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This volume presents the first global history of human rights politics in the age of decolonization. The conflict between independence movements and colonial powers shaped the global human rights order that emerged after the Second World War. It was also critical to the genesis of contemporary human rights organizations and humanitarian movements. Anti-colonial forces mobilized human rights and other rights language in their campaigns for self-determination. In response, European empires harnessed the new international politics of human rights for their own ends, claiming that their rule, with its promise of 'development,' was the authentic vehicle for realizing them. Ranging from the postwar partitions and the wars of independence to Indigenous rights activism and post-colonial memory, this volume offers new insights into the history and legacies of human rights, self-determination, and empire to the present day.
In cases of brain pathology, current levels of cognition can only be interpreted reliably relative to accurate estimations of pre-morbid functioning. Estimating levels of pre-morbid intelligence is, therefore, a crucial part of neuropsychological evaluation. However, current methods of estimation have proven problematic.
To evaluate if standardised leaving certificate (LC) performance can predict intellectual functioning in a healthy cohort. The LC is the senior school examination in the Republic of Ireland, taken by almost 50 000 students annually, with total performance distilled into Central Applications Office points.
A convenience sample of university students was recruited (n = 51), to provide their LC results and basic demographic information. Participants completed two cognitive tasks assessing current functioning (Vocabulary and Matrix Reasoning (MR) subtests – Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition) and a test of pre-morbid intelligence (Spot-the-Word test from the Speed and Capacity of Language Processing). Separately, LC results were standardised relative to the population of test-takers, using a computer application designed specifically for this project.
Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that standardised LC performance [F(2,48) = 3.90, p = 0.03] and Spot-the-Word [F(2,47) = 5.88, p = 0.005] significantly predicted current intellect. Crawford & Allen’s demographic-based regression formula did not. Furthermore, after controlling for gender, English [F(1,49) = 11.27, p = 0.002] and Irish [F(1,46) = 4.06, p = 0.049) results significantly predicted Vocabulary performance, while Mathematics results significantly predicted MR [F(1,49) = 8.80, p = 0.005].
These results suggest that standardised LC performance may represent a useful resource for clinicians when estimating pre-morbid intelligence.
Technological progress has enabled researchers to use new unobtrusive measures of relationships between actors in social network analysis. However, research on how these unobtrusive measures of peer connections relate to traditional sociometric nominations in adolescents is scarce. Therefore, the current study compared traditional peer nominated networks with more unobtrusive measures of peer connections: Communication networks that consist of instant messages in an online social platform and proximity networks based on smartphones’ Bluetooth signals that measure peer proximity. The three social network types were compared in their coverage, stability, overlap, and the extent to which the networks exhibit the often observed sex segregation in adolescent social networks.
Two samples were derived from the MyMovez project: a longitudinal sample of 444 adolescents who participated in the first three waves of the first year of the project (Y1; 51% male; Mage = 11.29, SDage = 1.26) and a cross-sectional sample of 774 adolescents that participated in fifth wave in the third year (Y3; 48% male; Mage = 10.76, SDage = 1.23). In the project, all participants received a research smartphone and a wrist-worn accelerometer. On the research smartphone, participants received daily questionnaires such as peer nomination questions (i.e., nominated network). In addition, the smartphone automatically scanned for other smartphones via Bluetooth signal every 15 minutes of the day (i.e., proximity network). In the Y3 sample, the research smartphone also had a social platform in which participants could send messages to each other (i.e., communication network).
The results show that nominated networks provided data for the most participants compared to the other two networks, but in these networks, participants had the lowest number of connections with peers. Nominated networks showed to be more stable over time compared to proximity or communication networks. That is, more connections remained the same in nominated networks than in proximity networks over the three waves of Y1. The overlap between the three networks was rather small, indicating that the networks measured different types of connections. Nominated and communication networks were segregated by sex, whereas this was less the case in proximity networks.
The communication and proximity networks seem to be promising unobtrusive measures of peer connections and are less of a burden to the participant compared to a nominated network. However, given the structural differences between the networks and the number of connections per wave, the communication and proximity networks should not be used as direct substitutes for sociometric nominations, and researchers should bear in mind what type of connections they wish to assess.
Compared to active ideation, passive ideation remains relatively understudied and its clinical importance poorly defined. The weight that should be accorded passive ideation in clinical risk assessment is therefore unclear.
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of passive ideation, its psychiatric comorbidity, associated sociodemographic characteristics, as well as psychological and environmental correlates. For reference, pooled effects were also calculated for direct comparisons of passive and active ideation with respect to potential correlates. Relevant articles published since inception to 9 September 2019 were identified through a systematic search of MEDLINE and PsycINFO.
A total of 86 studies were included in this review. The prevalence of passive ideation was high across sample types, ranging from 5.8% for 1-year prevalence to 10.6% for lifetime prevalence in the general population. Passive ideation was strongly associated with sexual minority status, psychiatric comorbidity, psychological characteristics implicated in risk, and suicide attempts. Preliminary evidence exists for a large association with suicide deaths. The effect sizes for individual correlates of passive and active ideation were largely equivalent and mostly non-significant in head-to-head comparisons.
Passive ideation is a prevalent clinical phenomenon associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Current evidence also suggests notable similarities exist between passive and active ideation in terms of psychiatric comorbidity and psychological and other characteristics traditionally associated with risk.
We explore the relationships between financial trust and behaviors, attitudes, knowledge, and preferences related to utilizing professional financial advice. Using survey data from the RAND American Life Panel, we find that financial trust is correlated with advice usage and likelihood of seeking advisory services. Leveraging an experiment that randomized provision of and access to advice, we find that trust is an important predictor of who chooses to receive advice, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and financial literacy. However, providing unsolicited advice has little impact on behavior, even for individuals with high levels of trust.
Examples of wall drawing in France stretch far back into history. It has been stated that graffiti may be seen as existing in ancient times as evidenced by the pre-historic cave drawings on the walls at the Lascaux Caves. Yet, it has also been noted that behind sporadic evidence of such works throughout French history ‘these marks are usually isolated and rarely so deeply connected to the socio-political context of the moment.’ In terms of contemporary street art and graffiti, this has perhaps now fundamentally changed during a time in which France has become regarded as ‘perhaps the most prolific bastion of the movement.
Ventenata [Ventenata dubia (Leers) Cross] is a winter annual grass relatively new to the inland Pacific Northwest that is capable of displacing desired vegetation. Indaziflam was evaluated for the management of V. dubia on two Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) sites near Moscow, ID, and Pullman, WA. While perennial grasses were dormant, applications of indaziflam in mixture with various herbicides were made in spring 2016. Treatment effects were evaluated for 2 yr by visual assessments of community composition and canopy cover of V. dubia and other non-weedy species (assessments occurred 3 to 6 mo after treatment, depending on location) and by representative cover class assessments. Biomass samples of all plant species were collected in the summer of 2017. Reduced V. dubia cover was observed in 2016, except when glyphosate was used alone. In 2017 indaziflam applied alone or in mixture with rimsulfuron effectively controlled V. dubia with minimal impact on desirable vegetation. Plant biomass from nontreated plots averaged 40 g m−2 for V. dubia and 100 to 179 g m−2 for perennial grasses. Plant biomass averaged <11 g m−2 for V. dubia and 371 to 490 g m−2 for perennial grasses when indaziflam at 102 g ai ha−1 plus glyphosate at 474 g ai ha−1 was applied. Smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) biomass was positively associated with the reduction of V. dubia, and there was a decrease in diversity associated with the removal of V. dubia through effective treatments. Indaziflam is an effective tool for the management of V. dubia in perennial grass stands, and spring applications of indaziflam should be in mixture with herbicides with POST activity.
The present study examines the perceptual, linguistic, and social cues that were associated with preschoolers’ (4;11) growth in word-learning during shared book-reading and guided play activities. Small groups of three preschoolers (n = 30) and one adult were video-recorded during an intervention study in which new vocabulary words were explicitly taught. Adult use of taught words was coded for perceptual and linguistic cues and type of social interaction. Hearing taught words used in the book text and learning information about words’ meanings during play was positively associated with growth in word-learning. Adult use of words in responsive, or child-initiated, interactions was positively associated with word-learning growth in both book-reading and play, while adult-initiated use of words was negatively associated with word-learning growth in both settings.
During the century after independence, both governments and businesses in the countries of South America alternated between boom and bust. How was an investor back in Great Britain to know when to invest and in what? How was a merchant bank in the City of London to know to whom to lend money, whether it was a capital loan or the buying of an ‘acceptance’ from a merchant (by which the merchant received payment for his goods from the bank before the goods were paid for across the ocean)? And how was a new businessman in a South American country to know with whom he could safely deal? They all needed networks of information, contact with a firm or an individual whom they could trust to provide them with that information. This was particularly crucial in the decades before the laying of the transoceanic cable between Great Britain and South America, when months could elapse without contact. How were these networks of information established, and by whom? And were they always successful? The answer to the last question was, of course, no, but having them was better than not having them. What was also vital to the position of British business in South America was the strength provided by networks of interconnected services.
The psychedelic research renaissance is gaining traction. Preliminary clinical studies of the hallucinogenic fungi, psilocybin, with psychological support, have indicated improvements in mood, anxiety and quality of life. A seminal, open-label study demonstrated marked reductions in depression symptoms in participants with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The associated neurobiological processes involve alterations in brain connectivity, together with altered amygdala and default mode network activity. At the cellular level, psychedelics promote synaptogenesis and neural plasticity. Prompted by the promising preliminary studies, a randomized, double-blind trial has recently been launched across Europe and North America to investigate the efficacy of psilocybin in TRD. One of these centres is based in Ireland – CHO Area 7 and Tallaght University Hospital. The outcome of this trial will determine whether psilocybin with psychological support will successfully translate into the psychiatric clinic for the benefit of patients.
Introduction and regular application of multiplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of bronchoalveolar specimens for community-acquired respiratory viruses in January 2017 led to the identification of adenovirus in multiple patients in a surgical intensive unit in July 2017, which was attributed to a pseudo-outbreak.