To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Generalization of conditioned-fear, a core feature of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), has been the focus of several recent neuroimaging studies. A striking outcome of these studies is the frequency with which neural correlates of generalization fall within hubs of well-established functional networks including salience (SN), central executive (CEN), and default networks (DN). Neural substrates of generalization found to date may thus reflect traces of large-scale brain networks that form more expansive neural representations of generalization. The present study includes the first network-based analysis of generalization and PTSD-related abnormalities therein.
fMRI responses in established intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) representing SN, CEN, and DN were assessed during a generalized conditioned-fear task in male combat veterans (N = 58) with wide-ranging PTSD symptom severity. The task included five rings of graded size. Extreme sizes served as conditioned danger-cues (CS+: paired with shock) and safety-cues (CS−), and the three intermediate sizes served as generalization stimuli (GSs) forming a continuum-of-size between CS+ and CS–. Generalization-gradients were assessed as behavioral and ICN response slopes from CS+, through GSs, to CS–. Increasing PTSD symptomatology was predicted to relate to less-steep slopes indicative of stronger generalization.
SN, CEN, and DN responses fell along generalization-gradients with levels of generalization within and between SN and CEN scaling with PTSD symptom severity.
Neural substrates of generalized conditioned-fear include large-scale networks that adhere to the functional organization of the brain. Current findings implicate levels of generalization in SN and CEN as promising neural markers of PTSD.
Our objective was to determine whether chorionicity affects umbilical cord blood acid-base parameters of the second twin. This was a retrospective cohort of twin pregnancies delivered at ≥23 weeks of gestation at a tertiary hospital from 2010 to 2016. Patients were included if arterial and venous umbilical cord gas results were available for both newborns and chorionicity was confirmed histologically. Exclusion criteria included intrauterine fetal demise of either twin prior to labor, major fetal anomalies, monoamnionicity, uncertain chronicity and twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome. The primary outcome evaluated was the umbilical artery (UA) pH of the second twin. A total of 593 dichorionic (DC) and 86 monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies were included. No difference in UA pH was observed between MC and DC twins. Among vaginal deliveries (n = 97), the UA pH of the first twin was higher than the second twin (7.26 vs. 7.24; p = .01). Twin-to-twin delivery interval (TTDI) ≥20 min was associated with a higher UA pH in the first twin compared to the second twin (7.25 vs. 7.16, respectively; p = .006). Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict arterial pH < 7.20 for the second twin; the most predictive factors were arterial pH < 7.20 for the first twin, chronic hypertension and prolonged TTDI. Chorionicity was not associated with any acid-base parameter of umbilical cord blood in either the first or second twin. No differences in neonatal outcomes were observed based on chorionicity or birth order. Populations with a lower cesarean delivery rate may yield different findings.
From the late 1950s, Africans seeking higher education went to a rapidly increasing number of destinations, both within Africa and overseas. Based on multi-sited archival research and memoirs, this article shows how Africans forged and used new routes to gain access to higher education denied to them in their territories of origin, and in this way also shaped scholarship policies across the globe. Focusing on British-ruled territories in East Africa, the article establishes the importance of African intermediaries and independent countries as hubs of mobility. The agency of students and intermediaries, as well as official responses, are examined in three interconnected cases: the clandestine ‘Nile route’ from East Africa to Egypt and eastern Europe; the ‘airlifts’ from East Africa to North America; and the ‘exodus’ of African students from the Eastern bloc to western Europe. Although all of these routes were short-lived, they transformed official scholarship provisions, and significantly shaped the postcolonial period in the countries of origin.
In this comment on the special issue, Burton situates the essays in the scholarship of 1980s and 1990s as well as very recent scholarship on age of consent laws. She notes patterns — including processes of abstraction and transnational circulation — that shaped the cases gathered here. She points as well to the stakes of prioritizing gender and conjugality in scholarship on legal imperial regimes of all kinds.
Exploring the trope of the ‘insider-outsider’ which recurs across three centuries of black and Asian British writing, this chapter considers nineteenth-century travellers of African and Asian descent as they made their way in and through Britain. In 1857, following her arrival in Britain after working as a nurse in the Crimea, Mary Seacole published her Wonderful Adventures … in Many Lands. This autobiographical account of her travels casts her quest for economic stability as a series of travel ‘adventures’, revealing the gendered and racialized landscapes she navigated as she sought a livelihood both at home and abroad. Behramji Malabari’s account of his travels to Britain in 1893, The Indian Eye on English Life, offers a different perspective on the pathway through empire. Whilst Seacole expresses a patriotism, which is conflicted by her racial position, Malabari (Parsi journalist and writer from Bombay), is a more disappointed citizen of empire, preoccupied by the sordid and parochial London he encounters. Taken together, their writings serve as ‘traveling provocations’, reminding us of the complex and often contradictory visions hailed by movement across the metropole-colony divide.
Recent studies of subaerial volcano carbon flux have challenged previous assumptions about carbon recycling in the mantle and the ratio of ingassing to outgassing. This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge of the flux of carbon from subaerial volcanoes at subduction zones and intraplate locations, as well as through diffuse degassing away from volcanic vents. It also reviews the importance of crustal carbonate assimilation and carbonate platforms on these fluxes. The chapter presents an overview of how these fluxes are estimated – including descriptions of new technologies and recent field campaigns – and the timescales of flux measurements. It also summarizes what is currently known about the flux of carbon versus other volatile elements in these various settings. Supplemental online material is available for this chapter at www.cambridge.org/9781108477499#resources.
We determined how pasture and grazing management practices affected the number of days hay was fed to cattle by season. Data were collected from a survey of Tennessee cattle producers. Days of cattle on hay varied across seasons because of variations in forage production and weather. The number of days hay was fed to cattle varied with pasture-animal management practices such as rotating pastures, forage mixtures, and weed management strategies. Having mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses reduced the number of days on hay in the winter, spring, and summer months indicating benefits from diversified forages.
Since their emergence in the late eighteenth century, doctrines of universal individual rights have been variously criticized as philosophically confused, politically inefficacious, ideologically particular, and Eurocentric. Nevertheless, today the discourse of universal human rights is more internationally widespread and influential than ever. In Evidence for Hope, leading international relations scholar Kathryn Sikkink argues that this is because human rights laws and institutions work. Sikkink rejects the notion that human rights are a Western imposition and points to a wide range of evidence that she claims demonstrates the effectiveness of human rights in bringing about a world that is appreciably improved in many ways from what it was previously. We have invited a broad range of scholars to assess Sikkink’s challenging claims.
Teachers of world history will welcome this book as an important addition not just to our store of knowledge about the remaking of the modern world, but to our repertoire of methods for understanding how the global emerged as a condition of colonial and postcolonial modernity. For in addition to being an attempt to explain how the global crises of the early twentieth century helped to “engender a revival of the parochial” (p. 326) in the present, C. A. Bayly's Remaking the Modern World, 1900–2015 offers a set of design principles for how to imagine that historical process through a combination of diachronic and synchronic approaches.
This essay analyzes inequality and the construction of childhood in the early US juvenile justice system. Although the juvenile justice movement’s best intentions focused on protecting children from neglect and the criminal justice system, historians have argued that protective juvenile justice was unequal and ephemeral. I critically summarize three histories of juvenile justice: Anthony Platt’s The Child Savers: The Invention of Delinquency (1969), Geoff Ward’s The Black Child-Savers: Racial Democracy and Juvenile Justice (2012), and Tera Agyepong’s The Criminalization of Black Children: Race, Gender, and Delinquency in Chicago’s Juvenile Justice System, 1899–1945 (2018). I argue that the common thread in these studies is the construction of poor and black youth as unchildlike. Because the juvenile court arose in a context where not all youth were considered children, it never treated all youth as innocent or in need of protection.
The Gold Coast 2018 Commonwealth Games presented the host city with a number of opportunities to improve its infrastructure and sporting facilities in line with its long-term strategic vision to transition to being a more mature and sustainable Australian city. However, major events such as the Commonwealth Games have a chequered history of bestowing lasting benefits and a positive legacy on the host city. This article examines the ways in which infrastructure planning for the 2018 Games was used to underpin the success experienced by the Gold Coast in harnessing the event to achieve broader city building objectives. It also reflects critically on how major event-led development can be used to support existing strategic city plans.
‘Genre’, a complex concept in the study of language, literature and culture, has a long critical history, though the word first appears in English in the eighteenth century. Its study begins in antiquity: both Plato and Aristotle seek to distinguish between various modes of storytelling and imitation and scrutinize their truth claims and capacity for misrepresentation. Most simply, ‘genre’ identifies the formal features and purposive patterns that allow speakers and listeners to communicate, readers to differentiate types of texts and bookstores to organize their shelves: first-person speech, imitation or indirect narration; fiction, poetry or science; documentary or invention. Such uses belie the concept's critical significance, however; as these examples illustrate, genre is the product of historically specific interactions among writers, texts and readers. John Frow (2015, 83) describes ‘genres’ as ‘complex constellations’ whose analysis requires attention to multiple, overlapping dimensions: formal organization, rhetorical structure and thematic content. To examine ‘genre’ is to investigate how these dimensions simultaneously allow for and constrain the production of meaning. In Frow's lucid account, genres at once ‘frame’ the world to make it intelligible and show us how to ‘move between knowledge given directly in text and other sets of knowledge that are relevant to understanding it’ (88). We expect genres to have considerable continuity and stability; we require this for texts to be intelligible. Yet genre innovation and development are inevitable, given historical and social evolution – and fascinating as well. M. M. Bakhtin famously argues that modernity necessitates the evolution of prose genres agile enough to depict its polyglot cultures and rapid social transformations. Using the ‘ossified generic skeleton’ of premodern genres as counterpoint, Bakhtin (1981, 8, 39) celebrates the fidelity to lived experience and historical complexity that ‘novelistic genres’, with their ‘plasticity’ and ‘zone of direct contact with developing reality’, afford.
‘Travel writing’ has a vexed relationship with ‘genre’. Most attempts at definition note the research field's diffuseness, the term's opacity: it ‘has always embraced a bewilderingly diverse range of material’, and ‘has always maintained a complex and confusing relationship with any number of closely related (indeed, often overlapping) genres’ (Thompson 2011-, 11). In establishing the field, scholars have expressly defined ‘travel writing’ as transdisciplinary and transcultural: both the corpus of texts they study and their critical methodologies characterize it broadly, not simply as a subset of ‘literature’.
‘Self’ has a long history in English and its Germanic antecedents. A juxtaposition of two Oxford English Dictionary definitions demonstrates its complexity: (1) ‘[t] hat which in a person is really and intrinsically he (in contradistinction to what is adventitious); the ego (often identified with the soul or mind as opposed to the body); a permanent subject of successive and varying states of consciousness’ and (2) ‘[w]hat one is at a particular time or in a particular aspect or relation; one's nature, character, or (sometimes) physical constitution or appearance, considered as different at different times.’ These definitions signal key questions for travellers, writers and readers: Who travels, and writes about travel: an intrinsic, permanent self, or one that may be transformed by difference or disaster? Can a ‘true self’ be identified, or is the self an ever-changing construct? In responding, the familiar tropes linking ‘self’ and ‘travel’ rely upon varied assumptions. One might prove oneself through arduous experience, journey in order to find oneself, or become oneself through encounters with others. In writing one might adopt the uncertain voice of the traveller in danger or the ‘solemnity and self-congratulatory tone’ of the confident imperialist (Pratt 1992, 208). Travel writing may feature a picaresque hero and plot or a character who evolves and matures through experience. Its meanings are bound up with deep-set assumptions about the nature of the self who travels, experiences and reports.
Notions about the self are particularly important in analysing the extensive, varied body of travel writing in which a first-person narrator recounts first-hand experience. Some texts, such as Charles Dickens's American Notes for General Circulation and Edith Wharton's A Motor-Flight through France, provide descriptive analysis of people and places observed. Some narrate arduous travel and personal crisis: Robyn Davidson's Tracks, Andrew Pham's Catfish and Mandala. Others, such as Jan Morris's Trieste and the Meaning of Nowhere, use travel to occasion retrospection. In all, the narrative's truth claims rest upon the presumed authority and proclaimed authenticity of the narrator who speaks from experience. Such claims require critical scrutiny, as Sara Mills (1991, 36) explains concisely:
When talking about ‘the self’ in writing of any kind there are immediate problems.
This paper concerns the study of the global structure of measure-preserving actions of countable groups on standard probability spaces. Weak containment is a hierarchical notion of complexity of such actions, motivated by an analogous concept in the theory of unitary representations. This concept gives rise to an associated notion of equivalence of actions, called weak equivalence, which is much coarser than the notion of isomorphism (conjugacy). It is well understood now that, in general, isomorphism is a very complex notion, a fact which manifests itself, for example, in the lack of any reasonable structure in the space of actions modulo isomorphism. On the other hand, the space of weak equivalence classes is quite well behaved. Another interesting fact that relates to the study of weak containment is that many important parameters associated with actions, such as the type, cost, and combinatorial parameters, turn out to be invariants of weak equivalence and in fact exhibit desirable monotonicity properties with respect to the pre-order of weak containment, a fact that can be useful in certain applications. There has been quite a lot of activity in this area in the last few years, and our goal in this paper is to provide a survey of this work.
We investigate the interstellar medium towards seven TeV gamma-ray sources thought to be pulsar wind nebulae using Mopra molecular line observations at 7 mm [CS(1–0), SiO(1–0, v = 0)], Nanten CO(1–0) data and the Southern Galactic Plane Survey/GASS Hi survey. We have discovered several dense molecular clouds co-located to these TeV gamma-ray sources, which allows us to search for cosmic rays coming from progenitor SNRs or, potentially, from pulsar wind nebulae. We notably found SiO(1–0, v = 0) emission towards HESS J1809–193, highlighting possible interaction between the adjacent supernova remnant SNR G011.0–0.0 and the molecular cloud at d ∼ 3.7 kpc. Using morphological features, and comparative studies of our column densities with those obtained from X-ray measurements, we claim a distance d ∼ 8.6 − 9.7kpc for SNR G292.2–00.5, d ∼ 3.5 − 5.6 kpc for PSR J1418–6058 and d ∼ 1.5 kpc for the new SNR candidate found towards HESS J1303–631. From our mass and density estimates of selected molecular clouds, we discuss signatures of hadronic/leptonic components from pulsar wind nebulae and their progenitor SNRs. Interestingly, the molecular gas, which overlaps HESS J1026–582 at d ∼ 5 kpc, may support a hadronic origin. We find however that this scenario requires an undetected cosmic-ray accelerator to be located at d < 10 pc from the molecular cloud. For HESS J1809–193, the cosmic rays which have escaped SNR G011.0–0.0 could contribute to the TeV gamma-ray emission. Finally, from the hypothesis that at most 20% the pulsar spin down power could be converted into CRs, we find that among the studied pulsar wind nebulae, only those from PSR J1809–1917 could potentially contribute to the TeV emission.