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The Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires are usually studied separately, or else included in broader examinations of the Hellenistic world. This book provides a systematic comparison of the roles of local elites and local populations in the construction, negotiation, and adaptation of political, economic, military and ideological power within these states in formation. The two states, conceived as multi-ethnic empires, are sufficiently similar to make comparisons valid, while the process of comparison highlights and better explains differences. Regions that were successively incorporated into the Ptolemaic and then Seleucid state receive particular attention, and are understood within the broader picture of the ruling strategies of both empires. The book focusses on forms of communication through coins, inscriptions and visual culture; settlement policies and the relationship between local and immigrant populations; and the forms of collaboration with and resistance of local elites against immigrant populations and government institutions.
A patient satisfaction survey was undertaken in a mixed psychiatric and somatic care unit. An anonymous self-report questionnaire covering setting and satisfaction with care was completed by 60 patients. Median age was 42 (range 20–64), and the majority female (63%). Main ICD-10 diagnostic categories were depressive disorders (51.7%), substance-related disorders (33%) and personality disorders (25%). Somatic comorbidity was present in 60% of patients. Overall satisfaction with care and setting was high. Higher satisfaction was significantly associated with a history of previous hospitalizations in a psychiatric hospital and with being referred to the program by a psychiatrist. These findings emphasize the perceived advantages of mixed units, such as decreased stigmatization of psychiatric inpatients and opportunity to receive adequate treatment for both physical and mental problems during a single hospital stay.
In the last few years it has been demonstrated, both by data analysis and by numerical simulations, that the transport of energetic particles in the presence of magnetic turbulence can be superdiffusive rather than normal diffusive (Gaussian). The term ‘superdiffusive’ refers to the mean square displacement of particle positions growing superlinearly with time, as compared to the normal linear growth. The so-called anomalous transport, which in general comprises both subdiffusion and superdiffusion, has gained growing attention during the last two decades in many fields including laboratory plasma physics, and recently in astrophysics and space physics. Here we show a number of examples, both from laboratory and from astrophysical plasmas, where superdiffusive transport has been identified, with a focus on what could be the main influence of superdiffusion on fundamental processes like diffusive shock acceleration and heliospheric energetic particle propagation. For laboratory plasmas, superdiffusion appears to be due to the presence of electrostatic turbulence which creates long-range correlations and convoluted structures in perpendicular transport: this corresponds to a similar phenomenon in the propagation of solar energetic particles (SEPs) which leads to SEP dropouts. For the propagation of energetic particles accelerated at interplanetary shocks in the solar wind, parallel superdiffusion seems to be prevailing; this is based on a pitch-angle scattering process different from that envisaged by quasi-linear theory, and this emphasizes the importance of nonlinear interactions and trapping effects. In the case of supernova remnant shocks, parallel superdiffusion is possible at quasi-parallel shocks, as occurring in the interplanetary space, and perpendicular superdiffusion is possible at quasi-perpendicular shocks, as corresponding to Richardson diffusion: therefore, cosmic ray acceleration at supernova remnant shocks should be formulated in terms of superdiffusion. The possible relations among anomalous transport in laboratory, heliospheric, and astrophysical plasmas will be indicated.
The TORPEX basic plasma physics device at the Center for Plasma Physics Research (CRPP) in Lausanne, Switzerland is described. In TORPEX, simple magnetized toroidal configurations, a paradigm for the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL), as well as more complex magnetic geometries of direct relevance for fusion are produced. Plasmas of different gases are created and sustained by microwaves in the electron-cyclotron (EC) frequency range. Full diagnostic access allows for a complete characterization of plasma fluctuations and wave fields throughout the entire plasma volume, opening new avenues to validate numerical codes. We detail recent advances in the understanding of basic aspects of plasma turbulence, including its development from linearly unstable electrostatic modes, the formation of filamentary structures, or blobs, and its influence on the transport of energy, plasma bulk and suprathermal ions. We present a methodology for the validation of plasma turbulence codes, which focuses on quantitative assessment of the agreement between numerical simulations and TORPEX experimental data.
Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report − expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( − 52·1 % of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( − 22·5 %), Jamaica ( − 17·9 %), Seychelles ( − 25·0 %) and the USA ( − 18·5 %). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual.