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In Red Canyon, in the foothills of the Wyoming Rocky Mountains, lie three archaeological sites: a stagecoach station, a tipi ring campsite and a series of faded petroglyphs. Collectively, these three sites offer the opportunity to bridge the divide between the prehistoric and the historic, and to explore multiple forms of cultural entanglement in the American West. This article challenges the scholarly homogenisation of cultural diversity in this region by combining the narratives of these three archaeological sites to reconsider dichotomies between Native and Euro-American, immigrant and resident, and acculturation and tradition.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is currently a global pandemic that has affected over 7 million people worldwide, resulting in over 400,000 deaths. In the past 20 years, they have been several viral epidemics that were primarily transmitted by respiratory droplets. The use of face masks is proven to be effective in protecting health-care workers as they perform their duties. Still, there is limited evidence about whether the widespread use of face mask would be very useful in protecting the general population. This study aimed to conduct a review to determine if face masks would be beneficial in the general population as a means of reducing the spread of COVID-19. The widespread implementation of wearing face masks by the general population is challenging due to a variety of factors. However, the extensive use of cloth masks in conjunction with other preventative measures such as social distancing and handwashing can potentially reduce the risk of transmission of COVID-19.
To test the independent and combined impact of social cohesion and geographic locale (urban/rural) on quality of life (QoL) for older adults in China. Using conditional process analysis, we tested three hypotheses: (1) QoL will be lower for persons living alone than those who live with family; (2) social cohesion will mediate the association of living arrangement and QoL; and (3) geographic locale will moderate direct and indirect pathways in the mediation model.
Cross-sectional data from WHO Study on Global Aging and Adult Health (SAGE) (China, Wave 1, 2007–2010).
National probability sample of 74 primary sampling units in China, 32 in urban, and 32 in rural areas.
A total of 9,663 adults aged 50 years and older.
We measured QOL with the 8-item version of the WHOQOL-Bref; living arrangement as alone versus with family; and social cohesion with an 9-item index of frequency of a range of social activities in the previous 12 months. We controlled for sociodemographic characteristics and health and mental health variables in multivariate analyses.
Data supported the first two hypotheses; however, the mediating effects of social cohesion held only in urban areas.
This study advances the large body of work on living arrangements and well-being of older adults in China. Social cohesion contributed to better QoL regardless of living arrangement, and cohesion mediated the association of living arrangement and QOL in urban but not rural areas. Programs and policies that strengthen social cohesion through older adults’ community involvement, especially in urban areas, will help to enhance QoL.
To identify clusters of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) according to symptom profile and to examine the association of the A1 allele of the D2 dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene with these clusters.
Fifty-seven untreated Caucasian Vietnam veterans with PTSD were administered the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ) and the Mississippi Scale for combat-related PTSD. DRD2 allelic status was determined by PCR.
Subjects with the DRD2 Al allele compared to those without this allele had significantly higher scores on GHQ 2 (anxiety/insomnia), GHQ 3 (social dysfunction) and GHQ 4 (depression). Cluster analysis of the GHQ data identified two primary groups. A high psychopathology cluster (cluster 3), featured by high co-morbid levels of somatic concerns, anxiety/insomnia, social dysfunction and depression, and a low psychopathology cluster (cluster 1), manifested by the reverse pattern. Scores in each of the four GHQ groups were significantly higher in cluster 3 than cluster 1, as was Mississippi Scale PTSD score. DRD2 A1 allele veterans compared to those without this allele were significantly more likely to be found in the high than the low psychopathology cluster group.
DRD2 variants are associated with severe co-morbid psychopathology in PTSD subjects.
To better understand the historical gender wage gap, we investigate the wages of Swedish compositors circa 1900 using a rich data set of matched employer-employee information with national coverage. In line with previous findings, women earned about 70 percent of men’s wages on average. Individual and job characteristics explain much of this shortfall. Firm characteristics or firm fixed effects, on average, explain 17 percent of the gap, though the firm mattered more for the gender gap in big cities than elsewhere. Sorting across firms is thus an important part of understanding historical gender wage gaps. While most studies conclude that a significant portion of the gender gap is unexplained, suggesting labor market discrimination, this may result from a lack of information on the distribution of men and women across firms.
There was no more divisive theological issue in the sixteenth century than the Eucharist, the ritual understood by Christians as establishing their unity with Christ and with each other. The rite separated Catholics from Protestants, Lutherans from Reformed, and state-supported reformers from a variety of dissenting groups. Modern preoccupation with the question of Christ’s “real presence,” a term that only became common in the nineteenth century, has led to both a misconception of the sixteenth-century debate and an artificial narrowing of its scope. Disagreements were much broader than Christ’s presence and included not only the definition, purpose, and content of the sacrament but also when, where, how, how often, and with whom it should be celebrated. John Calvin’s discussions of the Eucharist reflected these many disagreements, and they must be read with an understanding of the audience he addressed and the particular issues that audience considered central.
Neurodevelopment is sensitive to genetic and pre/postnatal environmental influences. These effects are likely mediated by epigenetic factors, yet current knowledge is limited. Longitudinal twin studies can delineate the link between genetic and environmental factors, epigenetic state at birth and neurodevelopment later in childhood. Building upon our study of the Peri/postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS) from gestation to 6 years of age, here we describe the PETS 11-year follow-up in which we will use neuroimaging and cognitive testing to examine the relationship between early-life environment, epigenetics and neurocognitive outcomes in mid-childhood. Using a within-pair twin model, the primary aims are to (1) identify early-life epigenetic correlates of neurocognitive outcomes; (2) determine the developmental stability of epigenetic effects and (3) identify modifiable environmental risk factors. Secondary aims are to identify factors influencing gut microbiota between 6 and 11 years of age to investigate links between gut microbiota and neurodevelopmental outcomes in mid-childhood. Approximately 210 twin pairs will undergo an assessment at 11 years of age. This includes a direct child cognitive assessment, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging, biological sampling, anthropometric measurements and a range of questionnaires on health and development, behavior, dietary habits and sleeping patterns. Data from complementary data sources, including the National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy and the Australian Early Development Census, will also be sought. Following on from our previous focus on relationships between growth, cardiovascular health and oral health, this next phase of PETS will significantly advance our understanding of the environmental interactions that shape the developing brain.
The Australian prime lamb industry is seeking to improve lean meat yield (LMY) as a means to increasing efficiency and profitability across the whole value chain. The LMY of prime lambs is affected by genetics and on-farm nutrition from birth to slaughter and is the total muscle weight relative to the total carcass weight. Under the production conditions of south eastern Australia, many ewe flocks experience a moderate reduction in nutrition in mid to late pregnancy due to a decrease in pasture availability and quality. Correcting nutritional deficits throughout gestation requires the feeding of supplements. This enables the pregnant ewe to meet condition score (CS) targets at lambing. However, limited resources on farm often mean it is difficult to effectively manage nutritional supplementation of the pregnant ewe flock. The impact of reduced ewe nutrition in mid to late pregnancy on the body composition of finishing lambs and subsequent carcass composition remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of moderately reducing ewe nutrition in mid to late gestation on the body composition of finishing lambs and carcass composition at slaughter on a commercial scale. Multiple born lambs to CS2.5 target ewes were lighter at birth and weaning, had lower feedlot entry and exit weights with lower pre-slaughter and carcass weights compared with CS3.0 and CS3.5 target ewes. These lambs also had significantly lower eye muscle and fat depth when measured by ultrasound prior to slaughter and carcass subcutaneous fat depth measured 110 mm from the spine along the 12th rib (GR 12th) and at the C-site (C-fat). Although carcasses were ~5% lighter, results showed that male progeny born to ewes with reduced nutrition from day 50 gestation to a target CS2.5 at lambing had a higher percentage of lean tissue mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and a lower percentage of fat during finishing and at slaughter, with the multiple born progeny from CS3.0 and CS3.5 target ewes being similar. These data suggest lambs produced from multiple bearing ewes that have had a moderate reduction in nutrition during pregnancy are less mature. This effect was also independent of lamb finishing system. The 5% reduction in carcass weight observed in this study would have commercially relevant consequences for prime lamb producers, despite a small gain in LMY.
This article addresses the question of gender bias observed in constructed examples of French syntax articles. Drawing our inspiration from Macaulay and Brice (1997) and Pabst et al. (2018)’s studies of English, we investigate the way women and men are depicted in constructed examples in syntax articles in French. We looked at grammatical functions, thematic roles and lexical choices and found a strong male bias in the use of gendered noun phrases (i.e. more references to men than to women; men are more likely to be in a subject position as well as being referred to via pronouns, and more likely to be agents and experiencers). Furthermore, women and men are not related to the same lexical choices. Besides, since French is a grammatical gender language where masculine gender can also be intended as gender neutral, we designed a second study to investigate masculine marked noun phrases (ambiguous masculines, AMs). When we compared AM noun phrases to female and male arguments in terms of grammatical functions and thematic roles, we found that, in production, they were different than true masculines. We discuss the implications of our results for the meaning of ‘gender neutral masculines’ and for practices anchoring gender discrimination.
I explore the ways in which O Jogo da Vida e da Morte and A Herança deploy locale – the favela and the sertão. I stress the extent to which the films find comparable metaphorical resonances in their respective habitats, highlighting, in so doing, a series of intricate relationships between land, property and poverty. I go on to suggest, in the second section of the chapter, that the films’ intersecting treatment of the communal, the spiritual and the racial is evidenced in their privileging of rituals and celebrations, such as the Claudius/Gertrude wedding or the Old Hamlet/Ophelia funerals. O Jogo da Vida e da Morte and A Herança, I argue, are preoccupied with communities that fail or are unable to provide for their own, thereby introducing images of Brazil that run counter to populist conceptions. As I maintain in the chapter’s final section, A Herança discovers Omeleto/Hamlet at his death as distributing the estate to the peasantry, thus marking a radical break with traditions of land ownership in the north-eastern regions. O Jogo da Vida e da Morte, in contrast, visits little capacity for change on João/Hamlet, stressing his distinctive powerlessness and inertia. While A Herança endorses the ideal of a socialist utopia, then, O Jogo da Vida e da Morte assumes a more nihilistic attitude. Responsive to the straitened political conditions of Brazil in the early 1970s, O Jogo da Vida e da Morte and A Herança reveal the capacity of Hamlet to be pulled in two directions at the same time, occupying recuperative and defeatist positions, to address similar sets of difficulties.
This chapter discusses Hamile: The Tongo ‘Hamlet’ (dir. Terry Bishop, 1965), from Ghana, with an all-black cast, and the Boyokani Company’s Hamlet (dir. Hugues Serge Limbvani, 2007), from the Republic of Congo, which, with the exception of one white actor, also deploys a black cast. Hamile and the Boyokani Hamlet are preoccupied with a thematics of place, whether this shows itself, in the former case, in the will to affirm the élan of a newly formed nation state or, in the latter case, in the ventilating of African-centred questions about woman and the supernatural. Developing such thematics, both films assert varieties of what has been termed ‘Africanity’, a repository of shared discourses, experiences and inheritances, and find that a British/European play can indeed be made to work in an African milieu.
This chapter argues that cinematic adaptations of Hamlet illuminate the cross-fertilizing ways in which Western Europe has continued to define and represent itself. The play is enlisted firstly as a means of assurance and democratization and as a channel for unease. Secondly, the play is used to ventilate conflicting national preoccupations in contexts of industrial discontent, youth culture and mass movement protest. Thirdly, the play in cinematic form points up how the post-war project of European integration comes into conflict with new developments arising from mass immigration, demographic realignment and the pressures involved in increasingly networked European organizations.
The first section argues that İntikam Meleği and Tardid are distinguished by elaborating different constructions of the Old Hamlet/Ghost figure, which is foregrounded in such a way as to address ideas about the execution of justice, the mission of the Hamletian protagonist and the status of the image. Acknowledging the adaptive process entails a corresponding focus on issues of performance. In the second section, I unpick the political valences of both films’ immersion in performance idioms, identifying the significations of the play-within-the-play in İntikam Meleği and the coded ways in which metaphors of water in Tardid, and Siavash/Hamlet’s photojournalism, intimate resistant ideologies. Even as İntikam Meleği and Tardid conjure expectations about the trajectory of the play, I maintain, they also subject them to scrutiny and reversal. This is nowhere more obvious than in both films’ privileging, via casting or rewriting, of women’s roles: İntikam Meleği’s dynamic female Hamlet, for example, is matched by an equivalently pro-active Mahtab/Ophelia in Tardid, who is granted an agency beyond the constrictions of her Shakespearean equivalent.
In Tardid/Doubt (dir. Varuzh Karim-Masihi, 2009), a stylish and innovative Iranian film adaptation of Hamlet, ‘To be, or not to be’ is allusively referenced. In an archivist’s cluttered and grimy basement office, the camera zooms in on a framed quotation in Farsi hanging on the walls, but, rather than the words of the Qur’an, as might be expected, it is the opening lines of Shakespeare’s most famous soliloquy that are visualized. The power and reach of the lines were brought home to me on a blustery autumnal day in 2014 as I made plans to interview Tardid’s director and speak at the inaugural ‘First International Conference on Shakespeare in Iran’. In search of an elusive visa, and in the context of the closure of the Iranian Embassy in London, I presented myself at the Iranian Embassy in Dublin. Once beyond the forbidding gates, the official in charge leaned in towards the glass separating us and inquired rather fiercely as to the purpose of my visit. Eager to ingratiate myself, I explained that I was keen to speak at the first Shakespeare conference in Iran. The official seemed uncomprehending, and a barrage of unpromising questions followed. At no point did I mention Hamlet. But, after ten minutes back and forth, he beckoned me closer and, with a half-smile playing around his lips, whispered, ‘To be, or not to be’, before whipping away my passport for approval. Left alone, I wondered if he knew of the Qur’an-like soliloquy in Tardid or perhaps was aware of the long-standing traditions of translation and performance of Shakespeare in the Middle East. Whichever way, the brief moment of connection was typical of the often humbling encounters that have informed my thinking about Hamlet’s cinematic kudos and power in the world.