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One of the greatest challenges in the twenty-first century is to address large, deep, and historic deficits in human development. Democracy at Work explores a crucial question: how does democracy, with all of its messy, contested, and, time-consuming features, advance well-being and improve citizens' lives? Professors Brian Wampler, Natasha Borges Sugiyama, and Michael Touchton argue that differences in the local robustness of three democratic pathways - participatory institutions, rights-based social programs, and inclusive state capacity - best explain the variation in how democratic governments improve well-being. Using novel data from Brazil and innovative analytic techniques, the authors show that participatory institutions permit citizens to express voice and exercise vote, inclusive social programs promote citizenship rights and access to public resources, and more capable local states use public resources according to democratic principles of rights protections and equal access. The analysis uncovers how democracy works to advance capabilities related to poverty, health, women's empowerment, and education.
With still limited information on vitamin requirements and considering that many commercial practices adopt dietary vitamin levels above the values suggested by nutritional tables, this study aimed to assess the effect of administering vitamin supplementation to sows in gestation and lactation and to their litters on the reproductive performance and body condition of the sows and on the performance and immune profile of the litters until slaughter. The trial was split into two phases. The first phase used 104 sows, assigned to be randomized to blocks according to parity, submitted until 21 days of lactation to two treatments: control–standard (standard levels of vitamins) and test–elevated (elevated levels of vitamins). Each sow and its respective farrow were considered an experimental unit. The sows underwent evaluations of body condition score, back fat thickness and reproductive performance. In the second phase, 60 barrows and 60 gilts at 21 days of age and mean initial weight of 5.33 ± 1.5 kg until slaughter at 164 days of age. The piglets were assigned to randomized blocks according to the weight and sex of the animals in a 2 × 2 factorial model, with 10 replicates per treatment, where a pen with three animals represented the experimental unit. Following the same treatments of the first phase, the piglets were evaluated for daily weight gain, daily feed intake, feed conversion, mortality rate and humoral immune response. Vitamin supplementation had no positive effects on the reproductive parameters or body composition of sows. However, it positively impacted the performance of the litters in the early nursery stage, but did not lead to superior effects on the immune responses to vaccination against circovirus or mycoplasma.
Hypertension (HTN) remains a common complication after kidney transplantation among paediatric patients. Although low birth weight (LBW) has been implicated as an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, its effect on transplantation patients has not yet been addressed. It is essential to determine whether children with LBW who undergo transplantation are more likely to develop post-transplantation HTN. For this study, the medical records of 96 kidney recipients were retrospectively examined. A total of 83 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Overall, post-transplantation HTN was observed in 54% of the recipients. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that time from transplantation >14 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31–10.06; P = 0.013), current CKD (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.01–7.20; P = 0.045), presence of LBW (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.04–12.32; P = 0.044) and current overweight/obesity (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.02–13.91; P = 0.047) were associated with post-transplantation HTN. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the first time that LBW is a significant predictive factor in the development of post-transplantation HTN. This finding has important clinical implications as it serves to alert clinicians about this additional risk factor in paediatric patients undergoing kidney transplant.
Human ascariasis is a neglected tropical disease of great relevance to public health and is considered the most frequent helminthiasis in poor regions. Accurately diagnosing this parasite has been challenging due to limitations of current diagnostic methods. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology is a very effective alternative for the production of highly specific and profitable antibodies. This study aimed to produce and apply anti-Ascaris suum IgY antibodies in the immunodiagnosis of human ascariasis. Five immunizations comprising total saline extract from A. suum adult life forms were given at 14-day intervals to Gallus gallus domesticus hens of the Isa Brown line. Eggs and blood samples were collected weekly and fortnightly, respectively, to monitor the production of antibodies. The specificity of antibodies was confirmed by dot-blot, kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), avidity ELISA, immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests. The application for disease diagnosis was performed through the detection of immune complexes in human serum samples by sandwich ELISA. Peaks of IgY anti-A. suum production occurred at weeks 6 and 8. IgY showed high avidity levels after the second dose of immunization, ranging from 64% to 93%, with a mean avidity index of 78.30%. Purified IgY recognized 12 bands of proteins from A. suum saline extract. Eggs, the uterine portion and cuticles of A. suum female adult are reactive in immunofluorescence. The detection of immune complexes showed diagnostic values of 80% sensitivity and 90% specificity. In conclusion, specific IgY have been shown to be a potential immunodiagnostic tool with promising future applications in human ascariasis.
This research paper aimed to evaluate the role of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of Frescal sheep milk cheese. Sheep milk and its derivatives are a promising niche in the dairy industry, mainly due to increasing interest of consumers in diversified products. Three Frescal sheep milk cheese formulations, namely whole milk cheese (WMC), semi-skimmed cheese (SSC) and semi-skimmed cheese with 5 g/100 g inulin (SSCI) were prepared. Their composition was evaluated and the feasibility of using inulin as a fat substitute was investigated. SSC and SSCI were considered ‘reduced fat’ or ‘reduced calorie’ products. The addition of inulin to SSCI cheeses yielded textural parameters (firmness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and gumminess) with intermediate characteristics between SSC and WMC. All the formulations presented scores higher than 7.6 in sensory analysis. In conclusion, the use of inulin in semi-skimmed sheep cheese allowed the production of cheese with texturizing properties similar to whole milk sheep cheese, enabling the development of a foodstuff with lower caloric content and beneficial characteristics valued by consumers.
This Article criticizes two trends on the Brazilian literature of communitarian law: A mental exercise that can only be termed as an “EU analogy” and a need to evoke the Congress of Panama of 1826 as the origin of Mercosur. As odd as it may seem, those trends are somewhat connected. Comparisons between the European Union and Mercosur abound in scholarly works, and they became so popular that a more simplified version of this comparison came into being. When explaining the current dilemma that Mercosur faces—or any other predicament as well—Brazilian scholars often tend to provide only one solution consisting in a vague reference to the supranational character of the European Union. This reference appears out of context and solves any problem. A trend so common as the EU analogy exemplifies that some Brazilian experts on communitarian law have also assumed an idealized version of our neighbors’ take on the Latin America integration. Apparently, Mercosur dates back to the Congress of Panama of 1826 and Simón Bolívar’s ideals on Latin American integration. The story faces several historical obstacles and yet has spread so rapidly that it has acquired the stature of a true myth. This work presents these two inclinations and contends that one relies on the other. Rather than providing an accurate explanation, as one would expect on a scientific text, they justify a certain concealed intent. This Article employs an inductive method of approach and relies on primary sources to explain the foundational myth so to prevent historical misconceptions.
The gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) stand out as an important cause of disease in small ruminant, especially on goat farm. Widespread resistance to synthetic anthelminthics has stimulated the research for alternative strategies of parasite control, including the use of medicinal plants. The present work summarizes the in vitro and in vivo studies of plants with activity against GIN of goats, focusing on the description of chemical constituents related to this effect. This review retrieved 56 scientific articles from 2008 to 2018 describing more than 100 different plant species. The most frequently investigated family was Fabaceae (30.7%). Most in vitro studies on the activity of plant extracts and fractions were carried out with of free-living stages nematodes. In vivo studies were conducted mainly with the use of plants in animal feed and generally showed lower effectiveness compared to in vitro assays. The main plant secondary metabolites associated with anthelmintic effect are condensed tannins, saponin and flavonoids. However, the studies with compounds isolated from plants and elucidation of their mechanisms of action are scarce. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective anthelmintic agents.
Intraspecific and interspecific cloning via somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a biotechnique with great possibilities for wild mammals because it allows the maintenance of biodiversity by recovering species, nuclear reprogramming for the production of pluripotency-induced cells, and studies related to embryonic development. Nevertheless, many areas in cloning, especially those associated with wild mammals, are still in question because of the difficulty in obtaining cytoplasmic donor cells (or cytoplasts). Conversely, donor cell nuclei (or karyoplasts) are widely obtained from the skin of living or post-mortem individuals and often maintained in somatic cell banks. Moreover, the creation of karyoplast–cytoplast complexes by fusion followed by activation and embryo development is one of the most difficult steps that requires further clarification to avoid genetic failures. Although difficult, cloning different species, such as wild carnivores and ungulates, can be successful via iSCNT with embryo development and the birth of offspring. Thus, novel research in the area that contributes to the conservation of biodiversity and knowledge of the physiology of species continues. The present review presents the failures and successes that occurred with the application of the technique in wild mammals, with the goal of helping future work on cloning via iSCNT.
Behavioral Inhibition (BI) is a temperament type that predicts social withdrawal in childhood and anxiety disorders later in life. However, not all BI children develop anxiety. Attention bias (AB) may enhance the vulnerability for anxiety in BI children, and interfere with their development of effective emotion regulation. In order to fully probe attention patterns, we used traditional measures of reaction time (RT), stationary eye-tracking, and recently emerging mobile eye-tracking measures of attention in a sample of 5- to 7-year-olds characterized as BI (N = 23) or non-BI (N = 58) using parent reports. There were no BI-related differences in RT or stationary eye-tracking indices of AB in a dot-probe task. However, findings in a subsample from whom eye-tracking data were collected during a live social interaction indicated that BI children (N = 12) directed fewer gaze shifts to the stranger than non-BI children (N = 25). Moreover, the frequency of gazes toward the stranger was positively associated with stationary AB only in BI, but not in non-BI, children. Hence, BI was characterized by a consistent pattern of attention across stationary and ambulatory measures. We demonstrate the utility of mobile eye-tracking as an effective tool to extend the assessment of attention and regulation to social interactive contexts.
Space probes suffer from a fundamental problem, which is the limited energy available for their operation. Energy supply is essential for continuous operation and ultimately the most important sub-system for its sustainable functioning. Considering, for instance, the last space probe put on Comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, called “Philae”, which was sent by Rosetta (http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta), to operate and to monitor comet activity, its operation was jeopardized due to the fact that it landed on a shadowed zone (no direct sunlight). Since its operational energy was only based on solar harvesters, the energy for its operation was limited by solar energy availability. In this paper a study on a viable alternative based on wireless power transmission is presented and discussed at the system level. It is proved that, using current technology, it is possible to create alternatives or supplement to existing power sources such as solar panels to power up these important space probes and to secure their operation.
Lay opinions and published papers alike suggest mood varies with the seasons, commonly framed as higher rates of depression mood in winter. Memory and confirmation bias may have influenced previous studies. We therefore systematically searched for and reviewed studies on the topic, but excluded study designs where explicit referrals to seasonality were included in questions, interviews or data collection.
Systematic literature search in Cochrane database, DARE, Medline, Embase, PsychINFO and CINAHL, reporting according to the PRISMA framework, and study quality assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Two authors independently assessed each study for inclusion and quality assessment. Due to large heterogeneity, we used a descriptive review of the studies.
Among the 41 included studies, there was great heterogeneity in regards to included symptoms and disorder definitions, operationalisation and measurement. We also observed important heterogeneity in how definitions of ‘seasons’ as well as study design, reporting and quality. This heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis and publication bias analysis. Thirteen of the studies suggested more depression in winter. The remaining studies suggested no seasonal pattern, seasonality outside winter, or inconclusive results.
The results of this review suggest that the research field of seasonal variations in mood disorders is fragmented, and important questions remain unanswered. There is some support for seasonal variation in clinical depression, but our results contest a general population shift towards lower mood and more sub-threshold symptoms at regular intervals throughout the year. We suggest future research on this issue should be aware of potential bias by design and take into account other biological and behavioural seasonal changes that may nullify or exacerbate any impact on mood.