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To develop and validate a web-based self-diagnostic questionnaire on school food service offer aimed at food service managers (FSM) by: (i) identifying relevant indicators of school food offer, developing a questionnaire and validating the concept using an expert panel; (ii) validating the questions by comparing the FSM’s responses with observations by dietitians and (iii) undergoing a qualitative evaluation of the tool through direct observation and short interviews.
Nine experts validated the theoretical constructs and indicators on which the questionnaire was based. Inter-rater reliability tests were conducted with thirty-nine FSM, who then participated in interviews about platform functionality satisfaction. Twenty school stakeholders participated in the survey pertaining to their use of the personalised report.
The questionnaire focused on the main school food service’s lunchtime offer and comprised twenty-six questions. The overall strength of agreement was good, and all questions’ strengths of agreement were fair to excellent except for one question. Qualitative data reached saturation and showed that navigation through the questionnaire was fluid. Improvements were suggested to increase user-friendliness and simplicity of both the platform and questionnaire. Results from the survey showed that all respondents were either satisfied or very satisfied with their personalised report.
We successfully developed and validated a web-based self-diagnostic questionnaire. The final version facilitates knowledge mobilisation with school stakeholders and offers a new opportunity for the assessment and surveillance of school food offer.
This Special Issue considers the situated and contextualized development of socio-legal, or law and society, scholarship within two materially different legal and academic cultures, namely Germany and the United Kingdom, with a view to achieving a better understanding of why and how such differences in understanding and practice have arisen. The contributions are grouped into three themes. The first reflects upon the influence of institutional contexts and scholarly traditions in terms of the development of those approaches that come under the banner of socio-legal studies. The second features contributions that adopt a comparative perspective in terms of selected areas of law, pointing to notably different approaches taken in Germany and the UK, and considering the development of these respective situations. The third looks at the key contemporary trends, theoretical applications, and methodological approaches taken within both countries’ socio-legal academic contexts.
In the context of the encounter of UK and German socio-legal studies in this issue, this Article develops preliminary thoughts on a research agenda for the comparative interdisciplinary empirical study of legal doctrine. Based on a working definition of doctrine as an institutionally legitimized practice of making statements on the law, it presents an overview of sociological and comparative theorizing about doctrine in Germany, and of the data and methods being used to study it, in order to identify similar or diverging trends in the UK and elsewhere. This Article aims to show that legal doctrine, which is often regarded by non-lawyers as arcane and/or tedious, is an interesting and important subject for comparative socio-legal research.
We evaluated the safety and feasibility of high-intensity interval training via a novel telemedicine ergometer (MedBIKE™) in children with Fontan physiology.
The MedBIKE™ is a custom telemedicine ergometer, incorporating a video game platform and live feed of patient video/audio, electrocardiography, pulse oximetry, and power output, for remote medical supervision and modulation of work. There were three study phases: (I) exercise workload comparison between the MedBIKE™ and a standard cardiopulmonary exercise ergometer in 10 healthy adults. (II) In-hospital safety, feasibility, and user experience (via questionnaire) assessment of a MedBIKE™ high-intensity interval training protocol in children with Fontan physiology. (III) Eight-week home-based high-intensity interval trial programme in two participants with Fontan physiology.
There was good agreement in oxygen consumption during graded exercise at matched work rates between the cardiopulmonary exercise ergometer and MedBIKE™ (1.1 ± 0.5 L/minute versus 1.1 ± 0.5 L/minute, p = 0.44). Ten youth with Fontan physiology (11.5 ± 1.8 years old) completed a MedBIKE™ high-intensity interval training session with no adverse events. The participants found the MedBIKE™ to be enjoyable and easy to navigate. In two participants, the 8-week home-based protocol was tolerated well with completion of 23/24 (96%) and 24/24 (100%) of sessions, respectively, and no adverse events across the 47 sessions in total.
The MedBIKE™ resulted in similar physiological responses as compared to a cardiopulmonary exercise test ergometer and the high-intensity interval training protocol was safe, feasible, and enjoyable in youth with Fontan physiology. A randomised-controlled trial of a home-based high-intensity interval training exercise intervention using the MedBIKE™ will next be undertaken.
This study examines small-scale household ceramic production at the site of Xaltocan, Mexico, to understand the organization of household ceramic production prior to the development of the Aztec Empire. We examine utilitarian vessels and serving wares from an Early Postclassic (a.d. 900–1200) domestic context using neutron activation analysis (NAA). We also examine archaeological evidence for ceramic manufacture. The NAA data reveal that similar raw materials and paste recipes were used for both utilitarian and decorated wares, suggesting that households produced both plain and decorated pottery. We conclude that ceramic production was an intermittent activity that took place alongside other crafts and agriculture. By looking at ceramics within their contexts of use and production, we consider the practices and choices made by individual social units, which is crucial to interpreting broader Early Postclassic economic systems and the ways in which commoners influenced these systems.
Introduction: Patients hospitalized following a trauma will be frequently treated with opioids during their stay and after discharge. We examined the relationship between acute phase (< 3 months) opioid use after discharge and the risk of opioid poisoning (OP) or opioid use disorder (OUD) in older trauma patients Methods: In a retrospective multicenter cohort study conducted on registry data, we included all patients aged 65 years and older admitted (hospital stay >2 days) for injury in 57 trauma centers in the province of Quebec (Canada) between 2004 and 2014. We searched for OP and OUD from ICD-9 and ICD-10 code diagnosis that resulted in a hospitalization or a medical consultation after their initial injury. Patients that filled an opioid prescription within a 3-month period after sustaining the trauma were compared to those who did not fill an opioid prescription during that period using Cox proportional hazards regressions. Results: A total of 70,314 participants were retained for analysis; median age was 82 years (IQR: 75-87), 68% were women, and 34% of the patients filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of the initial trauma. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR: 1-5), 192 participants (0.30%; 95%CI: 0.25%-0.35%) were hospitalized for OP and 73 (0.10%; 95%CI: 0.07%-0.13%) were diagnosed with OUD. Having filled an opioid prescription within 3-months of injury was associated with an increased hazard ratio of OP (2.6; 95%CI: 1.9-3.5) and OUD (4.0; 95%CI: 2.3-7.0). However, history of OP (2.7; 95%CI: 1.2-6.1), of substance use disorder (4.3; 95%CI: 2.4-7.9), or of opioid prescription filled (2.7; 95%CI: 2.1-3.5) before trauma were also related to OP or OUD. Conclusion: Opioid poisoning and opioid use disorder are rare events after hospitalization for trauma in older patients. However, opioids should be used cautiously in patients with history of substance use disorder, opioid poisoning or opioid use during the past year.
The current study investigates the cognitive and emotional abilities of psychopathic individuals. To assess whether psychopathic individuals show decision-making impairment, group differences are mirrored by correlations between cognitive and emotional measures and psychopathy.
Twenty psychopathic individuals and a comparaison group, as defined by DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder and the Psychopathy Cheklist Revised (PCL-R), were tested a standardized psychometric measures of alexithymia and cognitive empathy (LEAS), a facial emotion recognition (RME). We also examined these patients with procedure designed to measure decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task) and standardized neuropsychological tests were applied to assess their cognitive intelligence, executive functioning, attention as well. Their results were compared with those of 20 controls subjects.
Compared with controls, psychopathic individuals were characterized by a selective impairment for cognitive flexibility, cognitive empathy and decision-making. These results are interpretated with reference to amygdale dysfunction and to somatic markers hypothesis. Moreover, the psychopathic individuals show defective performance and absence punishment learning on the gambling task, who mimicked the gambling behavior of orbitofrontal patients.
Our findings suggest that emotional and social functioning is critically tied to on-going experience of autonomic arousal state. Furthermore our results extend the link between dysfunction of ther orbitofrontal circuit, but also dorsolateral prefrontal circuit, and psychopathy. The implications of these results for models of psychopathy are discussed.
Many studies have examined the potentially beneficial role of social and cognitive rehabilitation in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a frequent and severe disorder in spite of the new medication. Cognitive rehabilitation improved by antipsychotic treatment could promote psychosocial processing rehabilitation.
The use in our department of the SAARP module (Social Abilities and Autonomy Reinforcement Program) confirm these data. This progam has been made to manage patients towards a high level of self-sufficiency.
The first aim is to look for solutions for concrete problems in daily life to help patients to realize personal plans. It develops self-esteem and responsibility for patient. It allows a personal realisation and an active social life. This instrument have to be an easy access, for all the staffs wishing for the well-being for patients with schizophrenia.
This study investigates the relationship of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning in patients with program as compared to patients without program. We targeted several domains of SAARP that have been associated with quality of life, and also tested whether the effects of SAARP were related to the age.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
This study assessed whether S-100β protein could be measured in urine when detectable in plasma after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Clinical data, plasma and urine samples were collected for the 46 adult patients prospectively enrolled in the emergency department (ED) of a Level 1 trauma center. S-100β protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA. S-100β protein was detectable in 91% and 71% of plasma and urine samples, but values were not correlated (r = 0.002). Urine sampling would have been a non-invasive procedure, but it does not appear to be useful in the ED during the acute phase after an mTBI.
In recent decades, the invasive Aedes albopictus vector has spread across Europe and is responsible for numerous outbreaks of autochthonous arboviral disease. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiological and sociological risk factors related to individual levels of exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. A multidisciplinary survey was conducted with volunteer blood donors living in areas either colonised or not by Aedes albopictus in mainland France. Individual levels of exposure were evaluated by measuring the IgG level specific to Aedes albopictus saliva. The most striking risk factors concerned the localisation and characteristics of the dwelling. Individuals living in areas colonised prior to 2009 or recently colonised (between 2010 and 2012) had higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG levels compared with those who were living in areas not yet colonised by Ae. albopictus. The type of dwelling did not seem to impact the level of exposure to Aedes bites. People living in apartments had a higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG level than those living in individual houses but the difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the presence of air conditioning or window nets was associated with a noticeable reduction in bite intensity.
A crisis is a complex situation, which actors have some difficulties to manage it. They are under stress to deal with problems that they cannot predict consequences. The human conditions (familial and life) and, the influence of the environment (politic, economic, media) pushes the actors to lose control of the crisis situation. The question we face in this paper is: “is it possible to predict the impact of the stress in this type of situation?” Our main hypothesis to answer is to represent experience feedback using knowledge management. To model the crisis management as systemic system emphasizing regulation loops, and the collaboration activity by showing the dimension of the communication, coordination, and cooperation. This modeling is illustrated in a terrorist attack situation in Algeria. To predict stress consequences, fuzzy set principle is adopted, based on experience feedback and situations modeling, as a generator of alternative states given a stress event.
During a crisis situation, the ability of emergency department to take reliable and quick decisions is the main feature that defines the success or failure of this organization in the course of its crisis management. Decision makers spend time on identifying the decisions that will be taken for the whole of the crisis management, and on anticipating the preparation of these decisions, ensuring that they have time to properly prepare all decisions to be taken and, be able to implement them as fast as possible. However, the context and the characteristics of the crisis make the decision process complicated because there is no specific methodology to anticipate these decisions and properly manage collaboration with the other protagonists. There is also the pressure of time, a significant stress and, the emotional impact on the decision maker that lead to losing objectivity in decision making. We understand so that the right decision will be greatly facilitated and enhanced by the development of an adequate tool and process for decision-making. This tool must respect methods of the emergency department considered, and highlight the importance of experience feedback referencing to past cases, especially success and failures. We propose in this paper, software in order to handle experience feedback as a support for decision-making in crisis management “Crisis Clever System”. Several dimensions are considered in this study, from one side: organization, communication and problem-solving activities and from the other side the presentation and finding of experience feedback thanks to an analogy technique.
Innovation and creativity are a mandatory for companies who wish to stay competitive. In order to promote an inventive dynamic, it implies to set up tools, habits, and an adapted environment to foster creativity. Creativity is the wealth of companies that should be valorized. To promote creativity, companies implement creativity workshops that gather people with various roles and expertise exchange and create knowledge to solve collectively open-ended engineering problems. However, group dynamics or facilitation can make the wrong decision and make the creative problem-solving unfruitful. The aim of our research project is to create a digital system to manage and valorize knowledge during creativity workshops. To design this system, we need to formalize the knowledge domain of creative workshops. The ontologies are used for decades to structure and manage information and knowledge in different domains. However, methodologies to design these ontologies are either hardly reproducible or not oriented to extract knowledge from organization. This article describes a methodology based on an organizational modeling to build ontologies. We will illustrate our approach by designing an ontology that models knowledge of creativity workshops.
This work aims to evaluate the energy savings that can be achieved in domestic hot water (DHW) production using consumption forecasting through statistical modeling. It uses our forecast algorithm and aims at investigating how it can improve energy efficiency depending on the system configuration. Especially, the influence of the DHW production type used is evaluated as well as the water tank insulation. To that end, real consumption measurements are used for model training. Then simulations are run on using TRNSYS software to compute the total energy consumption of DHW production systems over 1 year. Simulations are also based on real consumption measurements for realistic results. To appraise the energy savings, we compared simulations that consider either no forecast (reactive control), perfect forecast (to estimate the control ability to consider forecast), or the forecast provided by our algorithm. The measurements and simulations are run on 26 different but real dwellings to assess results variability. Several system configurations are also compared with varying thermal insulation indices for a complete benchmark of the approach so that an overall performance of the system and the anticipation strategy could be evaluated.
The ability to successfully conduct radical innovations is mandatory for mature industrial companies that want to remain competitive in the global market. This ability relies on several ingredients, namely: (1) the structuring of the innovation process; (2) managerial principles; (3) methodological tools; (4) the presence of a culture of innovation. This paper reports about the impact of applying the User eXperience-Fuzzy Front End (UX-FFE) model, which brings together the systemic innovation process with the social, economical, and methodological aspects on the outcomes of the innovation process. Firstly, it appears that the operational performance of the upstream innovation process relies on the quality of the social context, intrinsic to the group of co-creators, corresponding to the reported perceived experience. Secondly, the UX-FFE model application, therefore, allows optimizing the upstream innovation process performance. Indeed, we argue that the evaluation of the co-creators perceived experience brings new opportunities to optimize the operational performance of the upstream innovation process. The first part of this paper presents deeper a theoretical model, named UX-FFE, which combines a UX approach with an upstream innovation process (FFE). The main interest of this UX-FFE model is that it allows evaluating the social aspect of the upstream innovation process, which may be detrimental to the success of radical innovation projects in mature companies. The second part presents the results of previous experiments that validated the model. The results allow the design of an instrument dedicated to the evaluation of the user experience of co-creators in the ideation stage. Finally, the third part reports about the experimentation of the UX-FFE in a mature company. Results present the impact of the co-creators' experience on the performance of radical innovation projects.