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John Calvin did not create the French Reformed movement alone. At every step of the way, he was assisted by close friends and allies. Guillaume Farel preceded Calvin and established many of the key doctrines and practices that would come to define Calvinism. Pierre Viret was perhaps Calvin’s closest friend and worked steadily to implement Calvin’s vision of reform first in Lausanne and later in France, while also popularizing Calvinist theology in his many vernacular dialogues. And Theodore Beza emerged as an important theologian in his own right before taking over as Calvin’s successor as head of the Geneva Company of Pastors, from which position he helped to guide the French Reformed churches during the Wars of Religion and to unify the Swiss Reformed churches behind a common theology.
The syntax literature has overwhelmingly adopted the view that Condition C reconstruction takes place in wh-chains for R-expressions contained within arguments, but not within adjuncts of fronted wh-phrases. At the same time, this empirical picture has been questioned by various authors. We undertake a series of grammaticality surveys using Amazon Mechanical Turk in an attempt to clarify the empirical picture regarding reconstruction for Binding Condition C. We find absolutely no evidence of an argument–adjunct distinction in reconstruction for Binding Condition C. Neither arguments nor adjuncts reconstruct for Condition C. We suggest that those speakers who report such a contrast (linguists, primarily) are following a pragmatic bias, and not Condition C. While we do not find reconstruction of dependents of fronted NPs for Binding Condition C, we do find reconstruction of fronted PPs. That is, the NP complement of a fronted P must reconstruct for Binding Condition C. The literature also finds reconstruction of NP complements of verbs and adjectives. This means that fronted Ns are special in not requiring reconstruction of their arguments and adjuncts. We suggest that, syntactically, arguments of Ns are treated as adjuncts: semantic arguments simply adjoin in the same manner as true adjuncts. Syntactic adjuncts can be left out of lower copies in chains, something that we suggest follows from a left-to-right syntactic derivation plus an economy condition on copying.
To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations.
Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being.
Children and adults.
Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time.
Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.
Propane flaming in combination with cultivation could be a potential alternative tool for weed control in organic soybean production. Field experiments were conducted at the Haskell Agricultural Laboratory of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln (UNL), Concord, NE in 2010, 2011 and 2012 to determine the level of weed control and the response of soybean grain yield and its components to flaming and cultivation within two fertility regimes (FRs) (with and without manure) utilizing flaming equipment developed at the UNL. The treatments included: weed-free control, weedy season-long and different combinations of banded flaming (intra-row), broadcast flaming and mechanical cultivation (inter-row). The treatments were applied at VC (unfolded cotyledon) and V4–V5 (4-leaf–5-leaf) growth stages. Propane doses were 20 and 45 kg ha−1 for the banded and broadcast flaming treatments, respectively. The data were collected for visual ratings of crop injury and weed control at 7 and 28 days after treatment (DAT) at V4–V5 growth stages, weed dry matter at 60 DAT, crop yield and yield components. The annual application of 101 t ha−1 manure did not alter weed community or influence the effectiveness of weed management treatment; however, it decreased soybean yield by 0.25 t ha−1 through an increased weed biomass of 0.16 t ha−1. The weed-free control plots yielded 4.15 t ha−1. The combination of mechanical cultivation and banded flaming applied twice (at VC and V4–V5) was the best treatment resulting in 80–82% weed control and 6–9% crop injury at 28 DAT and 3.41–3.67 t ha−1 yield. Cultivation conducted twice provided only 19% weed control at 28 DAT and 1.75 t ha−1 yield. Soybean plants recovered well after all flaming treatments, with the exception of broadcast flaming conducted twice (28% crop injury at 28 DAT). Combining flaming with cultivation has a potential to effectively control weeds in organic soybean production across a range of FRs.
Foods that have a low glycaemic index or foods that contain slowly digestible starch are beneficial in controlling fluctuations in blood glucose and insulin levels. The study hypothesis is that gelatinisation of starch in structured casein networks provides a method for decreasing the digestion rate of the starch and, hence, minimising postprandial glucose fluctuations. This study examined the effect of starch gelatinisation with or without casein on (1) gene expression and peptide secretion levels of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-independent insulinotropic polypeptide and (2) gene expression of the sodium–glucose cotransporter and GLUT-2 in intestinal cell culture systems. The intestinal epithelial cell line, STC-1, and the enteroendocrine colonic cell line, Caco-2, were exposed to in vitro digested foods (starch gelatinised with α-casein, starch gelatinised with β-casein and gelatinised starch alone). The encapsulation of starch with casein before in vitro digestion lowers levels of incretin hormone secretion. Digestion of starch gelatinised with casein also releases less glucose than starch alone as indicated by significantly (P < 0·05) lower levels of glucose transporter mRNA transcripts. Some subtle cellular response differences were observed following exposure to starch gelatinised with α- compared to β-casein. Fractionation of α-casein and β-casein by reverse-phase HPLC identified that fractions that differed in hydrophobicity differed significantly (P < 0·05) in their ability to promote secretion of the incretin hormones. Evidence suggests that gelatinisation of starch with casein may be a functional food ingredient that minimises blood glucose fluctuations.
The Goethe Yearbook is a publication of the Goethe Society of North America, publishing original English-language contributions to the understanding of Goethe and other authors of the Goethezeit, while also welcoming contributions from scholars around the world. Goethe Yearbook 17 covers the full range of the era, from Karl Guthke's essay on the early Lessing to Peter Hoeyng's on Grillparzer. Notable is a special section, co-edited by Clark Muenzer and Karin Schutjer, that samples some of the exciting new work presented at the Goethe Society conference in November 2008: 200 years after the publication of Faust I, eight essays offer fresh views of this epic masterpiece, often through novel and surprising connections. Authors link for example Faust's final ascension and the circulation of weather, verse forms in the drama and the performance of national identity, the fate of Gretchen and the occult politics of Francis Bacon. Other papers explore epistemological structures and taxonomies at work in Goethe's prose, essays, and scientific writings.
Contributors: Frederick Amrine, Johannes Anderegg, Matthew Bell, Benjamin Bennett, Gerrit Bruening, Christian Clement, Pamela Currie, Ulrich Gaier, Karl Guthke, Stefan Hajduk, Peter Hoeyng, Clark Muenzer, Andrew Piper, Herb Rowland, Heather Sullivan, Chad Wellmon, Ellwood Wiggins, Markus Wilczek.
Daniel Purdy is Associate Professor of German at Pennsylvania State University. Book review editor Catriona MacLeod is Associate Professor of German at the University of Pennsylvania.
Many rural towns are not big enough to need a full-time resident surgeon, but instead rely on visiting surgeons to provide the necessary expertise for elective cases. Often, the surgeons only stay overnight, and are then on the move again. This arrangement is very common in Australia, due to its sheer size and the widespread distribution of its towns.
In this situation, it is predominantly the general practitioner (GP) who acts as the surgical assistant. In larger towns, the surgical assisting duties may fall to a GP who has a designated interest in surgery, or the duties may be assigned via a roster system. However in many cases, the referring GP will be the surgical assistant. With the current trend of increasing medical undergraduate exposure to the rural environment, most regional centres will have medical students available to act as surgical assistants. While many of the concepts of assisting have been covered elsewhere in the text, there are several points which should be highlighted.
Tips for the GP
If you are new to a particular region or town, introduce yourself to the operating theatre staff. This helps to break the ice and ensure that you are on a good footing with the nursing staff. When introducing yourself to the surgeon, always call them by their correct title to begin with, and then let them tell you, ‘Please call me Bob’, etc.
Punctuality is of the essence as the visiting surgeon is often on a tight schedule, and will not appreciate being kept waiting.
The rate of growth of individual seeds of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) is determined, in part, by the concentration of sucrose in the seed. Water stress during seed filling reduces photosynthesis, but the effect on seed sucrose concentration is not well understood. Soybean plants (cultivars Elgin 87 and Asgrow 232HS) were exposed to water stress from early in the seed-filling period until maturity in field and greenhouse experiments. Stress reduced yield (5–38%) and seed size (11–35%) but it did not affect the number of seeds. Stress accelerated leaf senescence as shown by a more rapid decline in leaf photosynthesis in both experiments. Seed-growth rate and cotyledon sucrose concentrations (expressed on a mM basis using the bulk water content of the cotyledons) during the linear phase of seed growth were not affected by stress in either experiment. Thus, water stress during seed filling had no direct effect on seed growth; its only effect was to accelerate leaf senescence, which shortened the seed-filling period and resulted in smaller seeds. Strategies to reduce yield loss from water stress during seed filling should focus on leaf senescence instead of seed growth.
In what follows, a theorem on blocking sets is generalized to higher dimensions. The result is then used to study maximal partial spreads of odd-dimensional projective spaces.
Notation. The number of elements in a set X is denoted by |X|. Those elements in a set A which are not in the set Bare denoted by A — B. In a projective space Σ = PG(n, q) of dimension n over the field GF(q) of order q, ┌d(Ωd, Λd, etc.) will mean a subspace of dimension d. A hyperplane of Σ is a subspace of dimension n — 1, that is, of co-dimension one.
A blocking set in a projective plane π is a subset S of the points of π such that each line of π contains at least one point in S and at least one point not in S. The following result is shown in , .
We discuss partial spreads (translation nets) U, V of ∑ = PG(3, q) where U, V cover the same points of ∑ and have no lines in common. Write t = |U| = |V|. It has been shown in a previous paper  that t ≧ 2(g — 1) provided q + 4.