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THE volume preserved in Oxford, Bodleian Library, as MS Digby 86 contains an extremely important collection of insular texts in all three of the languages of medieval England. The contents of the codex are highly varied, including Latin psalms, prayers (in French and Latin), a French medical text, English lyrics, as well as (in both French and English) religious and secular instruction, religious and secular narrative, proverbs, fabliaux, charms and medical recipes. Most of the book, which has been dated to the last quarter of the thirteenth century, was copied by a scribe (Scribe A, the ‘Digby scribe’) who incorporated two quires (fols. 81r–96v) written by a second scribe (Scribe B). On the basis of obits added on fol. 71v and shields entered in the lower margin of fol. 68r, the volume is associated with Worcestershire. Because this trilingual anthology was largely copied by a single scribe, who also made additions after the main texts were completed, it is assumed that the Digby scribe made it for his own use, and scholars have speculated about the scribe-owner and the use of the book, mainly on the basis of the contents. It has been described as a personal book copied by a lawyer or a chaplain or, alternatively, as a commonplace book for family use.
Scholars have wrestled with the volume's diversity of content, language and genre. Marilyn Corrie has argued convincingly that the Digby scribe organised his material by form (prose, short verse or long verse), reflected in the layout in long lines (fols. 1r–74v), double columns (74v–168v) or single columns (fols. 169r–201v). French items, of both Anglo-Norman and Continental origin, constitute nearly half of the codex. Religious texts in French occur in all three sections. The first eight leaves of the books contain a group of prose treatises on sin, the sacraments and confession; two poems in octosyllabic couplets – Raoul de Houdenc's Songe d'Enfer (art. 28; fols. 97vb–102rb) and an extract from Robert Grosseteste's Chasteau d'amour (art. 39; fols. 116vb–118vb) – are included in the second (bicolumnar) section, while the third (single-column) section contains Herman de Valenciennes's Assumption de Nostre Dame (art. 61; fols. 169r–177v) and an extract from Guischart de Beauliu's Romaunz de temtacioun de secle (art. 63; fols. 182v–186v), both written in the alexandrine laisses characteristic of the chanson de geste.
There is evidence that individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) show an attention bias toward positive social-perceptual (happy) faces. Research has not yet considered whether this attention bias extends beyond social-perceptual stimuli to perceptually neutral stimuli that are paired with positive (trustworthy) biographical information. Fourteen participants with WS (mean age = 21 years, 1 month) learned to associate perceptually neutral faces with trustworthy (positive), neutral, or untrustworthy (negative) biographical information, before completing a dot-probe task where the same biographical faces were presented. The performance of the WS group was compared to two typically developing control groups, individually matched to the WS individuals on chronological age and mental age, respectively. No between-group bias toward untrustworthy characters was observed. The WS group displayed a selective attention bias toward trustworthy characters compared to both control groups (who did not show such a bias). Results support previous findings that indicate WS individuals show a preference for positive social-perceptual stimuli (happy faces) at the neurological, physiological, and attentional levels. The current findings extend this work to include a “top-down” positive bias. The implications of a positive bias that extends beyond social-perceptual stimuli (or “bottom-up” processes) in this syndrome are discussed.
In Australia, there are two distinct populations, each with vastly disparate health outcomes: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People and non-Aboriginal Australians. Aboriginal Australians have significantly higher rates of health and socioeconomic disadvantage, and Aboriginal babies are also more likely to be born low birth weight or growth restricted. The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis advocates that a sub-optimal intrauterine environment, often manifested as diminished foetal growth, during critical periods of foetal development has the potential to alter the risk of non-communicable disease in the offspring. A better understanding of the role of the intrauterine environment and subsequent developmental programming, in response to both transgenerational and immediate stimuli, in Aboriginal Australians remains a relatively unexplored field and may provide insights into the prevailing health disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. This narrative review explores the role of DOHaD in explaining the ongoing disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal People in today’s society through a detailed discussion of the literature on the association between foetal growth, as a proxy for the quality of the intrauterine environment, and outcomes in the offspring including perinatal health, early life development and childhood education. The literature largely supports this hypothesis and this review therefore has potential implications for policy makers not only in Australia but also in other countries that have minority and Indigenous populations who suffer disproportionate disadvantage such as the United States, Canada and New Zealand.
Background: Persistent fetal carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses are rare, with an incidence of <1%. The most common anomaly seen in this group is a persistent primitive trigeminal artery; others such as a persistent hypoglossal artery account for less than 15% of all persistent fetal anastomoses, making this finding exceedingly rare. Methods: We present the case of a 32-year-old-female with Poland syndrome (right-sided), who presented with thunderclap headache and reduced level of consciousness secondary to diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. CT and catheter angiography demonstrated an aneurysm of the V4 segment of the right vertebral artery arising from a persistent right hypoglossal artery, with an absent ipsilateral vertebral artery proximal to the anomaly. Results: Hydrocephalus was treated with an EVD, followed by a successful embolization of the V4 aneurysm with Axium coils. Subsequent MR studies demonstrated minimal recanalization of the aneurysm, and small foci of possible infarcts in the hippocampi. Four months later, the patient has some persistent short term memory difficulties but is otherwise neurologically intact. Conclusions: We present a rare finding of a persistent fetal hypoglossal artery with an associated vertebral aneurysm. The aneurysm was successfully treated endovascularly through coil embolization with minimal residual -neurological deficit. This vascular anomaly was ipsilateral to her Poland Syndrome defects.
The principal objectives of glacial geology over the last 50 years have been to establish and explain the history of ice, and in particular glaciation, on Earth and to understand the origin of the erosional and depositional products of ice. One of its major successes has been to establish the tempo and magnitude of change in the global glacier mass during the late Cenozoic ice age, and to demonstrate Earth orbital forcing of these changes. On the larger time-scale of the whole geological record, there has been steady elucidation of the frequency of ice ages since the first evidence of glaciation in rocks 2700 Ma old.
There has also been considerable progress in identifying the processes of glacial erosion and deposition and systematizing their products. It is now important that glacial geologists and glaciologists attempt to establish ways in which glacier behaviour is related to sedimentary processes, and via the geological product of those processes to relate the dynamics of glaciers in the past to processes in the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.
Internet cognitive–behavioural therapy (iCBT) for panic disorder of up to 10 lessons is well established. The utility of briefer programmes is unknown.
To determine the efficacy and effectiveness of a five-lesson iCBT programme for panic disorder.
Study 1 (efficacy): Randomised controlled trial comparing active iCBT (n=27) and waiting list control participants (n=36) on measures of panic severity and comorbid symptoms. Study 2 (effectiveness): 330 primary care patients completed the iCBT programme under the supervision of primary care practitioners.
iCBT was significantly more effective than waiting list control in reducing panic (g=0.97, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.61), distress (g=0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.55), disability (g=0.81, 95% CI 0.19 to 1.44) and depression (g=0.79, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.41), and gains were maintained at 3 months post-treatment (iCBT group). iCBT remained effective in primary care, but lower completion rates were found (56.1% in study 2 v. 63% in study 1). Adherence appeared to be related to therapist contact.
The five-lesson Panic Program has utility for treating panic disorder, which translates to primary care. Adherence may be enhanced with therapist contact.
This timeline looks at explicit uses of corpora in foreign or second language (L2) teaching and learning, i.e. what happens when end-users explore corpus data, whether directly via concordancers or integrated into CALL programs, or indirectly with prepared printed materials. The underlying rationale is that such contact provides the massive contextualised exposure needed for language learning, but in a more controlled way than purely haphazard exposure via regular reading or listening, thus promoting or enhancing noticing, language awareness, autonomy, and ultimately producing ‘better learners’. It interweaves with many other notions in language teaching, from authenticity and autonomy to induction and constructivism, taking in much of what we know about language from corpus linguistics itself – its fuzzy, probabilistic nature and the importance of lexical patterns, collocations, chunks, frequencies and distributions. Commonly known as data-driven learning or DDL (Johns 1990), the approach goes back several decades; yet despite its impressive pedigree, a frequent lament is that it remains a marginal practice. Teachers may not be aware of DDL if it is absent from their initial training, or may see it as a research activity confined to higher education. While corpus consultation may appear too demanding for school-age learners, there are connections with the web searches that are already a frequent practice for many. Though lack of uptake is sometimes attributed at least in part to a dearth of empirical research, this claim is increasingly difficult to defend, as witnessed by the number of entries in this timeline and the hundreds of others not included. For a balanced discussion of the limits of DDL as well as what it can reasonably achieve, see Kaltenböck & Mehlmauer-Larcher (2005).
Geological evidence indicates that the flow of the last European ice sheet was dominated by numerous large ice streams. Although some were ephemeral, most were sustained along well-defined axes at least during the period of retreat after the Last Glacial Maximum. A thermomechanically coupled three-dimensional numerical ice-sheet model has been used to simulate the ice sheet through the whole of the last glacial cycle, but with a spatial resolution that is high enough to capture streaming behaviour. An experiment with a smoothed bed is used to explore the self-organizing behaviour of streams when they are not forced by bed topography. On such a bed, streams typically have a width of 1–10 km, much narrower than the inferred European ice streams. An experiment using a realistic topography suggests that widths of ice streams are strongly influenced by topography, and tend to be of order 100 km. Moreover, even where the topography is muted, it stabilizes the locations of ice streams which, once formed, tend to be sustained along pre-existing axes. The model creates patterns of streaming that are similar to inferred patterns, suggesting strong topographic forcing. In a simulation using a realistic bed in which the ice was very cold and basal melting rarely occurred, streams were again very narrow. Widespread streaming under low driving stresses tends to reduce ice-sheet thicknesses compared with weak streaming or models that do not produce streaming. Consequently, ice thicknesses are smaller and tend to be consistent with the results of sea-level inversions based on geophysical Earth models.
A sedimentary sequence of till overlying a gravel aquifer was instrumented with water-pressure transducers prior to a small, anticipated surge of the margin of the glacier Breiðamerkurjökull in Iceland. The records of water pressure at each transducer site show a well-defined temporal sequence of hydraulic regimes that reflect the changing recharge of surface-derived meltwater, the pressure drop along the drainage pathway and the pattern of ice loading. The poroelastic and water-pressure response of glacially overridden sediments to the recharge rate is determined in the frequency domain through an analytic solution. This permits the in situ conductivity, compressibility and consolidation states of subglacial sediments to be derived, and reveals aquifer-scale compressibility that produces an important water-pressure wave associated with the advancing glacier. The model is then used to explore how varying conductivity/compressibility, largely determined by granulometry, can determine drainage states and instabilities that may have a large impact on glacier/ice-sheet dynamics, and how the drainage time of surface water to the bed can determine the frequency response of subglacial groundwater regimes and their influence on subglacial sediment stability. Mismatches between model predictions and specific events in water-pressure records are used to infer processes that are not incorporated in the model: hydrofracturing that changes the hydraulic properties of subglacial sediments; the impact on groundwater pressure of subglacial channel formation; upwelling beyond the glacier margin; and rapid variations in the state of consolidation. The poroelastic model also suggests how seismic methods can be developed further to monitor hydraulic conditions at the base of an ice sheet or glacier.
Background: Hybrid neurovascular operating rooms offer significant advantages for vascular neurosurgery. In 2008, we installed North America’s first robotic intraoperative rotational 2D/3D angiography unit in a neurosurgery operating room. To date, 200 procedures have been performed. Methods: In selected cases of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF)requiring surgical disconnection, intraoperative spinal angiographic roadmapping, angiographic image overlay onto the skin and surgically exposed spine, and laser cross-hair image guidance were utilized to accurately determine the location and trajectory of the draining vein. Results: In four cases of spinal dAVF, a minimally invasive approach was employed, via either single-level (N=2) or two-level (N=1) hemilaminectomy. Techniques used included: angiographic roadmap / image overlay and intraoperative fluoroscopic with laser light guidance. These provided sub-centimeter accuracy in localizing the path of the draining vein. Surgical incision lengths ranged between 4 to 5 cm, with the shortest incision measuring only 4.2 cm. Complete cure was obtained in all cases, with no untoward complications. Conclusions: Hybrid neurovascular operating room technology can facilitate the use of minimally invasive approaches to spinal dural AVF disconnection.
Who exactly were those whom contemporaries categorised as ‘the meaner sort of people’? These were those people whom educated contemporaries such as William Harrison (1535–93) thought had ‘neither voice nor authoritie in the common wealthe, but are to be ruled and not to rule other’: day labourers, poor husbandmen, artificers and servants. A more statistical account of the bottom of English society was devised by the political arithmetician Gregory King (1648–1712). King classified those who were, in his notorious phrase, ‘decreasing the wealth of the nation’ – by which he meant that their expenditure exceeded their income – into five groups: common seamen, labouring people and outservants, cottagers and paupers, common soldiers, and vagrants. Such people are often grouped together as ‘the labouring poor’ – a term apparently coined by the prolific writer and (failed) businessman Daniel Defoe (1660?–1731). However, that phrase, which only came into general use in the late eighteenth century, should not be used in this period, since it conflates two overlapping social groups, labouring people and the poor, who really should be treated separately.
The key distinguishing feature of all labouring people was that they and their families earned part or all of their living by working for wages (usually money but sometimes wholly or partly in kind). For the majority, work started early in life. Where there was suitable industry, children as young as four could contribute to household income. The Norwich Census of the Poor (1570) listed 330 children and youths aged between four and twenty who worked to supplement household income. Many worked in the city's large textile industry, but a few helped their parents, such as the tinker's son who carried his father's bag. Children could also work in the fields, scaring birds or picking up stones. Most children of the labouring sort would expect to leave home in their mid teens to go into service or apprenticeship; for many, being fed and housed as part of the family of a substantial farmer or middling artisan might well have been the material high point of their working lives. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries between a third and a half of all hired agricultural labour was supplied by unmarried ‘servants in husbandry’.
Rearing quality dairy heifers is essential to maintain herds by replacing culled cows. Information on the key factors influencing the cost of rearing under different management systems is, however, limited and many farmers are unaware of their true costs. This study determined the cost of rearing heifers from birth to first calving in Great Britain including the cost of mortality, investigated the main factors influencing these costs across differing farming systems and estimated how long it took heifers to repay the cost of rearing on individual farms. Primary data on heifer management from birth to calving was collected through a survey of 101 dairy farms during 2013. Univariate followed by multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the influence of farm factors and key rearing events on costs. An Excel spreadsheet model was developed to determine the time it took for heifers to repay the rearing cost. The mean±SD ages at weaning, conception and calving were 62±13, 509±60 and 784±60 days. The mean total cost of rearing was £1819±387/heifer with a mean daily cost of £2.31±0.41. This included the opportunity cost of the heifer and the mean cost of mortality, which ranged from £103.49 to £146.19/surviving heifer. The multivariable model predicted an increase in mean cost of rearing of £2.87 for each extra day of age at first calving and a decrease in mean cost of £6.06 for each percentile increase in time spent at grass. The model also predicted a decrease in the mean cost of rearing in autumn and spring calving herds of £273.20 and £288.56, respectively, compared with that in all-year-round calving herds. Farms with herd sizes⩾100 had lower mean costs of between £301.75 and £407.83 compared with farms with <100 milking cows. The mean gross margin per heifer was £441.66±304.56 (range £367.63 to £1120.08), with 11 farms experiencing negative gross margins. Most farms repaid the cost of heifer rearing in the first two lactations (range 1 to 6 lactations) with a mean time from first calving until breaking even of 530±293 days. The results of the economic analysis suggest that management decisions on key reproduction events and grazing policy significantly influence the cost of rearing and the time it takes for heifers to start making a profit for the farm.
Two types of basal till are described. First, melt-out tills released by the melting of masses of buried, debris-rich stagnant ice. Top melting of these ice masses is of greatest importance at the present day, and this produces tills which retain some of their englacial fabrics although some are changed by the melting process. Bottom melting of these masses could also produce such tills but these are likely to be much less important. Secondly, tills are also formed subglacially when basal debris-rich glacier ice becomes stationary beneath the over-riding active glacier. When these subglacial masses melt, water is expelled from the resultant till which also shows tectonic shear fractures induced by the over-riding ice. The mode of deposition of these latter tills could also be responsible for the production of certain rock-cored drumlins. Subglacial tills in Svalbard are relatively rare and, except under special conditions, are likely to react to ice loading by water expulsion, compaction and shear fracture rather than by fluid flow.
If a basal freezing hypothesis is accepted for the origin of most englacial debris, the lateral and vertical variations in erratic content can be predicted for many melt-out tills.
Studies of fluted surfaces beyond the margins of glaciers in Spitsbergen, Iceland, Norway and the Alps show that almost all emanate from rigid obstructions, commonly boulders in till. Field relations of flutes are described and it is shown that a relationship exists between flute height and the height of the initiating obstruction. Subglacial observations indicate that flutes form when till is intruded into tunnels which tend to open up in the lee of obstacles. The pattern of strain implied by this process is shown to be reflected by micro- and macrofabrics in the till. The commonly found occurrence of an average spacing between flutes does not arise because of some rhythmic or periodic mechanism in the glacier, but is produced by the random seeding of boulders which themselves generate flutes.
It is suggested that the term flute be used as a genetic rather than a descriptive term, and be restricted to long parallel-sided ridges which reflect accurately the direction of ice movement and which form when deformable subglacial materials are intruded into tunnels which tend to open up on the lee sides of single rigid obstructions on the glacier bed.