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While the Victorian ideal of the public park is well understood, we know less of how local governors sought to realize this ideal in practice. This article is concerned with park-making as a process – contingent, unstable, open – rather than with parks as outcomes – determined, settled, closed. It details how local governors bounded, designed and regulated park spaces to differentiate them as ‘spaces apart’ within the city, and how this programme of spatial governance was obstructed, frustrated and diverted by political, environmental and social forces. The article also uses this historical analysis to provide a new perspective on the future prospects of urban parks today.
To identify factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa and identify areas for future research.
We systematically reviewed published/grey literature (protocol CRD4201706893). Findings were compiled into a map using a socio-ecological model on four environmental levels: individual, social, physical and macro.
Urban food environments in Africa.
Studies involving adolescents and adults (11–70 years, male/female).
Thirty-nine studies were included (six adolescent, fifteen adolescent/adult combined and eighteen adult). Quantitative methods were most common (twenty-eight quantitative, nine qualitative and two mixed methods). Studies were from fifteen African countries. Seventy-seven factors influencing dietary behaviours were identified, with two-thirds at the individual level (45/77). Factors in the social (11/77), physical (12/77) and macro (9/77) environments were investigated less. Individual-level factors that specifically emerged for adolescents included self-esteem, body satisfaction, dieting, spoken language, school attendance, gender, body composition, pubertal development, BMI and fat mass. Studies involving adolescents investigated social environment-level factors more, for example, sharing food with friends. The physical food environment was more commonly explored in adults, for example, convenience/availability of food. Macro-level factors associated with dietary behaviours were food/drink advertising, religion and food prices. Factors associated with dietary behaviour were broadly similar for men and women.
The dominance of studies exploring individual-level factors suggests a need for research to explore how social, physical and macro-level environments drive dietary behaviours of adolescents and adults in urban Africa. More studies are needed for adolescents and men, and studies widening the geographical scope to encompass all African countries.
Many mentally distressed individuals seek emergency department (ED) care in the US, but the extent and correlates of significant mental health problems in such patients is unknown.
All patients aged 18-60 presenting to an inner-city midwestern US ED April 2006-March 2007 were approached to participate in brief health screening. Exclusions were serious trauma preventing interview, unable to provide informed consent, pregnancy, acute suicidality, or presenting for psychiatric evaluation. Consenting patients completed a short web-tablet screen, including SF-12 for mental and physical health status, recent substance use and DSM-IV diagnoses of substance use disorders.
The lowest 25% on the SF-12 Mental Health Component were assigned to “poor mental health functioning” (PMHF). 5641 patients participated (58% female, 57% African-American). In bivariate analysis, the PMHF group was significantly more likely to be unmarried, female, use cocaine and marijuana, and binge drink in the past year, and have DSM-IV substance use disorders. Multiple logistic regression found that being female (OR=1.8), older (OR=1.01), not being married (OR=1.2) and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence (OR=1.7, 2.4), cocaine abuse and dependence (OR=1.9, 2.0), and marijuana dependence (OR=1.7) were all independent predictors of PMHF. In a separate model, use of cocaine (OR=2.7) and marijuana (OR=1.7) but not use of alcohol, were independent predictors of PMHF as well as gender, age, and marital status.
Therefore PMHF in ED patients is strongly associated with recent substance use. ED clinicians should regularly ascertain both mental health status and substance use and refer for additional services where appropriate.
To synthesise evidence of urban dietary behaviours (macronutrients, types of foods, dietary diversity and dietary practices) in two African countries in relation to postulated changes in the context of nutrition transition.
Systematic review and meta-analyses, including six online databases and grey literature, 1971–2018 (Protocol CRD42017067718).
Urban Ghana and Kenya.
Population-based studies of healthy adolescents and adults.
The forty-seven included studies encompassed 20 726 individuals plus 6526 households. Macronutrients were within WHO-recommended ranges: mean energy intake was 1867 kcal/d (95 % CI 1764, 1969) and the proportions of macronutrients were carbohydrate 61·2 % (58·4, 64·0), fat 25·3 % (22·8, 28·0) and protein 13·7 % (12·3, 15·1). The proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables was 51·6 %; unhealthy foods, 29·4 %; and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), 39·9 %. Two-thirds (68·8 %) consumed animal-source proteins. Dietary diversity scores were within the mid-range. Meal patterns were structured (typically three meals per day), with evidence lacking on snacking or eating out.
Population-level diets fell within WHO macronutrient recommendations, were relatively diverse with structured meal patterns, but some indications of nutrition transition were apparent. The proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables was low compared to healthy-eating recommendations, and consumption of SSBs was widespread. A paucity of evidence from 1971 to 2010 precluded a longitudinal analysis of nutrition transition. Evidence from these two countries indicates which aspects of dietary behaviours may be contributing to increasing overweight/obesity, namely a low proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables and widespread consumption of SSBs. These are potential targets for promoting healthier diets.
The International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) five-factor model inventories are widely used for personality research and have been translated into multiple languages. However, the extent of the psychometric assessment of translated scales is variable, often minimal. The lack of psychometric scrutiny is particularly problematic because translation is an inherently complex process. Here, we present a structural analysis of one Spanish translation of the 50-item IPIP five-factor inventory in a sample of Peruvian, non-university educated, working adults (n = 778). A global confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) model of the a priori five factors failed to fit. So too did single factor models for four of the five factors, the exception being Neuroticism. Fit was improved via use of an exploratory structural equation measurement model, but the resultant solution showed very poor theoretical coherence. So, we explored the data for systematic measurement artefacts and sought to model them to improve the psychometric properties of the scale. Specifically, the pattern of factor loadings suggested that the lack of coherence might be due to the effects of the valence of item wording (i.e., positively or negatively worded items). CFA models including five substantive factors and a series of method factors modelling shared covariance based on item wording, improved fit and coherence. This investigation suggests that unless method factors are explicitly modelled the tested Spanish translation may not be suitable for use in certain Spanish-speaking countries or samples composed of non-university educated participants. More broadly, the study has implications for many translated scales, especially when used without thorough psychometric evaluation.
A developing application of laser-driven currents is the generation of magnetic fields of picosecond–nanosecond duration with magnitudes exceeding
. Single-loop and helical coil targets can direct laser-driven discharge currents along wires to generate spatially uniform, quasi-static magnetic fields on the millimetre scale. Here, we present proton deflectometry across two axes of a single-loop coil ranging from 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Comparison with proton tracking simulations shows that measured magnetic fields are the result of kiloampere currents in the coil and electric charges distributed around the coil target. Using this dual-axis platform for proton deflectometry, robust measurements can be made of the evolution of magnetic fields in a capacitor coil target.
This chapter analyzes government policies in the three principal Japanese colonies in the five decades up to 1945. It examines the extent to which the Japanese colonial governments in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria succeeded in centralizing tax and other revenues, in leveraging these revenues in order to borrow, in establishing accountable government fiscal systems and in using revenues from taxes, non-tax sources and from loans to fund not just administration and policing but also expenditures on capital works. We also assess the important body of literature developed over the past five decades that emphasized the more positive aspects of the Japanese legacy, including the agricultural transformation, and the development of industry and transport infrastructure. When viewed in a broader Asian context, Japanese colonial policies were not as exceptional as some scholars have argued. There were a number of similarities with both revenue and expenditure policies in other Asian colonies, and while economic policies did diverge in the 1930s as the military-industrial complex in Japan became more powerful, the outcomes for indigenous populations in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria were not always positive.
This chapter introduces and motivates the main theme of the book and the key questions related to the development of fiscal capacity in colonial Asia and Africa. We situate the colonial fiscal state in the context of the changing world order in the long century between 1850 and 1960. We discuss the historiography and existing theoretical perspectives on fiscal development, arguing that these remain biased towards the European, or Eurasian experience at best. We also summarize the key insights of all the chapters in light of the general patterns that emerge from the comparative perspective adopted in this book. Finally, we formulate a brief future research agenda which identifies the next steps to be taken to improve our understanding of the various ways in which fiscal states have developed across the globe since the mid-nineteenth century.
This chapter examines the changing role of the state in Southeast Asia in the decades from 1900 through to 1960, a period which covers the last phase of colonialism in the region, and the transition to independence. To what extent did colonial governments establish modern fiscal states in the region? By the end of the nineteenth century the three main European colonial powers, Britain, France and the Netherlands, all controlled substantial territories in the region. The Spanish, who had occupied the Philippine islands since the seventeenth century, ceded control to the Americans after their defeat in the Spanish-American War at the end of the nineteenth century. Siam, which became Thailand at the end of the 1930s, had managed to remain independent, although at the cost of losing territory to both British and French possessions. This chapter compares and contrasts revenue, expenditure and borrowing policies across the major colonial territories and Thailand, and examines the transition to independence in the years from 1946 to 1963, when the Federation of Malaysia was formed.
In a context of hyper-diversity and social polarisation, it has been suggested that public parks constitute crucial arenas in which to safeguard deliberative democracy and foster social relations that bind loosely connected strangers. Drawing on empirical research, we offer a more circumspect and nuanced understanding of the – nonetheless vital – role that parks can play in fostering civic norms that support the capacity for living with difference. As ‘spaces apart’, parks have distinctive atmospheres that afford opportunities for convivial encounters in which ‘indifference to difference’ underpins ‘openness to otherness’. As places in which difference is rendered routine and unremarkable, the potency of parks for social cohesion derives from fleeting and unanticipated interactions and the weak ties they promote, rather than strong bonds of community that tend to solidify lines of cultural differentiation. Both by design and unintentionally, regulation and law can serve to foster or constrain the conditions that sustain conviviality.