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Using examples from across the sub-disciplines of physics, this introduction shows why effective field theories are the language in which physical laws are written. The tools of effective field theory are demonstrated using worked examples from areas including particle, nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and gravitational physics. To bring the subject within reach of scientists with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests, there are clear physical explanations, rigorous derivations, and extensive appendices on background material, such as quantum field theory. Starting from undergraduate-level quantum mechanics, the book gets to state-of-the-art calculations using both relativistic and nonrelativistic few-body and many-body examples, and numerous end-of-chapter problems derive classic results not covered in the main text. Graduate students and researchers in particle physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, string theory, and mathematical physics more generally, will find this book ideal for both self-study and for organized courses on effective field theory.
Few studies have derived data-driven dietary patterns in youth in the United States (US). This study examined data-driven dietary patterns and their associations with BMI measures in predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority US youth. Data were from baseline assessments of the four Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Research (COPTR) Consortium trials: NET-Works (N=534; 2–4-year-olds), GROW (N=610; 3–5-year-olds), GOALS (N=241; 7–11-year-olds), and IMPACT (N=360; 10–13-year-olds). Weight and height were measured. Children/adult proxies completed 3 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary patterns were derived for each site from 24 food/beverage groups using k-means cluster analysis. Multivariable linear regression models examined associations of dietary patterns with BMI and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile. Healthy (produce and whole grains) and Unhealthy (fried food, savory snacks, and desserts) patterns were found in NET-Works and GROW. GROW additionally had a dairy and sugar-sweetened beverage based pattern. GOALS had a similar Healthy pattern and a pattern resembling a traditional Mexican diet. Associations between dietary patterns and BMI were only observed in IMPACT. In IMPACT, youth in the Sandwich (cold cuts, refined grains, cheese, and miscellaneous [e.g., condiments]) compared to Mixed (whole grains and desserts) cluster had significantly higher BMI [β=0.99 (95% CI: 0.01, 1.97)] and percentage of the 95th BMI percentile [β=4.17 (95% CI: 0.11, 8.24)]. Healthy and Unhealthy patterns were the most common dietary patterns in COPTR youth, but diets may differ according to age, race/ethnicity, or geographic location. Public health messages focused on healthy dietary substitutions may help youth mimic a dietary pattern associated with lower BMI.
To determine risk factors for mortality among COVID-19 patients admitted to a system of community hospitals in the United States.
Retrospective analysis of patient data collected from the routine care of COVID-19 patients.
System of >180 acute-care facilities in the United States.
All admitted patients with positive identification of COVID-19 and a documented discharge as of May 12, 2020.
Determination of demographic characteristics, vital signs at admission, patient comorbidities and recorded discharge disposition in this population to construct a logistic regression estimating the odds of mortality, particular for those patients characterized as not being critically ill at admission.
In total, 6,180 COVID-19+ patients were identified as of May 12, 2020. Most COVID-19+ patients (4,808, 77.8%) were admitted directly to a medical-surgical unit with no documented critical care or mechanical ventilation within 8 hours of admission. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and vital signs at admission in this subgroup, the largest driver of the odds of mortality was patient age (OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06–1.08; P < .001). Decreased oxygen saturation at admission was associated with increased odds of mortality (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06–1.12; P < .001) as was diabetes (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.03; P < .001).
The identification of factors observable at admission that are associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients who are initially admitted to non-critical care units may help care providers, hospital epidemiologists, and hospital safety experts better plan for the care of these patients.
Cognitive deficits affect a significant proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Problems with sustained attention have been found independent of mood state and the causes are unclear. We aimed to investigate whether physical parameters such as activity levels, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) may be contributing factors.
Forty-six patients with BD and 42 controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and wore a triaxial accelerometer for 21 days which collected information on physical activity, sleep, and circadian rhythm. Ex-Gaussian analyses were used to characterise reaction time distributions. We used hierarchical regression analyses to examine whether physical activity, BMI, circadian rhythm, and sleep predicted variance in the performance of cognitive tasks.
Neither physical activity, BMI, nor circadian rhythm predicted significant variance on any of the cognitive tasks. However, the presence of a sleep abnormality significantly predicted a higher intra-individual variability of the reaction time distributions on the Attention Network Task.
This study suggests that there is an association between sleep abnormalities and cognition in BD, with little or no relationship with physical activity, BMI, and circadian rhythm.
Over the past 50 years, surgery, physiologic monitoring, and the delivery of anesthesia has undergone a high technology revolution. The finger on the pulse, manual blood pressures, and precordial stethoscopes have given way to advances in electrocardiography, automated blood pressure, pulse oximetry, end-tidal capnography, and transesophageal echocardiography, just to name a few of the major advances. As automation has progressed, anesthetic practice and surgery have become extremely dependent upon a reliable power supply for clinical operations. The Joint Commission (TJC) standards require routine testing of the hospital backup power supply (EC.02.05.07.04); 12 times a year, at intervals of not less than 20 days and not more than 40 days, the hospital tests each emergency generator for at least 30 continuous minutes. The completion dates of the tests are documented in the generator and automatic transfer switch (ATS) testing logs by the technicians performing the tests. Additional specifics are addressed in TJC standards on load testing and performance.
This paper explores the unique challenges, experiences and circumstances that enable and/or constrain non-Aboriginal teachers involved in teaching the Stage 6 Aboriginal Studies syllabus in the New South Wales (NSW) curriculum (2010). Drawing on the yarning inquiry methodology of Bessarab and Ng'andu, seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Studies teachers to open a powerful and insightful dialogue pertaining to the complexities and challenges for non-Aboriginal teachers teaching in the Aboriginal Studies space. Interview data identified key issues, strategies and themes relating to how non-Aboriginal teachers of Aboriginal Studies negotiate and operate in highly contested knowledge spaces, their roles and responsibilities as social justice educators and their capacity to enact substantive change within and beyond the Aboriginal Studies classroom. Nakata's cultural interface theory provides a useful tool for data analysis as Aboriginal Studies sits squarely at the centre of this interface. The findings provide valuable insights and practical recommendations for aspiring and current non-Aboriginal Aboriginal Studies teachers seeking to develop a clearer understanding of their, thus far under-researched, roles within the classroom, whilst opening an intriguing dialogue pertaining to the future of Aboriginal Studies in schools and its place within Australia's broader movement for conciliation.
Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder. Antidepressant drug treatment response is modulated by genetic factors. Tianeptine molecule does not inhibit serotonin reuptake. Possible targets to this treatment are the serotonin transporter (5HTT/SLC6A4), the serotonin receptor 2A (5HT2A) and, the neuronal-specific enzyme that controls brain serotonin synthesis, the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2).
We screened variants of candidate genes 5HTT/SLC6A4, 5HTR2A and THP2 in 3500 outpatients treated with tianeptine for a major depressive episode (MDE) to search for an association to a positive treatment response.
The goal of this work was to study the pharmacogenetic response to tianeptine treatment in MDE.
A total of 3500 outpatients were treated with tianeptine for a MDE. The criteria for a MDE were examined by the clinicians according to the DSM-IV diagnosis and the duration of each symptom was recorded during the inclusion and at 4 to 8 weeks of treatment. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) was evaluated at the two visits. DNA was extract from saliva sample and genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was performed by Taqman assay.
All clinical and genotype data were collected for 1855 tianeptine-treated patients. The SNP rs6354 in SLC6A4 gene was significantly associated with response to tianeptine (p = 0.009; Odds ratio = 1.26; 95% confident interval = 1.06–1.50). Two SNPs in 5HT2A and one in TPH2 were also associated to treatment response (rs7322347 p = 0.03, rs7997012 p = 0.04 and rs7955501 p = 0.04).
We detected a pharmacogenetic association between serotonin genes and the response to tianeptine in major depressive episode.
Background – Ecstasy is a recreational drug with an anecdotal reputation for safety. However, reports of adverse effects and fatalities have increased in the medical and popular press.
Method – Literature search and review.
Results – Acute Ecstasy toxicity does not appear to be due to overdose and cannot be solely attributed to the nature of the usual ambient environment. Adverse effects include hyperthermia, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hepatotoxicity, hyponatraemia and many psychiatric disorders. Ecstasy causes serotonergic neurotoxicity in the brains of animals at doses close to those used by humans, but its long-term effect on the human brain is unknown.
Conclusion – Ecstasy toxicity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. Given its popularity, both the acute and the potential long-term effects are a cause for concern.
The aim was to investigate the cognitive abnormalities in healthy individuals (No Axis I or II disorders) at risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ)
Materials and Methods:
Participants were 17 BD-R, 15 SZ-R and 23 controls. All participants underwent assessment of IQ, working, verbal memory and learning, visuospatial memory, verbal and visual recall and recognition. Lack of lifetime Axis I and II disorders was screened using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and symptomatology was assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).
No difference was found in IQ. The SZ-R underperformed compared to BD-R and controls in working memory. The SZ-R had increased number of intrusions but did not differ from the BD-R in short delay. The SZ-R showed impairment in long term recall. No effect of learning was found. SZ-R and BD-R underperformed compared to controls in visuospatial memory. SZ-R showed long term memory deficits with higher overall forgetting scores in both visual and verbal tests compared to BD-R and controls. The BD relatives were able to retain more verbal items but comparable visual items to SZ-R. Effect of BPRS total score was found only for BD-R across all measures.
BD-R do not show deficits compared to controls in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC) like the SZ-R. The SZ-R show impairments in fronto temporal networks that are preserved in BD-R supporting deficits in semantic categories in both encoding and retrieval whereas impairment shown in BD-R may be mainly attributed to the effect of symptoms.
The aim of this project was to investigate the cognitive abnormalities in healthy individuals (No Axis I or II disorders) at risk for bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ)
Materials and Methods:
Participants were 17 BD-R and 15 SZ-R and 23 controls. All participants underwent assessment of IQ, inhibition, verbal fluency, planning and cognitive set shifting. Lack of lifetime Axis I and II disorders was screened using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and symptomatology was assessed with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS).
No difference was found in IQ. Loss of inhibition was found in both SZ-R and BD-R compared to controls whereas SZ-R had slower initiation times. SZ-R also failed to inhibit relatively fast erroneous responses, leading to an effect on error rates but not in reaction times. SZ-R and BD-R produced fewer words compared to controls whereas the former group made more errors. BD-R achieved both comparable number of categories to controls and made equal number of errors whereas SZ-R underperformed compared to former groups in both measures. Effect of BPRS total score was found only for BD-R across all measures apart from inhibition.
Genetic predisposition to SZ may be mediated by deficits in both the Ventral and Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex (VPFC) and (DPFC). In BD-R impairment was limited in the VPFC whereas the DPFC function was preserved. The two disorders share inhibition deficits associated with the VPFC.
We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of Petals: a charitable organisation in Cambridgeshire. Petals provides counselling for women and couples who have suffered perinatal bereavement, or trauma during pregnancy or birth. This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of counseling interventions at this difficult time.
Outcomes were recorded in 42 patients using the CORE (Clinical Outcomes in
Routine Evaluation) system. CORE was developed to assess the effectiveness of psychological therapies. CORE-OM (CORE Outcome Measure) involves a
questionnaire that assesses subjective well-being, symptoms/problems, function, and risk to self and others. The CORE-OM questionnaire was completed before and after the counselling sessions.
The CORE-OM scores were summated into a global representation of severity.
Severity decreased in all patients. Symptoms of psychological pathology were also decreased in all cases.
A review of the available literature indicates that little is known about the efficacy of therapy for perinatal bereavement and trauma. These original data suggest convincing efficacy and benefits, but the numbers involved are small. Further trials with greater sample sizes are required.
The aim of this study was to quantify immediate bed availability (IBA) in a United States children’s hospital and treatment needs of hospitalized patients whose needs could be met outside a traditional hospital setting.
Using a novel tool to capture census, scheduled discharges, and resource needs for hospitalized patients, we surveyed our hospital’s 5 non-neonatal inpatient pediatric units on 4 d over 1 y.
Median ward occupancy was 81% (range, 58-79), median intensive care unit occupancy was 80% (range, 7-19), and median IBA was 42% (range, 34-59). A median of 14 patients per day (13% of total capacity) had treatment needs that could be met by providing limited support in a nontraditional setting; the most common reason for requiring ongoing hospitalization in this group of patients was a safe discharge plan.
Our median IBA of 42% exceeds federal recommendations, but varies widely between days surveyed. Even on days when IBA percentage is high, our total number of available beds is unlikely to meet pediatric population needs in a large-scale public health emergency.