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The focus of this Element is on the environment and how it is implicated in children's development.A very broad array of social and physical features connected to children's home life and to the neighborhoods where children live, including multiple aspects of parenting, housing characteristics and the increased prevalence of media in daily life are addressed.Attention is also given to the broader social, economic, and geographic contexts in which children live, such as neighborhood surroundings and conditions in less developed countries.There is a focus on how various aspects of the home context (e.g., crowding) and key parental characteristics, such as mental illness and substance abuse problems, affect the behavior of parents. Consideration also given to how various forms of chaos and instability present challenges for parents and children and how those circumstances are implicated in both children's development and caregiver behavior.
The seroprevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) IgG antibody was evaluated among employees of a Veterans Affairs Healthcare System to assess potential risk factors for transmission and infection.
All employees were invited to participate in a questionnaire and serological survey to detect antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 M protein as part of a facility-wide quality improvement and infection prevention initiative regardless of clinical or non-clinical duties. The initiative was conducted from June 8 to July 8, 2020.
Of the 2900 employees, 50.9% participated in the study, revealing a positive SARS-COV-2 seroprevalence of 4.9% (72/1476), [95% CI of 4.04% - 5.89%]. There were no statistically significant differences in the presence of antibody based on gender, age, frontline worker status, job title, performance of aerosol generating procedures or exposure to known patients with coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) within the hospital. Employees who reported exposure to a known COVID-19 case outside of work had a significantly higher seroprevalence at 14.84% (23/155) compared to those that did not 3.70% (48/1296), OR 4.53 [95% CI 2.67-7.68] p<0.0001. Notably, 29% of seropositive employees reported no history of symptoms for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Seroprevalence of SARS-COV-2 among employees was not significantly different among those who provided direct patient care and those who did not, suggesting facility-wide infection control measures based were effective. Employees who reported direct personal contact with COVID-19 positive persons outside of work were more likely to have SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Employee exposure to SARS-CoV-2 outside of work may introduce infection into hospitals.
The Element summarises the state of knowledge about four styles of prehistoric rock art in Europe current between the late Mesolithic period and the Iron Age. They are the Levantine, Macroschematic and Schematic traditions in the Iberian Peninsula; the Atlantic style that extended between Portugal, Spain, Britain and Ireland; Alpine rock art; and the pecked and painted images found in Fennoscandia. They are interpreted in relation to the landscapes in which they were made. Their production is related to monument building, the decoration of portable objects, trade and long distance travel, burial rites, and warfare. A final discussion considers possible connections between these separate traditions and the changing subject matter of rock art in relation to wider developments in European prehistoric societies.
With the conclusion of each presidential election, scholars, commentators, and political junkies begin the quadrennial exercise of discussing reform of the presidential nomination system. If we could alter the process in just the right way, goes the thinking, we would get better nominees, a more informative campaign, and everyone, or at least a lot of people, would be happier with their choices on the next presidential ballot.
And why not? How hard can it be to improve our presidential nominating system? After all, in 2016, both Gallup and Pew reported that voters had historically negative impressions of both major party nominees, so changes that would improve voter satisfaction must be low-hanging fruit. Indeed, the authors in this volume have offered up a number of thoughtful, intelligent suggestions for reform.
The psychiatric assessment of older people can be carried out in many environments, including outpatient clinics, hospital wards, care facilities for the elderly and the individual’s own home. Each presents advantages, disadvantages and challenges. An initial assessment conducted in the patient’s home remains an important aspect of many old age psychiatric services in high-income countries. This chapter explores and discusses the clinical aspects of conducting an initial psychiatric assessment of an older person in their home. It aims to be neither prescriptive nor exhaustive, but hopes to increase the awareness of the reader to certain themes and considerations in such assessments.
Foundations of Astrophysics provides a contemporary and complete introduction to astrophysics for astronomy and physics majors. With a logical presentation and conceptual and quantitative end-of-chapter problems, the material is accessible to introductory astrophysics students taking a two-semester survey course. Starting with the motions of the solar system and a discussion of the interaction of matter and light, the authors explore the physical nature of objects in the solar system, and the exciting new field of exoplanets. The second half of their text covers stellar, galactic, and extragalactic astronomy, followed by a brief discussion of cosmology. This is a reissue of the original 2010 edition, which has established itself as one of the market-leading astrophysics texts, well known for its clarity and simplicity. It has introduced thousands of physical science students to the breadth of astronomy, and helped prepare them for more advanced studies.