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A chariot drawn by two people, on which the Neo-Assyrian ruler is represented as either sitting on a throne or standing in a “chariot-box”, is attested from Assurnaṣirpal until Assurbanipal. It is deployed on the one hand for short journeys in the immediate environment of the palace or in areas which the king can reach neither by chariot nor on horseback. A similar vehicle is used on seals that contain ritual scenes. Although some details of these seal-scenes showing various reed constructions can be explained through reference to texts, carriages are not mentioned in the ritual texts.
One goal of public health campaigns is to reduce health inequalities by encouraging responsible and prudent health choices among groups that exhibit higher rates of disease, especially among groups with low socio-economic status (SES).1 In Australia, examples include Queensland Health’s ‘Deadly Choices’ campaign, which encourages members of the indigenous community to adopt healthy practices,2 as well as the national ‘Quit Now’ campaign to reduce smoking.3 In the United States, there is the Centre for Disease Control’s ‘Verb’ campaign to encourage exercise and activity in at-risk and obese youth.4 At the heart of these campaigns is a conception of the person as an autonomous being who is ultimately responsible for the decisions that impact his or her health.
Vastly more than a regional study, the contributors to this work seek to provide a comprehensive and probative assessment through a 360-degree examination of a strategically vital area. Going beyond historical analysis, both regional and country-specific, this book evaluates overarching issues within a larger analytical context, from the political to the cultural, in a dynamic analysis that melds theory and considerations of practical developments in order to better understand causality and provide an opportunity to search for patterns and divine lessons. It is also a story of a remarkable transformation, now three decades old, that has been ripe with opportunities but also replete with caveats. Judging success, assessing legacies, and identifying the motor forces for change are enormously difficult but also necessary tasks. It is also essential to appreciate that most of these states committed themselves to democratization and marketization, and that involves a perennial struggle where a chance for progress and the risk of repression compete continuously and where the balance between the two can easily shift. Consequently, it is crucial to identify the early warning signs of trouble, and be aware that impressive successes have not eliminated present and future dangers of regression.
Plant secondary compounds (PSC) are prevalent in many woody, temperate-climate plant species and play a crucial role in dietary attempts to mitigate methane emissions in ruminants. However, their application requires sufficient palatability and feeding value. In the present study, leaves from silver birch (Betula pendula), hazel (Corylus avellana), blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum), green grape vine (Vitis vinifera) and the herbs rosebay willow (Epilobium angustifolium) and wood avens (Geum urbanum) were tested in various doses with the Hohenheim gas test method in vitro and their short-term palatability in dairy cows. For the palatability experiment, the plants were pelleted with lucerne in different proportions to obtain the same phenol content, but realised contents differed from expected contents. The pellets were provided separately from a mixed basal ration (0.4 : 0.6) to each cow, in a randomised order, for 3 days per plant. All plants mitigated in vitro methane and ammonia formation, often in a linear dose response. These levels of effects differed among plants. Significant effects were observed at 100 (hazel, rosebay willow) to 400 g/kg of plant material. The test plants had a lower feeding value than the high-quality basal diet. This was indicated by in vitro organic matter digestibility, short-chain fatty acid formation and calculated contents of net energy of lactation. Simultaneously, the linear depression of ammonia formation indicated a dose-dependent increase of utilisable CP. Only blackcurrant and birch were less preferred to lucerne. However, this aversion subsided on day 3 of offer. The rosebay willow pellets had the highest phenol content but were not the least palatable. Accordingly, PSC may not be the main determinants of palatability for the plants tested. Plants did not differ significantly in their short-term effects on milk yield and composition, and all of the plants substantially reduced milk urea content. Overall, the results suggest that hazel and vine leaves, and rosebay willow and wood avens herbs should be tested for their potential to mitigate methane and N emissions in vivo.
This study examined whether the context immediately succeeding a heterophonic-homographic word (ht-homographic) plays a role in ambiguity resolution during voiced reading of Hebrew. A pretest was designed to find the preferred alternatives of 12 ht-homographic words: 20 adult subjects completed truncated sentences, each ending with a homographic word, preceded by a context allowing for both of its alternatives to be read. Following the pretest, each word was embedded in four research conditions determined by post-homographic context (keeping preceding context constant): two adjacent revealing contexts, one supporting the preferred alternative and the other the un-preferred alternative; and two distant revealing contexts, one supporting the preferred alternative and the other the un-preferred alternative. Four lists of 12 sentences, each including the four conditions, were then read aloud by four groups of 20 adults. Results from a generalized linear mixed-model analysis showed that the immediately succeeding context affected the deciphering of un-preferred alternatives in voiced reading. An item analysis further showed that highly preferred alternatives were less prone to the immediately succeeding context effect than slightly preferred alternatives. We conclude that the context immediately succeeding a ht-homographic word plays a role in ambiguity resolution during voiced reading, through interactions with the word’s lexical and syntactic characteristics.
Even though Elias himself does not focus on an explicit theory on violence in The Civilizing Process, due to his research question on pacific social processes, violence is not generally theoretically excluded. Against this backdrop, and contrary to criticisms regarding a general loss as well as a biological rather than a sociological explanation of violence, and besides theories that explain meso and macro-level violence within Elias’s framework, this article considers interpersonal micro-level violence as an intrinsic part of the civilizing process. Especially by supplementing Elias’s assumptions of drive control and self-constraint with recent neuroscientific findings, it is possible to conceptualize interpersonal micro-level violence as situational exceedance of a subjective threshold of pain. Here, despite a normative civilized frame of behavior, aggression, as a (neuro)biologically-based reactive drive, is no longer controlled by socially learned self-constraint, leading to violence as a subjectively perceived rewarding behavior and socially performed action.
This article contributes to our knowledge about the prosodic realisation of rhetorical questions (RQs) as compared to information-seeking questions (ISQs). It reports on a production experiment testing the prosody of English wh- and polar RQs and ISQs in a Canadian variety. In previous literature, the contribution of prosody to the distinction between the two illocution types has often been limited to the intonational realisation of the terminus of the utterance, i.e. whether it ends in a rise or a fall. Along with edge tones, we tested other phonological and phonetic parameters. Our results are as follows: (i) The intonational terminus was distinctive only for polar questions (rise vs plateau), not for wh-questions (low throughout). (ii) Moreover, the semantic difference between RQs and ISQs is signalled by pitch accents. It is reflected in nuclear pitch accent type for wh-questions, and accent type and position for polar questions. (iii) Phonetically, RQs are produced with longer constituent durations and – for wh-questions – a softer voice quality in the wh-word. Taken together, several intonational categories and phonetic parameters contribute to the distinction between RQs and ISQs. A simple distinction between rising and falling intonation is in any case insufficient.
Consumption of cow’s milk, which is associated with diet and health benefits, has decreased in the USA. The simultaneous increase in demand for more costly organic milk suggests consumer concern about exposure to production-related contaminants may be contributing to this decline. We sought to determine if contaminant levels differ by the production method used.
Half-gallon containers of organic and conventional milk (four each) were collected by volunteers in each of nine US regions and shipped on ice for analysis. Pesticide, antibiotic and hormone (bovine growth hormone (bGH), bGH-associated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)) residues were measured using liquid or gas chromatography coupled to mass or tandem mass spectrometry. Levels were compared against established federal limits and by production method.
Laboratory analysis of retail milk samples.
Current-use pesticides (5/15 tested) and antibiotics (5/13 tested) were detected in several conventional (26–60 %; n 35) but not in organic (n 34) samples. Among the conventional samples, residue levels exceeded federal limits for amoxicillin in one sample (3 %) and in multiple samples for sulfamethazine (37 %) and sulfathiazole (26 %). Median bGH and IGF-1 concentrations in conventional milk were 9·8 and 3·5 ng/ml, respectively, twenty and three times that in organic samples (P < 0·0001).
Current-use antibiotics and pesticides were undetectable in organic but prevalent in conventionally produced milk samples, with multiple samples exceeding federal limits. Higher bGH and IGF-1 levels in conventional milk suggest the presence of synthetic growth hormone. Further research is needed to understand the impact of these differences, if any, on consumers.
Hydrilla is an invasive aquatic plant that has rapidly spread through many inland water bodies across the globe by outcompeting native aquatic plants. The negative impacts of hydrilla invasion have become a concern for water resource management authorities, power companies, and environmental scientists. The early detection of hydrilla infestation is very important to reduce the costs associated with control and removal efforts of this invasive species. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop a tool for rapid, frequent, and large-scale monitoring and predicting spatial extent of hydrilla habitat. This was achieved by integrating in situ and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager satellite data for Lake J. Strom Thurmond, the largest US Army Corps of Engineers lake east of the Mississippi River, located on the border of Georgia and South Carolina border. The predictive model for presence of hydrilla incorporated radiometric and physical measurements, including remote-sensing reflectance, Secchi disk depth (SDD), light-attenuation coefficient (Kd), maximum depth of colonization (Zc), and percentage of light available through the water column (PLW). The model-predicted ideal habitat for hydrilla featured high SDD, Zc, and PLW values, low values of Kd. Monthly analyses based on satellite images showed that hydrilla starts growing in April, reaches peak coverage around October, begins retreating in the following months, and disappears in February. Analysis of physical and meteorological factors (i.e., water temperature, surface runoff, net inflow, precipitation) revealed that these parameters are closely associated with hydrilla extent. Management agencies can use these results not only to plan removal efforts but also to evaluate and adapt their current mitigation efforts.
Congolese commerçantes, or transnational women traders, travel abroad to cities such as Guangzhou in search of affordable products to import to Kinshasa. Without any support from local banks, women must search for the means to finance their trips and navigate a complex bureaucracy governed by unpredictable customs tariffs. Just as men rely on their social networks to ensure the success of their business activities, women traders must also forge relationships with people in positions of power. However, a woman's social network, linked to her business activities, invites assumptions about her sexual morality. Men working within the country's unstable economic landscape are celebrated for their ingenuity and ability to ‘work the system’, while a woman's sexual morality is perceived as being affected by, and bound up in, Kinshasa's corrupt business matrices. Transnational commerçantes are thus not only an important part of the economic milieu, largely governed by patron–client relationships; but are also representative of changing gender dynamics in Kinshasa. Based on multi-site fieldwork in Kinshasa and Guangzhou, this article explores the moral anxieties associated with women's transnational trade, anxieties that relate to broader issues about the politics of social networks within local bureaucratic infrastructures.