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In this paper, I examine the current geographical location of Portuguese courts and the effects this territorial redefinition has had on the relationships between the justice system and the territories/populations in a context in which external and internal political factors, rather than a mere need to improve the justice system, have played a major role. Such an analysis entails three key elements: the geographic impacts on access to justice, in view of the emblematic presence of the state in the territories, both contrasted with the conflict between specialisation and the proximity of jurisdiction.
The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) stand out as an important cause of disease in small ruminant, especially on goat farm. Widespread resistance to synthetic anthelminthics has stimulated the research for alternative strategies of parasite control, including the use of medicinal plants. The present work summarizes the in vitro and in vivo studies of plants with activity against GIN of goats, focusing on the description of chemical constituents related to this effect. This review retrieved 56 scientific articles from 2008 to 2018 describing more than 100 different plant species. The most frequently investigated family was Fabaceae (30.7%). Most in vitro studies on the activity of plant extracts and fractions were carried out with of free-living stages nematodes. In vivo studies were conducted mainly with the use of plants in animal feed and generally showed lower effectiveness compared to in vitro assays. The main plant secondary metabolites associated with anthelmintic effect are condensed tannins, saponin and flavonoids. However, the studies with compounds isolated from plants and elucidation of their mechanisms of action are scarce. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective anthelmintic agents.
In the Mediterranean and temperate regions, an increase in the frequency and intensity of drought events has been recorded, probably due to climate change. In consequence, trees will more frequently experience hydric stress, a condition that can be expected to affect insect–tree interactions, while adaptation mechanisms may be further in course. The effect of tree water stress on the performance of two allochronic populations of Thaumetopoea pityocampa was here studied. Namely, we compared a unique population of this insect, in which the larvae develop in the summer (SP), with the typical population having winter larval development (WP), to test the adaptation hypothesis to host plant status. Larvae of each population were fed on needles of young potted Pinus pinaster plants under two water supply regimes: (i) well-watered (control) and (ii) subjected to 3 months of drought stress. Compared to control, stressed plants had higher amounts of soluble sugars, phenols, and higher C/N ratio, whereas water content and chlorophylls concentrations were lower. In general, T. pityocampa larvae had lower performances on water-stressed plants, as shown by lower survival rates, lower needle consumption, and longer development times. Yet, the detrimental effects of tree stress were only significant for the WP larvae, while SP larvae were able to overcome such conditions. Results demonstrate that tree water stress can negatively affect T. pityocampa populations. Furthermore, the evidence is also provided that responses to the physiological condition of the host trees may occur at the population level, as a result of adaptation mechanisms driven by climate change.
This study aimed to determine the cutoff and the specificity and sensitivity of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) in a Portuguese sample of cancer patients.
A total of 147 patients (mean age = 49.2; SD = 12.6) completed the ET, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Subjective Experiences of Illness Suffering Inventory. Data were collected in a cancer support institution and in a major hospital in the North of Portugal.
The optimal cutoff for the Anxiety Thermometer was 5v6 (until 5 and 6 or more), which identified 74% of the BSI-anxiety cases and 70% of noncases. The Depression Thermometer cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 85% of BSI-depression cases and 82% of noncases. Cutoff for the Anger Thermometer was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 83% of BSI-hostility cases and 73% of noncases; for the Distress Thermometer, the optimal cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 84% of the suffering cases and 73% of noncases. Finally, for the Help Thermometer, it was 3v4 (until 3 and 4 or more), which helped to identify 93% of the suffering cases and 64% of noncases.
Significance of results
Results supported the Portuguese version of the ET as an important screening tool for identifying the emotional distress in cancer patients.
We report here for the first time the presence of Ophelimus mediterraneus sp. n. in Mediterranean Europe. This species appears to be closely related to Ophelimus maskelli, a well-known invasive pest of Eucalyptus. Based on molecular (cytochrome oxidase I, 28S), morphological (multivariate ratio analysis) and bio-ecological investigations, our study gives unambiguous relevant criteria that allow the discrimination between these two species. A full description of O. mediterraneus sp. n. is also provided. The geographic distribution of O. mediterraneus sp. n. as well as its impact on Eucalyptus species needs to be more widely assessed since its presence may have been confused with O. maskelli in their sympatric introduced areas. Further investigations of potential parasitoids in the native area may thus be welcomed to evaluate classical biological control achievability.
Let C be a set of positive integers. In this paper, we obtain an algorithm for computing all subsets A of positive integers which are minimals with the condition that if x1 + … + xn is a partition of an element in C, then at least a summand of this partition belongs to A. We use techniques of numerical semigroups to solve this problem because it is equivalent to give an algorithm that allows us to compute all the numerical semigroups which are maximals with the condition that has an empty intersection with the set C.
Knowledge on the reproductive biology of target insect pest is essential for the effective implementation of pheromone-based pest management tactics. In mealybugs, the second largest family of scale insects, the existence of female multiple mating was recently suggested. In this study, we aimed at testing how general is this behavior in mealybugs, by investigating polygyny and polyandry in two cosmopolitan pest mealybugs, Planococcus citri and Pseudococcus calceolariae. Males of these species were able to mate an average of 11.9 and 13.3 females, respectively, during their lifespan. The number of fertilized females per male decreased with male age/mating history for both mealybugs. We found no differences in female fecundity and fertility, when fertilized by males with different mating history. When we used male age as a proxy of mating history, we observed a significant negative effect on female fecundity. The females of both species remained receptive after first copula and eventually mated multiple times. The percentage of remated females of P. citri decreased linearly with time since first copula, with some maintaining receptivity up to 24 h. Males showed no preference between virgin and mated females, in static-air olfactometer tests. We found no benefit of female multiple mating in relation to fecundity. In biparental mealybugs, the mating system of males is possibly scramble competition polygyny; and that of females is possibly polyandry, with female receptivity restricted to a relatively short period. We discuss the practical implications of the results for pest management.
To compare cognitive function among frail and prefrail older adults.
Cross-sectional clinical study.
Fifty-one non-institutionalized older individuals participated in this study.
Cognitive functions were evaluated through Mini-Mental State Examination (Global Cognition), Digit Span Forward (short-term memory), Digit Span Backward (working memory), Verbal Fluency Test (semantic memory/executive function). Data were compared using parametric and non-parametric bivariate tests. Binary logistic regression was used to test a frailty prediction model. Statistical significance was defined as p ≤ 0.01 to compare groups. In the regression model, the p value was set to be ≤0.05.
Statistically significant differences were observed in global cognition, and short-term memory between frail and prefrail individuals (p ≤ 0.01). Global cognition explained 14–19% of frailty's model.
According to our findings, the evaluation of cognitive functions among older persons with frailty and prefrailty provides important complementary information to better manage frailty and its progression.
This study assessed the anthelmintic activity of plant-derived compounds against gastrointestinal nematodes of goats using the egg hatch and larval motility assays. The compounds tested were saponins (digitonin and aescin) and their respective sapogenins (aglycones), hecogenin acetate and flavonoids (catechin, hesperidin, isocordoin and a mixture of isocordoin and cordoin). Additionally, cytotoxicity of active substances was analysed on Vero cell through 3-4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl,2,5diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) tests. Significant reduction on the egg hatching (P < 0.05) was seen only in the treatments with aescin (99%/EC50 = 0.67 mg mL−1) and digitonin (45%). The compounds that reduced the larval motility (P < 0.05) were digitonin (EC50 = 0.03 mg mL−1 and EC90 = 0.49 mg mL−1) and the hecogenin acetate (75%). The other sapogenins showed low anthelmintic activity. All the flavonoids showed low ovicidal (4–12%) and larvicidal (10–19%) effects. The aescin and digitonin showed low toxicity in PI test (viable cells >90%). Nevertheless, higher cytotoxicity was observed in the MTT assay, with IC50 of 0.20 mg mL−1 (aescin) and 0.0074 mg mL−1 (digitonin). Aescin and digitonin have a pronounced in vitro anthelmintic effect and the glycone portion of these saponins plays an important role in this activity.
This study describes the effects of extracts and fractions of Persea willdenovii leaves against goat gastrointestinal nematodes and their cytotoxicity on Vero cells. The in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities of the crude ethanolic, hexane, ethyl acetate (EAE), butanolic and residual hydroethanolic extracts were assessed through the inhibition of egg hatching and larval motility assays. The most active extract (EAE) was then fractionated by chromatography in an open column containing silica gel, to furnish six fractions (Fr1–Fr6), which were also tested. The cytotoxicity of active extracts and fractions was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and trypan blue exclusion assay. The EAE and two fractions (Fr1 and Fr2) showed inhibitory activity in the egg hatching of gastrointestinal nematodes of goats in a concentration-dependent manner. The effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50) of egg hatching were 2.3, 0.12 and 2.94 mg/ml for EAE, Fr1 and Fr2, respectively. All extracts and fractions were not effective in inhibiting 50% of motility of infective larvae. EAE and Fr2 had IC50 values (50% inhibitory concentration) of 4.95 and 2.66 mg/ml, respectively. Fr1 showed a slight cytotoxic effect (cellular inviability <30%) only after 48 h of treatment (MTT test). Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis showed the presence of six fatty acid ethyl esters, a fatty acid methyl ester and a long-chain ketone in the most active fraction. These constituents identified in P. willdenovii can be related to the high ovicidal activity and relatively non-toxic effect of the extracts.
Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a key feature of major depressive (MDD) and bipolar (BD) disorders. However, rather than a single cognitive profile corresponding to each diagnostic categories, recent studies have identified significant intra- and cross-diagnostic variability in patterns of cognitive impairment. The goal of this study was to contribute to the literature on cognitive heterogeneity in mood disorders by identifying cognitive subprofiles in a population of patients with MDD, BD type I, BD type II, and healthy adults. Methods: Participants completed a neuropsychological battery; scores were converted into Z-scores using normative data and submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Three distinct neuropsychological clusters were identified: (1) a large cluster containing mostly control participants, as well as some patients with BD and MDD, who performed at above-average levels on all neuropsychological domains; (2) a cluster containing some patients from all diagnostic groups, as well as healthy controls, who performed worse than cluster 1 on most tasks, and showed impairments in motor inhibition and verbal fluency; (3) a cluster containing mostly patients with mood disorders with severe impairments in verbal inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: These findings revealed multiple cognitive profiles within diagnostic categories, as well as significant cross-diagnostic overlap, highlighting the importance of developing more specific treatment approaches which consider patients’ demographic and cognitive profiles in addition to their diagnosis. (JINS, 2017, 23, 584–593)
Extreme climate events such as heat waves are predicted to become more frequent with climate change, representing a challenge for many organisms. The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa is a Mediterranean pine defoliator, which typically lays eggs during the summer. We evaluated the effects of heat waves on egg mortality of three populations with different phenologies: a Portuguese population with a classical life cycle (eggs laid in summer), an allochronic Portuguese population reproducing in spring, and a Tunisian population from the extreme southern limit of T. pityocampa distribution range, in which eggs are laid in fall. We tested the influence of three consecutive hot days on egg survival and development time, using either constant (CT) or daily cycling temperatures (DT) with equivalent mean temperatures. Maximum temperatures (Tmax) used in the experiment ranged from 36 to 48°C for DT and from 30 to 42°C for CT. Heat waves had a severe negative effect on egg survival when Tmax reached 42°C for all populations. No embryo survived above this threshold. At high mean temperatures (40°C), significant differences were observed between populations and between DT and CT regimes. Heat waves further increased embryo development time. The knowledge we gained about the upper lethal temperature to embryos of this species will permit better prediction of the potential expansion of this insect under different climate warming scenarios.
Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common CHD. Its association with early valvular dysfunction, endocarditis, thoracic aorta dilatation, and aortic dissection is well established.
The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and predictors of cardiac events in adults with bicuspid aortic valve.
We carried out a retrospective analysis of cardiac outcomes in ambulatory adults with bicuspid aortic valve followed-up in a tertiary hospital centre. Outcomes were defined as follows: interventional – intervention on the aortic valve or thoracic aorta; medical – death, aortic dissection, aortic valve endocarditis, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, or ischaemic heart disease requiring hospital admission; and a composite end point of both. Kaplan–Meier curves were generated to determine event rates, and predictors of cardiac events were determined by multivariate analysis.
A total of 227 patients were followed-up over 13±9 years; 29% of patients developed severe aortic valve dysfunction and 12.3% reached ascending thoracic aorta dimensions above 45 mm. At least one cardiac outcome occurred in 38.8% of patients, with an incidence rate at 20 years of follow-up of 47±4%; 33% of patients were submitted to an aortic valve or thoracic aorta intervention. Survival 20 years after diagnosis was 94±2%. Independent predictors of the composite end point were baseline moderate–severe aortic valve dysfunction (hazard ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.35–7.54; p<0.01) and aortic valve leaflets calcification (hazard ratio, 4.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.91–11.64; p<0.005).
In this study of bicuspid aortic valve, the long-term survival was excellent but with occurrence of frequent cardiovascular events. Baseline aortic valve calcification and dysfunction were the only independent predictors of events.
This chapter focuses on the relationship between creativity and prosocial values, in particular those associated with cooperation and collaborative activities. Despite the fact that, in developmental studies and the literature on education, creativity and values are often treated separately, our premise here is that both psychological theory and educational practice would greatly benefit from reuniting them within an integrative framework. In this chapter, we consider creativity and prosocial values as they develop within the Self–Other dynamic specific for communal living and sociability (see Simmel, 1949; Jovchelovitch, 2015). We start by outlining the theoretical foundation for our argument and reflect on schools as socio-cultural contexts that socialize children to become creative and moral agents. We then unpack the relation between creativity, cooperation and prosocial values with particular reference to studies done in Brazilian schools. Following this, we propose a tentative set of guidelines for nurturing creativity and cooperation in the classroom. We conclude with a few reflections on the role of dialogue and reflexivity for enhancing moral creative behavior. However, before developing these ideas, a more basic question needs to be addressed first.
Why Creativity and Values?
In engaging with this question it is important, from the start, to stress the fact that the axiological dimension is typically included in the very definition of creativity. This makes it one of the few scientific concepts in psychology that are assumed to always contribute (by definition) to the well-being of individuals and the welfare of groups and communities. If creativity is characterized by novelty and value, as most researchers tend to think (Gruber & Wallace, 1999; Gruys, Munshi & Dewett, 2011; for an extension of this definition, see Kharkhurin, 2014), this value cannot be understood exclusively in terms of appropriate, fitting responses to the task at hand. Creative value ultimately derives from society's appreciation of what is an “appropriate” task, worthy of creative investment. This is what systemic models emphasize (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988): that is, that the meaning and value of a creative act, for it to be actually called creative, are related to socially and culturally instituted domains, safeguarded by gatekeepers and historically constituted within society.
The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).