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Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
This study assessed whether S-100β protein could be measured in urine when detectable in plasma after a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Clinical data, plasma and urine samples were collected for the 46 adult patients prospectively enrolled in the emergency department (ED) of a Level 1 trauma center. S-100β protein concentrations were analysed using ELISA. S-100β protein was detectable in 91% and 71% of plasma and urine samples, but values were not correlated (r = 0.002). Urine sampling would have been a non-invasive procedure, but it does not appear to be useful in the ED during the acute phase after an mTBI.
In recent decades, the invasive Aedes albopictus vector has spread across Europe and is responsible for numerous outbreaks of autochthonous arboviral disease. The aim of this study was to identify epidemiological and sociological risk factors related to individual levels of exposure to Aedes albopictus bites. A multidisciplinary survey was conducted with volunteer blood donors living in areas either colonised or not by Aedes albopictus in mainland France. Individual levels of exposure were evaluated by measuring the IgG level specific to Aedes albopictus saliva. The most striking risk factors concerned the localisation and characteristics of the dwelling. Individuals living in areas colonised prior to 2009 or recently colonised (between 2010 and 2012) had higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG levels compared with those who were living in areas not yet colonised by Ae. albopictus. The type of dwelling did not seem to impact the level of exposure to Aedes bites. People living in apartments had a higher anti-salivary gland extract IgG level than those living in individual houses but the difference was not statistically significant. Interestingly, the presence of air conditioning or window nets was associated with a noticeable reduction in bite intensity.
During a crisis situation, the ability of emergency department to take reliable and quick decisions is the main feature that defines the success or failure of this organization in the course of its crisis management. Decision makers spend time on identifying the decisions that will be taken for the whole of the crisis management, and on anticipating the preparation of these decisions, ensuring that they have time to properly prepare all decisions to be taken and, be able to implement them as fast as possible. However, the context and the characteristics of the crisis make the decision process complicated because there is no specific methodology to anticipate these decisions and properly manage collaboration with the other protagonists. There is also the pressure of time, a significant stress and, the emotional impact on the decision maker that lead to losing objectivity in decision making. We understand so that the right decision will be greatly facilitated and enhanced by the development of an adequate tool and process for decision-making. This tool must respect methods of the emergency department considered, and highlight the importance of experience feedback referencing to past cases, especially success and failures. We propose in this paper, software in order to handle experience feedback as a support for decision-making in crisis management “Crisis Clever System”. Several dimensions are considered in this study, from one side: organization, communication and problem-solving activities and from the other side the presentation and finding of experience feedback thanks to an analogy technique.
Innovation and creativity are a mandatory for companies who wish to stay competitive. In order to promote an inventive dynamic, it implies to set up tools, habits, and an adapted environment to foster creativity. Creativity is the wealth of companies that should be valorized. To promote creativity, companies implement creativity workshops that gather people with various roles and expertise exchange and create knowledge to solve collectively open-ended engineering problems. However, group dynamics or facilitation can make the wrong decision and make the creative problem-solving unfruitful. The aim of our research project is to create a digital system to manage and valorize knowledge during creativity workshops. To design this system, we need to formalize the knowledge domain of creative workshops. The ontologies are used for decades to structure and manage information and knowledge in different domains. However, methodologies to design these ontologies are either hardly reproducible or not oriented to extract knowledge from organization. This article describes a methodology based on an organizational modeling to build ontologies. We will illustrate our approach by designing an ontology that models knowledge of creativity workshops.
This work aims to evaluate the energy savings that can be achieved in domestic hot water (DHW) production using consumption forecasting through statistical modeling. It uses our forecast algorithm and aims at investigating how it can improve energy efficiency depending on the system configuration. Especially, the influence of the DHW production type used is evaluated as well as the water tank insulation. To that end, real consumption measurements are used for model training. Then simulations are run on using TRNSYS software to compute the total energy consumption of DHW production systems over 1 year. Simulations are also based on real consumption measurements for realistic results. To appraise the energy savings, we compared simulations that consider either no forecast (reactive control), perfect forecast (to estimate the control ability to consider forecast), or the forecast provided by our algorithm. The measurements and simulations are run on 26 different but real dwellings to assess results variability. Several system configurations are also compared with varying thermal insulation indices for a complete benchmark of the approach so that an overall performance of the system and the anticipation strategy could be evaluated.
A crisis is a complex situation, which actors have some difficulties to manage it. They are under stress to deal with problems that they cannot predict consequences. The human conditions (familial and life) and, the influence of the environment (politic, economic, media) pushes the actors to lose control of the crisis situation. The question we face in this paper is: “is it possible to predict the impact of the stress in this type of situation?” Our main hypothesis to answer is to represent experience feedback using knowledge management. To model the crisis management as systemic system emphasizing regulation loops, and the collaboration activity by showing the dimension of the communication, coordination, and cooperation. This modeling is illustrated in a terrorist attack situation in Algeria. To predict stress consequences, fuzzy set principle is adopted, based on experience feedback and situations modeling, as a generator of alternative states given a stress event.
The ability to successfully conduct radical innovations is mandatory for mature industrial companies that want to remain competitive in the global market. This ability relies on several ingredients, namely: (1) the structuring of the innovation process; (2) managerial principles; (3) methodological tools; (4) the presence of a culture of innovation. This paper reports about the impact of applying the User eXperience-Fuzzy Front End (UX-FFE) model, which brings together the systemic innovation process with the social, economical, and methodological aspects on the outcomes of the innovation process. Firstly, it appears that the operational performance of the upstream innovation process relies on the quality of the social context, intrinsic to the group of co-creators, corresponding to the reported perceived experience. Secondly, the UX-FFE model application, therefore, allows optimizing the upstream innovation process performance. Indeed, we argue that the evaluation of the co-creators perceived experience brings new opportunities to optimize the operational performance of the upstream innovation process. The first part of this paper presents deeper a theoretical model, named UX-FFE, which combines a UX approach with an upstream innovation process (FFE). The main interest of this UX-FFE model is that it allows evaluating the social aspect of the upstream innovation process, which may be detrimental to the success of radical innovation projects in mature companies. The second part presents the results of previous experiments that validated the model. The results allow the design of an instrument dedicated to the evaluation of the user experience of co-creators in the ideation stage. Finally, the third part reports about the experimentation of the UX-FFE in a mature company. Results present the impact of the co-creators' experience on the performance of radical innovation projects.
The aim of our study is to investigate how innovation is taking place through different research and development (R&D) activities and to establish a link between innovation and business sustainability in the context of Indian pharmaceutical companies. Our study is based on the secondary data. Sample data of 37 Indian pharmaceutical companies listed on the National Stock Exchange have been used based on the stratified sampling technique. For empirical analysis we have performed descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, and panel regression analysis as statistical techniques with the help of STATA 12.0 statistical package. R2 value can predict 100 and 98.20% variability in return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) in model 1 and model 2, respectively. In model 1, the value of c2 is 1.48 and its corresponding p value is 0.00 (<0.05) which means that the model is a good fit for interpretation. R&D intensity is having a positive effect on ROA and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Advertising and marketing intensity, capital intensity, leverage ratio and operating expenditure to the total assets ratio are having positive effect on ROA but the effect is not statistically significant. In model 2, the value of F statistics is 8025.62 and its corresponding p value is 0.00 which is <0.05. It means that the model is a good fit for study. R&D intensity is having a positive effect on ROE and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Advertising and marketing intensity, capital intensity and operating expenditure to the total assets ratio have positive effect on ROE and the effect is statistically significant at 1% level. Leverage ratio is having a negative effect on ROE but the effect is statically significant at 10% level.
The proposed methodology is based on a (global and multi-criteria) simplified environmental but thorough assessment. In this stage we do not directly give the solution to designers. It will therefore translate the results of evaluation design axes, but in general, the lines proposed are inconsistent or contradictory. Therefore, what we find is a compromise given to the solution. The challenge we are facing in an industrial reality is that one should not go for a compromise solution. TRIZ (Teorija Reshenija Izobretateliskih Zadatch) or the theory of solving inventive problems, in the field, will be reformulated and go through the contradiction matrix and then intervene with the principles of interpretation resolutions to give possible solutions. To assist small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in their product development, the objective of this paper is to propose a methodological approach named Ecatriz, that will allow us to achieve our eco-innovative goal. The applicability of this method is justified by the many contradictions in the choices in a study of the life cycle. As a starting point, a qualitative multi-criteria matrix will allow the prioritization of all impacts on the environment. A customized implementation of the inventive TRIZ (Teorija Reshenija Izobretateliskih Zadatch, Russian acronym for theory of solving inventive problems) principles will help us choose eco-innovative solutions. To that end, we have created a new approach named Ecatriz (ecological approach TRIZ), based on a new contradiction matrix. It was tested in various contexts, such as the “24 h of Innovation” competition and eco-innovative patents.
Although, the knowledge management (KM)-culture research has helped to validate the importance of cultural values for companies' KM initiatives and provided insights into some important values, it still lacks frameworks and analysis outlining how specific types of cultural values might relate to Knowledge Management system (KMS) adoption and subsequent outcomes. In this paper, we provide a three-dimensional framework to help managers articulate how culture affects their unit's ability to create, transfer, and apply knowledge through KMS use. To illustrate the application of the framework, we also present an exploratory case study we have performed in an international organization in the area of development assistance and capacity development.
Community of Practice (CoP) efficiency evaluation is a great deal in research. Indeed, having the possibility to know if a given CoP is successful or not is essential to better manage it over time. The existing approaches for efficiency evaluation are difficult and time-consuming to put into action on real CoPs. They require either to evaluate subjective constructs making the analysis unreliable, either to work out a knowledge interaction matrix that is difficult to set up. However, these approaches build their evaluation on the fact that a CoP is successful if knowledge is exchanged between the members. It is the case if there are some interactions between the actors involved in the CoP. Therefore, we propose to analyze these interactions through the exchanges of emails thanks to Natural Language Processing. Our approach is systematic and semi-automated. It requires the e-mails exchanged and the definition of the speech-acts that will be retrieved. We apply it on a real project-based CoP: the SEPOLBE research project that involves different expertise fields. It allows us to identify the CoP core group and to emphasize learning processes between members with different backgrounds (Microbiology, Electrochemistry and Civil engineering).
Stone was a critical resource for prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Archaeologists, therefore, have long argued that these groups would actively have sought out stone of ‘high quality’. Although the defining of quality can be a complicated endeavour, researchers in recent years have suggested that stone with fewer impurities would be preferred for tool production, as it can be worked and used in a more controllable way. The present study shows that prehistoric hunter-gatherers at the Holocene site of Welling, in Ohio, USA, continuously selected the ‘purest’ stone for over 9000 years.
We describe in this article the dynamics of a one-parameter family of affine interval exchange transformations. This amounts to studying the directional foliations of a particular dilatation surface introduced in Duryev et al [Affine surfaces and their Veech groups. Preprint, 2016, arXiv:1609.02130], the Disco surface. We show that this family displays various dynamical behaviours: it is generically dynamically trivial but for a Cantor set of parameters the leaves of the foliations accumulate to a (transversely) Cantor set. This study is achieved through analysis of the dynamics of the Veech group of this surface combined with a modified version of Rauzy induction in the context of affine interval exchange transformations.
IR observations with the IRAS satellite have revealed in the galaxy a lot of point-like unidentified sources: they have no optical or radiocontinuum counterpart, and cannot be known stars, nor H II regions. We have undertaken mm-wave observations of a sample of ∼ 100 of these sources with the Bordeaux telescope (beamsize = 4.4′ ∼ IRAS resolution). These sources seem to be associated with protostars or young stars still embedded in molecular clouds. Some of the sources present high-velocity wings, suggesting a bipolar gaseous ejection from the protostar.