shoots and leaf area. Japanese beetle-based compost and vermicompost increased lettuce biomass to an extent that was comparable with the addition of synthetic N-based fertilizer. A mixture of 15 and 30% of each compost type with potting media significantly increased plant weight and leaf area compared with potting medium alone. Results indicate that composting and vermicomposting insect carcasses are a simple, effective and affordable method to augment fertilization in support of organic production.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Explore perceptions of Flint stakeholders on the water crisis regarding trust and the capacity of faith and community-based organizations providing public health services to address community needs. Analyze the community’s voice shared at (1) 17 key community communications (community/congressional meetings and events), and (2) during 9 focus group sessions, in which residents, faith-based leadership and other stakeholders discuss issues and concerns on the Flint Water Crisis, and recommend ways to address them. Develop a framework that defines core theories, concepts and strategies recommended by the community to help rebuild trust and the quality of life in Flint, Michigan, and support other communities experiencing environmental stress. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Study population: faith-based leaders, seniors, youth, Hispanic/Latino and African American stakeholders, and others experiencing inequities in the city of Flint. Convene 9 focus group sessions (recorded and transcribed) to learn community perceptions on trust and ways to address it. Validate accuracy of the transcriptions with community consultants to reconcile any inaccurate information. Through a community engaged research (CEnR) process, review and analyze qualitative data from the 9 focus group sessions, and quantitative data from 2 surveys documenting (1) demographic backgrounds of focus group participants, and (2) their perceptions on trust and mistrust. Prepare a codebook to qualitatively analyze the focus group data summarizing community input on trust, mistrust, changes in service delivery among community and faith-based organizations, and ways to re-build trust in the city of Flint. Transcribe the community’s voice shared during 17 key events, identified by a team of community-academic stakeholders (i.e., UM Flint water course, congressional and community events, etc.), in which residents and other stakeholders discuss issues and concerns on the Flint Water Crisis, and recommend ways to address it. Qualitatively analyze the transcriptions, using a CEnR process to prepare a codebook on key themes from the community’s voice shared at these events, and recommendations on ways to address it. Compare and contrast findings between the two codebooks developed from (1) the focus group data and (2) qualitative analysis of community voice during public meetings and events. Synthesize this information into a framework of core theories, concepts and rebuilding strategies for Flint, Michigan. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: It is important to note many undocumented immigrant populations in Flint fear deportation and other consequences, hampering their ability to obtain service and provide community voice. Through our purposive sampling approach, we will hear from community voices not often included in narratives (i.e., seniors, youth, Hispanic/Latino residents). The presentation will present findings documenting levels of trust and mistrust in the city of Flint; and a framework of recommendations, core theories and concepts on ways to reduce, rebuild and eliminate stress that will be helpful to other communities experiencing distress. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: To our knowledge, levels of trust and mistrust in Flint have not been documented thus far. We will compare and contrast common themes presented by the community at public meetings and events with themes presented in our focus group effort on trust. Faith and community-based providers were among the first responders to the Flint Water Crisis. The effort will also share perceptions on changes in public health service delivery, and observations on preparedness for these roles that occurred among community and faith-based providers. Finally, the effort will (1) support the design of a research agenda, (2) define a framework of core theories, concepts and recommendations developed by the community to help rebuild trust in Flint, Michigan; and (3) support other communities addressing environmental distress.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: One of the driving mechanisms of cancer progression is the reprogramming of metabolic pathways in intermediary metabolism. Cancers increase their energy expenditure by increasing ATP production for utilization in anabolic pathways to increase production of proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The Warburg effect, where cancer cells predominantly use aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP, was long thought to be the main initiating pathway in increasing tumor burden. However, compelling new evidence shows that there exists metabolic heterogeneity among and within tumors. Mitochondrial respiration often plays a major role in tumor progression, as many different cancers contain a subpopulation of slow-cycling tumor-initiating cells that are multidrug-resistant and dependent on oxidative phosphorylation. These cells represent a target for cancer therapy. In this study, we identification a novel endogenous regulator of mitochondrial respiration, retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We assessed the metabolic phenotype of RARRES1-depleted normal epithelial cells through metabolomics, a flux analyzer and blotting for phosphorylation of AMP kinase, a major regulator of energy homeostasis. We further examined mitochondrial energetics by staining the mitochondria with TMRM and Mito-Tracker. We then analyzed the apoptotic phenotype of epithelial cells with depletion of RARRES1 with fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of annexin V-staining. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Remarkably, fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of annexin V-stained epithelial cells with depletion of RARRES1 were resistant to all studied modes of cell death, implying an effect on a fundamental cell process. By using proteomics, metabolomics, cellular and molecular analyses, our data show that RARRES1 regulates mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently alters 1-carbon metabolism by modulating the function of the mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel. We believe this is the first example of a tumor suppressor protein that functions to directly regulate mitochondrial energetics. Using an extracellular flux analyzer, our data also show that depletion of RARRES1 causes an increase in mitochondrial respiration and ATP production, thus enhancing biosynthetic pathways that drive the pathogenicity and survival of cancer. The metabolic and anti-apoptotic phenotype of RARRES1-depleted cells was reversed by treatment of metformin, a mitochondrial inhibitor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: These data lay the foundation for metabo-therapy of the many tumor types that exhibit RARRES1 depletion and may have the added benefit of targeting drug-resistant tumor-initiating cells.
Cellular adhesion depends on the integration of numerous signaling inputs generated by the chemical and physical properties of the substrate. The complex coupling among inputs makes it challenging experimentally to deconvolve their individual contributions to the adhesion process. To address this roadblock, we have employed a combination of electron beam and optical lithographic techniques to fabricate substrates with independently tunable topographical and chemical signaling cues. Arrays of gold nanostructures were patterned atop quartz substrates, half of which were etched into gold-capped nanopillars. Individual A549 cells exposed simultaneously to Arg-Gly-Asp-functionalized etched and non-etched arrays exhibited strongly preferential adherence to the nanopillars.
Over the last decade, archaeologists have turned to large radiocarbon (14C) data sets to infer prehistoric population size and change. An outstanding question concerns just how direct of an estimate 14C dates are for human populations. In this paper we propose that 14C dates are a better estimate of energy consumption, rather than an unmediated, proportional estimate of population size. We use a parametric model to describe the relationship between population size, economic complexity and energy consumption in human societies, and then parametrize the model using data from modern contexts. Our results suggest that energy consumption scales sub-linearly with population size, which means that the analysis of a large 14C time-series has the potential to misestimate rates of population change and absolute population size. Energy consumption is also an exponential function of economic complexity. Thus, the 14C record could change semi-independent of population as complexity grows or declines. Scaling models are an important tool for stimulating future research to tease apart the different effects of population and social complexity on energy consumption, and explain variation in the forms of 14C date time-series in different regions.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Russia has dropped rocket stages fuelled with unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) into the Barents Sea and the North Water Polynya—areas of considerable ecological importance—on ten occasions since 2002. The stages come from SS-19 intercontinental missiles that have been re-purposed for launching satellites. UDMH is a highly toxic chemical that has caused widespread health and environmental damage in Kazakhstan and Russia as a result of its extensive use there as a rocket fuel. Not all of the fuel on-board is consumed during a launch and the residual fuel tends to escape the incoming stages and form aerosol clouds that drift over large areas. This dropping of the rocket stages is of considerable concern to the Inuit of Canada and Greenland, who only learned about the practice in 2016. It is also a violation of several treaties as well as customary international law. At least two more launches of UDMH-fuelled rockets on the same trajectory are currently planned—even though alternative non-toxic rocket systems exist.
A laboratory device was built to measure the forces that ice exerts on a 0.05 m diameter rigid plastic sphere in two different configurations: in contact with a flat bed or isolated from the bed. Measurements indicated that bed-normal contact forces were 1.8 times larger than drag forces due to creeping flow past a slippery sphere isolated from the bed. Measurements of forces as a function of the bed-normal ice velocity, estimations of the ice viscosity parameter and observations of markers in the ice indicate ice is Newtonian with a viscosity of ~1.3x 1011 Pas. Newtonian behavior is expected due to small and transient stresses. A model of regelation indicates that it had a negligible (<5%) influence on forces. Water pressure in the cavity beneath the sphere in contact with the bed had a likewise negligible influence on contact forces. When no cavity is present, drag forces can be correctly estimated using Stokes’s law (Newtonian viscosity) for a slippery sphere. The same law with a bed-enhancement factor of 1.8 is appropriate for estimating bed-normal contact forces. These results reinforce previous laboratory measurements and theories but provide no support for explanations of high debris/bed friction or rates of abrasion that depend on high contact forces.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The goal of this study is to examine bioenergetic phenotype of retinoic acid receptor responder 1 (RARRES1)-depleted epithelial cells and to facilitate the discovery of personalized metabo-therapeutics in the context of cancers characterized with loss of or low expression of RARRES1. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Anoikis assay and annexinV labeling were used to assess drug resistance and apoptotic phenotype in RARRES1-depleted epithelial cells. Metabolomics, AMP kinase activity, mito-tracker, and extracellular flux assays were used to examine the bioenergetic profile of RARRES1-depleted epithelial cells. Extracellular flux assays were used to assess the phenotype of RARRES1-depleted epithelial cells treated with or without metformin. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: RARRES1 is a major regulator of mitochondrial function. Its depletion in tumors induces an oxidative phosphorylation dependent phenotype and subsequently increases ATP abundance in the cell, enhances anabolic pathways and increases survival. Treatment with FDA approved mitochondrial respiration inhibitor, metformin, reversed the metabolic phenotype of RARRES1 depleted-epithelial cells. Metformin could be the ideal therapeutics to reduce tumor burden in cancers with loss of or low expression of RARRES1. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Bioenergetic dynamics are emerging as a basis for understanding the pathology of cancer. The malignancy progresses as its metabolic pattern and mitochondrial respiration become more dysfunctional. The regulatory pathways of bioenergetic dynamics are currently poorly understood, and the characterization of proteins implicated in those processes must be assessed. One understudied protein and tumor suppressor is RARRES1. RARRES1 is induced by retinoic acid (a major metabolic regulator) and functions as a putative carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Understanding the connection between this carboxypeptidase inhibitor and intermediary metabolism will enlighten our understanding of the bioenergetic profile of cells and facilitate the discovery of personalized metabo-therapeutics in the context of cancer.
Canada has five unresolved maritime boundaries. This might seem like a high number, given that Canada has only three neighbours: the United States, Denmark (Greenland), and France (St. Pierre and Miquelon). This article explores why Canada has so many unresolved maritime boundaries. It does so through a comparison with Norway, which has settled all of its maritime boundaries, most notably in the Barents Sea with Russia. This comparison illuminates some of the factors that motivate or impede maritime boundary negotiations. It turns out that the status of each maritime boundary can only be explained on the basis of its own unique geographic, historic, political, and legal context. Canada’s unresolved maritime boundaries are the result of circumstances specific to each of them and not of a particular policy approach in Ottawa.
In the fossil record of the Paleozoic, epifauna are typically shelly, whereas infauna are typically soft-bodied; the two groups have tended to be studied in isolation from one another, and commonly by different specialists. We believe that the understanding of patterns of distribution and evolution of epifauna cannot proceed in the absence of data on infauna. Over the past decade, several workers have attempted to combine information about the two groups into models of community evolution.
The 1960s and 1970s excavations at Owl Cave (10BV30) recovered mammoth bone and Folsom-like points from the same strata, suggesting evidence for a post-Clovis mammoth kill. However, a synthesis of the excavation data was never published, and the locality has since been purged from the roster of sites with human/extinct megafauna associations. Here, we present dates on bone from the oldest stratum, review provenience data, conduct a bone-surface modification study, and present the results of a protein-residue analysis. Our study fails to make the case for mammoth hunting by Folsom peoples. Although two of the point fragments tested positive for horse or elephant protein, recent AMS dates indicate that all of the mammoth remains predate Folsom, and horse remains are absent from the Owl Cave collection. Further, no unambiguously cultural surface modifications were identified on any of the mammoth remains. Given the available data, the Owl Cave deposits are most parsimoniously read as containing a Folsom-age occupation in a buried context, the first of its kind in the desert West, but one nonetheless part of a palimpsest of terminal Pleistocene materials.