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Seamus Heaney used his Dublin attic for most of his mature writing years as both a writing space and a warehouse. The poet’s correspondence was acquired in 2003 by the Stuart A. Rose Manuscript, Archives and Rare Book Library at Emory University. His journals and drafts of published works were donated to the National Library of Ireland in 2011. The Heaney archives are a treasure trove of historical and literary documents that have the power to re-energize, refocus and resituate Heaney studies around the world. The theoretical implications and critical potential of the archival materials become clear when one traces the paper-trail of the archives from the pre-natal attic to the postmortem reading room and into the afterlife of textual studies.
Ketamine has recently received considerable attention regarding its antidepressant and anti-suicidal effects. Trials have generally focused on short-term effects of single intravenous infusions. Research on patient experiences is lacking.
To investigate the experiences over time of individuals receiving ketamine treatment in a routine clinic, including impacts on mood and suicidality.
Twelve fee-paying patients with treatment-resistant depression (6 females, 6 males, age 21–70 years; 11 reporting suicidality and 6 reporting self-harm) who were assessed as eligible for ketamine treatment participated in up to three semi-structured interviews: before treatment started, a few weeks into treatment and ≥2 months later. Data were analysed thematically.
Most participants hoped that ketamine would provide respite from their depression. Nearly all experienced improvement in mood following initial treatments, ranging from negligible to dramatic, and eight reported a reduction in suicidality. Improvements were transitory for most participants, although two experienced sustained consistent benefit and two had sustained but limited improvement. Some participants described hopelessness when treatment stopped working, paralleled by increased suicidal ideation for three participants. The transient nature and cost of treatment were problematic. Eleven participants experienced side-effects, which were significant for two participants. Suggestions for improving treatment included closer monitoring and adjunctive psychological therapy.
Ketamine treatment was generally experienced as effective in improving mood and reducing suicidal ideation in the short term, but the lack of longer-term benefit was challenging for participants, as was treatment cost. Informed consent procedures should refer to the possibilities of relapse and associated increased hopelessness and suicidality.
Galeaclolusite, [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅8H2O, is a new secondary hydrated aluminium arsenate mineral from Cap Garonne, Var, France. It forms crusts and spheroids of white fibres up to 50 μm long by 0.4 μm wide and only 0.1 μm thick. The fibres are elongated along  and flattened on (100). The calculated density is 2.27 g⋅cm–3. Optically, galeaclolusite is biaxial with α = 1.550(5), β not determined, γ = 1.570(5) (white light) and partial orientation: Z = c (fibre axis). Electron microprobe analyses coupled with crystal structure refinement results gives an empirical formula based on 33 O atoms of Al5.72Si0.08As2.88O33H34.12. Galeaclolusite is orthorhombic, Pnma, with a = 19.855(4), b = 17.6933(11), c = 7.7799(5) Å, V = 2733.0(7) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure of galeaclolusite was established from its close relationship to bulachite and refined using synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction data. It is based on heteropolyhedral layers, parallel to (100), of composition Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4 and with H-bonded H2O between the layers. The layers contain  spiral chains of edge-shared octahedra, decorated with corner-connected AsO4 tetrahedra, that are the same as in the mineral liskeardite.
Environmental adversity increases child susceptibility to disrupted developmental outcomes, but the mechanisms by which adversity can shape development remain unclear. A translational cross-species approach was used to examine stress-mediated pathways by which poverty-related adversity can influence infant social development. Findings from a longitudinal sample of low-income mother–infant dyads indicated that infant cortisol (CORT) on its own did not mediate relations between early-life scarcity-adversity exposure and later infant behavior in a mother-child interaction task. However, maternal CORT through infant CORT served as a mediating pathway, even when controlling for parenting behavior. Findings using a rodent “scarcity-adversity” model indicated that pharmacologically blocking pup corticosterone (CORT, rodent equivalent to cortisol) in the presence of a stressed mother causally prevented social transmission of scarcity-adversity effects on pup social behavior. Furthermore, pharmacologically increasing pup CORT without the mother present was not sufficient to disrupt pup social behavior. Integration of our cross-species results suggests that elevated infant CORT may be necessary, but without elevated caregiver CORT, may not be sufficient in mediating the effects of environmental adversity on development. These findings underscore the importance of considering infant stress physiology in relation to the broader social context, including caregiver stress physiology, in research and interventional efforts.
Since the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically influenced almost every aspect of human life. Activities requiring human gatherings have either been postponed, cancelled, or held completely virtually. To supplement lack of in-person contact, people have increasingly turned to virtual settings on-line, advantages of which include increased inclusivity and accessibility and reduction of carbon footprint. However, emerging online technologies cannot fully replace, in-person scientific events. In-person meetings are not susceptible to poor internet connectivity problems, and they provide novel opportunities for socialization, creating new collaborations, and sharing ideas. To continue such activities, a hybrid model for scientific events could be a solution offering both in-person and virtual components. While participants can freely choose the mode of their participation, virtual meetings would most benefit those who cannot attend in-person due to the limitations. In-person portions of meetings should be organized with full consideration of prevention and safety strategies including risk assessment and mitigation, venue and environmental sanitation, participant protection and disease prevention, and promoting the hybrid model. This new way of interaction between scholars can be considered as a part of a resilience system which was neglected previously and should become a part of routine practice in scientific community.
Cognition is commonly affected in brain disorders. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) may have procognitive effects, with high tolerability. This meta-analysis evaluates the efficacy of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) in improving cognition, in schizophrenia, depression, dementia, Parkinson's disease, stroke, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis.
A PRISMA systematic search was conducted for randomized controlled trials. Hedges' g was used to quantify effect sizes (ES) for changes in cognition after TMS/tDCS v. sham. As different cognitive functions may have unequal susceptibility to TMS/tDCS, we separately evaluated the effects on: attention/vigilance, working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and social cognition.
We included 82 studies (n = 2784). For working memory, both TMS (ES = 0.17, p = 0.015) and tDCS (ES = 0.17, p = 0.021) showed small but significant effects. Age positively moderated the effect of TMS. TDCS was superior to sham for attention/vigilance (ES = 0.20, p = 0.020). These significant effects did not differ across the type of brain disorder. Results were not significant for the other five cognitive domains.
Our results revealed that both TMS and tDCS elicit a small trans-diagnostic effect on working memory, tDCS also improved attention/vigilance across diagnoses. Effects on the other domains were not significant. Observed ES were small, yet even slight cognitive improvements may facilitate daily functioning. While NIBS can be a well-tolerated treatment, its effects appear domain specific and should be applied only for realistic indications (i.e. to induce a small improvement in working memory or attention).
Patients’ rights can be seen as a precondition to empowering people and moving to health systems that are more person-centred. They provide a foundation for citizens to be considered as actors in control of their own health care delivery process.
Increasingly, the challenges and potential solutions that health systems are facing are explored through a patients’ rights lens. Changes, such as the rapid ageing of the population and the rising burden of chronic conditions (including mental health problems), along with scientific and technological developments as well as cultural preferences, are creating new questions that are often debated within the context of fundamental rights, including self-determination, dignity and equality. The growing complexity of health care together with innovations in the fields of medicine (e.g. precision medicine) and of information and communication technology (ICT) (e.g. e-health), along with an increased focus on quality and safety, are likely to impact patients’ rights, especially with regard to privacy and equity.
Institutional investment in forestry has now exceeded US$100 billion, much of this in the United States. Many large institutional investors are considered ‘universal owners’ because they own a portion of all sectors, geographies and markets of the global economy through their investment portfolios. These large investors increasingly acknowledge that negative environmental and social externalities pose material risks to their long-term investments, with many beginning to consider the alignment of their portfolios with internationally agreed objectives on climate change and sustainable development. Efforts to measure and monitor ESG (environmental, social, governance) performance of forestry investments are now well established. We propose a framework of criteria to assess landscape-scale outcomes from forestry investment activities which we call Sustainable Landscape Investment. This framework can help address wicked forestry problems and the often-competing demands of investors, local communities, governments and NGOs.
The Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage (RICH) radiocarbon (14C) laboratory in Brussels, Belgium, has acquired experience for pretreating samples with 60 years of involvement in 14C dating, and the implementation of routine protocols. These procedures as applied to wood, seeds, charred materials, bones, ivory, textiles (silk, wool, cotton, linen), paper, shells, cremated bones, mortars, lead carbonates, sediments, etc. are described in detail in this paper. They are evaluated against reference materials.
Northern Australia is a region where limited information exists on environments at the last glacial maximum (LGM). Girraween Lagoon is located on the central northern coast of Australia and is a site representative of regional tropical savanna woodlands. Girraween Lagoon remained a perennial waterbody throughout the LGM, and as a result retains a complete proxy record of last-glacial climate, vegetation and fire. This study combines independent palynological and geochemical analyses to demonstrate a dramatic reduction in both tree cover and woody richness, and an expansion of grassland, relative to current vegetation at the site. The process of tree decline was primarily controlled by the cool-dry glacial climate and CO2 effects, though more localised site characteristics restricted wetland-associated vegetation. Fire processes played less of a role in determining vegetation than during the Holocene and modern day, with reduced fire activity consistent with significantly lower biomass available to burn. Girraween Lagoon's unique and detailed palaeoecological record provides the opportunity to explore and assess modelling studies of vegetation distribution during the LGM, particularly where a number of different global vegetation and/or climate simulations are inconsistent for northern Australia, and at a range of resolutions.
To evaluate the prevalence of food and beverage marketing on Twitch.tv (Twitch), a social media platform where individuals broadcast live audiovisual material to millions of daily users.
Observational analysis of the prevalence of 238 food and beverage brands in five distinct categories (processed snacks; food delivery services and restaurants; candies, energy drinks/coffees/teas; and sodas and other sugar-sweetened beverages) over the course of 18 months.
Twitch streamer profiles and stream titles between January 2018 and July 2019. Twitch chat room messages during July 2019.
There was a significant increase in brand exposure on Twitch both in stream titles (sodas and candies, P < 0·05) and on streamer profiles (sodas, restaurants/food delivery services, candies, and energy drinks/coffees/teas, P < 0·05) over the 18-month study period. Energy drinks, coffees and teas had the most exposure with 1·08 billion exposure hours from profiles and 83 million exposure hours from titles. Restaurants/food delivery services and sugar-sweetened beverages were the most frequently mentioned products in chat rooms with 1·24 million messages and 1·10 million messages, respectively.
This study is the first to demonstrate the extent by which food and beverage brands garner millions of hours of exposure on Twitch. Future studies should evaluate the impact that this level of exposure to nutrient-poor, energy-dense products may have on behavioural and health outcomes.
Bulachite specimens from Cap Garonne, France, comprise two intimately mixed hydrated aluminium arsenate minerals with the same Al:As ratio of 2:1 and with different water contents. The crystal structures of both minerals have been solved using data from low-dose electron diffraction tomography combined with synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction. One of the minerals has the same powder X-ray diffraction pattern (PXRD) as for published bulachite. It has orthorhombic symmetry, space group Pnma with unit-cell parameters a = 15.3994(3), b = 17.6598(3), c = 7.8083(1) Å and Z = 4, with the formula [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅2H2O. The second mineral is a higher hydrate with composition [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4]⋅8H2O. It has the same Pnma space group and unit-cell parameters a = 19.855(4), b = 17.6933(11) and c = 7.7799(5) Å i.e. almost the same b and c parameters but a much larger a parameter. The structures are based on polyhedral layers, parallel to (100), of composition [Al6(AsO4)3(OH)9(H2O)4] and with H-bonded H2O between the layers. The layers contain  spiral chains of edge-shared octahedra, decorated with corner connected AsO4 tetrahedra that are the same as in the mineral liskeardite. The spiral chains are joined together by octahedral edge-sharing to form layers parallel to (100). Synchrotron PXRD patterns collected at different temperatures during heating of the specimen show that the higher-hydrate mineral starts transforming to bulachite when heated to 50°C, and the transformation is complete between 75 and 100°C.
We show that any smooth projective cubic hypersurface of dimension at least 29 over the rationals contains a rational line. A variation of our methods provides a similar result over p-adic fields. In both cases, we improve on previous results due to the second author and Wooley.
We include an appendix in which we highlight some slight modifications to a recent result of Papanikolopoulos and Siksek. It follows that the set of rational points on smooth projective cubic hypersurfaces of dimension at least 29 is generated via secant and tangent constructions from just a single point.
Cardiomyopathy is a disease spectrum that alters the shape, function and conduction of cardiac muscle. Affecting 1 in 500 people it is often incurable; however, symptom control can improve life quality and expectancy.
Current treatment approaches for depression center on various forms of psychosocial therapy and the use of antidepressant drugs. The response rates for both of these approaches are similar, with mostly reduction, but not complete remission, of symptoms. Poor adherence to recommended treatment is an issue complicating the management of depression and prevention of recurrent episodes. This study evaluated the efficacy of a novel form of receptive music therapy which can be easily adminstered to out patients.
Enrolled subjects (n=203, average age 49.6 ± 13.1 years, 28.1% male) were randomized into four arms: Music Therapy 1 (MT1), Music Therapy 2 (MT2), Placebo (nature sounds) and waiting-list Control. Subjects listened for 30 minutes, twice daily. Multivariate linear regression models assessed depressive symptom changes over five weeks, based on a composite scale (COMP) and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D) alone.
On average, a significant, positive change in COMP was observed for MT1 (β=1.44, p=0.030), but not for MT2 (β=1.14, p=0.059) or Placebo (β=0.57, p=0.397). After 15 weeks, study participation was associated with a mean HAM-D score reduction of 60% for 89,1% of the compliant probands.
Newly composed receptive music therapy, as explored in this study, is associated with reduced depressive symptoms and high treatment compliance, and may therefore potentially represent an effective depression treatment alternative or adjunctive therapy to pharmacological and psychosocial approaches.
To study the differential psychopathology of ADHD according to the Conners and ICD/DSM criteria.
Studying hyperactivity, attention and impulsivity features in children in relation to sensory processing difficulties, specific cognitive impairment and anxiety.
An extensive developmental questionnaire and old notes are also used to detect cognitive style, rate of development, communication and learning needs
86/136 63% (208-209) children with a learning disability are assessed according to the Conners rating scale. An additional 21 are assessed for attention deficit without the use of the Conners. 27/86 meet the criteria of an attention deficit syndrome according to the Conners. 6/21 are meeting the criteria of ADHD according to international diagnostic criteria (total 33 cases). 13/33 cases display ADHD features of response inhibition and general utilisation behavior. 5 with a hyperactivity syndrome respond tosensory material such as a bean bag, a slow rhythmic voice and a squiggly cushion. 18 cases have no attentional difficulties on preferred activities. Four attentional cases resolve with tailored educational input. One case of ‘typical ADHD’ recovers at resolvement of abuse. 9 display ADHD features as a form of communicating distress. Of the twenty cases 17 are meeting the criteria of an autistic spectrum disorder.
This study needs expanding, under experimental conditions and with multiple researchers to optimize blinding. However, this unfinished pilot demonstrates that ADHD criteria do not cater for qualitative differences in presentation and etiology. This has very serious treatment and ethical implications.
Poor sleep is a common complaint in postpartum depression (PPD). Depression as well as sleep disturbances may affect parenting functions and mother-infant relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between objective sleep data, parenting stress and bonding in PPD.
Forty-five mothers (age: 34.5 ± 5.4 years SD) suffering from PPD were examined 212 ± 156 days (SD) after parturition. Depression was measured by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-ADS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Parenting stress and bonding were assessed by self report scales, i.e. Parenting Stress Index (PSI) and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ). In a subsample of 10 participants sleep parameters were assessed by actigraphy and sleep logs during seven consecutive days. Actigraphic sleep parameters were put in relation to severity of depression, PSI and PBQ scores.
Poor sleep, i.e. low total sleep time (TST) was negatively correlated to depression (HRDS-ADS) (r = -.63; p < .05). Low TST was associated with poor bonding (r = -.82; p = .02), especially attitudes of “rejection and anger”. Severity of depression (BDI) was correlated with parenting stress (r =.50; p =.005). Mothers with high parenting stress tended to have more difficulties in bonding (r =.65; p =.016). Neither sleep parameters nor parenting stress and bonding were correlated with the infant's age.
In PPD poor sleep should be recognized and treated early, because it is associated to parenting stress and disturbed bonding, which might have a detrimental impact on mother-infant relationship.
To extensively describe three patients including one child with catatonia anonymously in terms of etiology, management and outcome.
Uncovering environmental factors and crude observations. All patients receive a low EE, low activity structured programmed.
Mark an adolescent with mild learning disabilities and autism developed catatonic features, coinciding with anorectic behavior and ‘tears behind his eyes’. He has remained refractory for medication. At admission under the above named regime he discloses sexually abuse, which coincides with resolvement of the catatonic features and anorexiaPeter a male in his late twenties has a diagnosis of schizophrenia due to recurrent catatonic features. An extensive developmental history reveals a childhood onset dysexecutive syndrome. He has remained refractory to medication, even when compliant. Following marked changes in his life, a relapse catatonia is treated in the community as above with visual augmentation and regular tutorials on events. A few months later he accepts medication and continues to incidentally experience a few days of mild catatonic features.Martha, a thirty year old with a tendency to concrete thinking and echolalia develops sudden catatonic features following a relationship break up. She is admitted under the mental health act and undergoes the described programme. She is also put on Citalopram 10mg, which coincides with resolvement of catatonia in five days.
Cognitive impairment, particularly a dysexecutive syndrome is susceptibility for catatonia at a time of cognitive overload and trauma. An ongoing low EE low activity structured programme is key to recovery in milder cases.