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Large-scale archaeogenetic studies of people from prehistoric Europe tend to be broad in scope and difficult to resolve with local archaeologies. However, accompanying supplementary information often contains useful finer-scale information that is comprehensible without specific genetics expertise. Here, we show how undiscussed details provided in supplementary information of aDNA papers can provide crucial insight into patterns of ancestry change and genetic relatedness in the past by examining details relating to a >90 per cent shift in the genetic ancestry of populations who inhabited Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age Britain (c. 2450–1600 bc). While this outcome was certainly influenced by movements of communities carrying novel ancestries into Britain from continental Europe, it was unlikely to have been a simple, rapid process, potentially taking up to 16 generations, during which time there is evidence for the synchronous persistence of groups largely descended from the Neolithic populations. Insofar as genetic relationships can be assumed to have had social meaning, identification of genetic relatives in cemeteries suggests paternal relationships were important, but there is substantial variability in how genetic ties were referenced and little evidence for strict patrilocality or female exogamy.
How do experts judge the legitimacy of technical policy processes, and do their ideas change as these processes are opened to other stakeholders and the public? This research examines the adoption of public and patient involvement in pharmaceutical assessment in Canada. It finds tensions between scientific legitimacy that prioritizes rigor and objectivity, and democratic legitimacy that values inclusion and a broader range of evidence. In response to policy change, experts incorporate new ideas about democratic inputs and processes, while maintaining scientific policy goals. The research responds to calls for more precise measurement of ideas and ideational change and more evaluation of public and patient involvement in health policy. It helps us understand the significance of, and limits to, ideational change among experts in health policy domains that are highly technical and publicly salient. Understanding the way democratic and scientific legitimacy are negotiated in policy decisions has a wide applicability in health, but is particularly relevant during a global pandemic when evidence is being generated rapidly, decisions must be made quickly, and these decisions have a significant, immediate effect on the lives of all citizens.
The United States Civil War, and the resulting end of slavery on the North American continent, reverberated throughout the Caribbean and in its political writing. This essay first examines how how both pro- and and anti-slavery activists interpreted the Civil War in the Spanish Empire and used its example to defend or attack slavery. Next, it describes how the war led to widespread protest of the conditions of post-emancipation Jamaica and, eventually, led to the Morant Bay rebellion.
Higher intakes of Na may contribute to weight gain. The primary aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between dietary Na intake and measures of adiposity in children and adults. Given the previous link between Na intake and the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), which are a known risk factor for obesity, a secondary aim examining the relationship between Na intake and SSB consumption was assessed. A systematic literature search identified cross-sectional and longitudinal studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT) which reduced dietary Na (≥3 months). Meta-analysis was performed for outcomes with ≥3 studies. Cross-sectionally higher Na intakes were associated with overweight/obesity in adults (five studies; n 11 067; OR 1·74; 95 % CI 1·43, 2·13) and in children (three studies; n 3625, OR 3·29; 95 % CI 2·25, 4·80), and abdominal obesity (five studies; n 19 744; OR 2·04; 95 % CI 1·72, 2·42) in adults. Overall, associations remained in sensitivity analyses which adjusted for energy. Findings from longitudinal studies were inconsistent. RCT in adults indicated a trend for lower body weight on reduced-Na compared with control diets (fifteen studies; n 5274; −0·29 kg; 95 % CI −0·59, 0·01; P = 0·06); however, it is unclear if energy intakes were also altered on reduced-Na diets. Among children higher Na intakes were associated with higher intake of SSB (four studies, n 10 329, b = 22, 16 and 26 g/d); no studies were retrieved for adults. Overall, there was a lack of high-quality studies retrieved. While cross-sectional evidence indicates Na intake was positively associated with adiposity, these findings have not been clearly confirmed by longitudinal studies or RCT.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound impact on both the physical and mental well-being of the global population. Relatively few studies have measured the impact of lockdown on utilisation of secondary mental health services in England.
To describe secondary mental health service utilisation pre-lockdown and during lockdown within Leicestershire, UK, and the numbers of serious incidents during this time frame.
Data pertaining to mental health referral and hospital admissions to adult mental health, child and adolescent mental health, intellectual disability and mental health services for older people were collated retrospectively from electronic records for both 8 weeks pre-lockdown and the first 8 weeks of lockdown in England. Serious incidents during this time frame were also analysed.
Significantly (P < 0.05) reduced referrals to a diverse range of mental health services were observed during lockdown, including child and adolescent, adult, older people and intellectual disability services. Although admissions remained relatively stable before and during lockdown for several services, admissions to both acute adult and mental health services for older people were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced during lockdown. Numbers of serious incidents in the pre-lockdown and lockdown periods were similar, with 23 incidents pre-lockdown, compared with 20 incidents in lockdown.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first UK-based study reporting patterns of use of mental health services immediately prior to and during COVID-19 lockdown. Overall numbers of referrals and admissions reduced following commencement of COVID-19 lockdown. Potential reasons for these observations are discussed.
This review outlines some of the key interventions in the literature on Latin America's Cold War produced since the early 1990s, concentrating largely on broad shifts in anglophone historiography. With questions of periodization and definition in mind, it offers a new, multi-layered model of the Cold War in the region, though with wider application. Using the example of Mexico, it then demonstrates some of the weaknesses of the current literature's assumptions and argues for the potential usefulness of a new way of seeing the period and its interconnected conflicts.
Choline plays a crucial role in lipid metabolism for fish, and its deficiency in aquafeed has been linked to compromised health and growth performance. A 56-d experiment was conducted to examine the effects of dietary choline on lipid composition, histology and plasma biochemistry of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi; YTK; 156 g initial body weight). The dietary choline content ranged from 0·59 to 6·22 g/kg diet. 2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP) (3 g/kg) was added to diets, except for a control diet, to limit de novo choline synthesis. The results showed that the liver lipid content of YTK was similar among diets containing AMP and dominated by NEFA. In contrast, fish fed the control diet had significantly elevated liver TAG. Generally, the SFA, MUFA and PUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed diets containing AMP was not influenced by choline content. The SFA and MUFA content of liver lipid in fish fed the control diet was similar to other diets except for a decrease in PUFA. The linear relationship between lipid digestibility and plasma cholesterol was significant, otherwise most parameters were unaffected. When AMP is present, higher dietary choline reduced the severity of some hepatic lesions. The present study demonstrated that choline deficiency affects some plasma and liver histology parameters in juvenile YTK which might be useful fish health indicators. Importantly, the present study elucidated potential reasons for lower growth in choline-deficient YTK and increased the knowledge on choline metabolism in the fish.
In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a pandemic. Adolescence and early adulthood are peak times for the onset of mental health difficulties. Exposure to a pandemic during this vulnerable developmental period places young people at significant risk of negative psychological experiences. The objective of this research was to summarise existing evidence on the potential impact of a pandemic on the mental health of 12–25 year olds.
A rapid review of the published peer-reviewed literature, published between 1985 and 2020, using PsycINFO (Proquest) and Medline (Proquest) was conducted. Narrative synthesis was used across studies to identify key themes and concepts.
This review found 3,359 papers, which was reduced to 12 papers for data extraction. Results regarding the prevalence of psychological difficulties in youth were mixed, with some studies finding this group experience heightened distress during an infectious disease outbreak, and others finding no age differences or higher distress among adults. Gender, coping, self-reported physical health and adoption of precautionary measures appear to play a role in moderating the psychological impact of an infectious disease outbreak. Most studies were conducted after the peak of an epidemic/pandemic or in the recovery period.
More longitudinal research with young people, particularly adolescents in the general population, before and during the early stages of an infectious disease outbreak is needed to obtain a clear understanding of how best to support young people during these events.
Cremated and unburnt human remains have been recovered from a variety of British Bronze and earliest Iron Age archaeological contexts (c. 2500–600 BC). Chronological modelling of 189 new and extant radiocarbon dates from a selection of these deposits provides evidence for the curation of human remains for an average of two generations following death, while histological analysis of bone samples indicates mortuary treatment involving both excarnation and the exhumation of primary burials. Curated bones came from people who had been alive within living or cultural memory, and their power probably derived from relationships between the living and the dead.
Families who attract the attention of child protection services most often have ongoing lived experiences of poverty, gender-based domestic and family violence, problematic substance use and, sometimes, formally diagnosed mental health conditions. Without broader contextual knowledge and understanding, particularly regarding ongoing poverty, decision-making by child protection workers often leads to the removal of children, while the family’s material poverty and experiences of violence remain unaddressed. Case studies are a common tool to succinctly capture complex contexts. In this article, we make explicit, through case examples and analysis, how poverty is almost always the backdrop to the presence of worrying risk factors before and during child protection intervention. Further, we expose the existential poverty that parents live with after they lose their children into care and which invariably exacerbates material poverty. In the final section, we consider the multi-faceted organisational poverty that blights the work environment of child protection workers, and we suggest strategies for improved practice with families living in poverty.
Resilience is a dynamic process depicted by better than expected levels of functioning in response to significant adversity. This can be assessed statistically, by taking the residuals from a model of psychological functioning regressed onto negative life events. We report the first study to investigate multiple cognitive factors in relation to this depiction of resilient functioning. Life events, internalizing symptoms, and a range of cognitive risk and protective factors were assessed in a large sample of adolescents (N = 504) across three waves spaced 12–18 months apart. Adolescents who displayed fewer symptoms than expected, relative to negative life events, were considered more resilient. Adolescents who displayed more symptoms than expected, relative to negative life events, were considered less resilient. All cognitive factors were associated with resilient functioning to differing degrees. These included memory bias, interpretation bias, worry, rumination, self-esteem, and self-reported trait resilience. Regression models showed that memory bias was a key factor explaining unique variance in prospective resilient functioning. In a subsequent cross-lagged panel model, memory bias and resilient functioning were reinforcing mechanisms across time points, supporting cognitive models of emotional resilience. This study adds to the literature, by highlighting key cognitive mechanisms as potential intervention targets
While the Victorian ideal of the public park is well understood, we know less of how local governors sought to realize this ideal in practice. This article is concerned with park-making as a process – contingent, unstable, open – rather than with parks as outcomes – determined, settled, closed. It details how local governors bounded, designed and regulated park spaces to differentiate them as ‘spaces apart’ within the city, and how this programme of spatial governance was obstructed, frustrated and diverted by political, environmental and social forces. The article also uses this historical analysis to provide a new perspective on the future prospects of urban parks today.
To identify factors influencing dietary behaviours in urban food environments in Africa and identify areas for future research.
We systematically reviewed published/grey literature (protocol CRD4201706893). Findings were compiled into a map using a socio-ecological model on four environmental levels: individual, social, physical and macro.
Urban food environments in Africa.
Studies involving adolescents and adults (11–70 years, male/female).
Thirty-nine studies were included (six adolescent, fifteen adolescent/adult combined and eighteen adult). Quantitative methods were most common (twenty-eight quantitative, nine qualitative and two mixed methods). Studies were from fifteen African countries. Seventy-seven factors influencing dietary behaviours were identified, with two-thirds at the individual level (45/77). Factors in the social (11/77), physical (12/77) and macro (9/77) environments were investigated less. Individual-level factors that specifically emerged for adolescents included self-esteem, body satisfaction, dieting, spoken language, school attendance, gender, body composition, pubertal development, BMI and fat mass. Studies involving adolescents investigated social environment-level factors more, for example, sharing food with friends. The physical food environment was more commonly explored in adults, for example, convenience/availability of food. Macro-level factors associated with dietary behaviours were food/drink advertising, religion and food prices. Factors associated with dietary behaviour were broadly similar for men and women.
The dominance of studies exploring individual-level factors suggests a need for research to explore how social, physical and macro-level environments drive dietary behaviours of adolescents and adults in urban Africa. More studies are needed for adolescents and men, and studies widening the geographical scope to encompass all African countries.
This is the final chapter presenting empirical findings from the study and it intends to contextualise the caregivers’ experiences by focusing on their status and position in the wider society. It examines interactions with individuals and agencies external to the caregivers’ own social and family networks. Research has shown that families (Condry, 2007a) and children (Minson, 2018a) experience stigma through their association with a prisoner; relatedly, the narratives of the caregiving kin bring sharply into focus the lived realities of the discrimination and isolation that accompanied their experience of maternal imprisonment. Anxieties about social acceptance, legal guardianship and gaining appropriate support underpinned the caregivers’ accounts while they negotiated the prison sentence and looked to the mother's future return to the family. This chapter has three main sections, exploring:
Challenges facing primary kin caregiver's without legal guardianship for the children, and their experiences of identifying and securing statutory support.
Caregivers’ experiences, perceptions and management of familial stigma in media reports, their local community, online and at the prison.
Caregivers’ expectations of the mother's release. This section explores how relatives were approaching the mother's release in light of the uncertainties and anxieties that they were feeling about further readjustments.
Legal guardianship and statutory support
Primary kin caregivers in around half of the families interviewed had legal guardianship for the children. Two were biological fathers with parental responsibility (Pita and Daniel), while primary kin caregivers in five additional families had been formally assigned responsibility for the children by social services (see Chapter Two). In the latter instance, they had been looking after the children before the mother came into contact with the criminal justice system (for example, Annette) or after her arrest (for example, Miriam). For these primary kin caregivers, their position as legal guardians of the children was secure and so although the mother's imprisonment impacted their lives in several ways (as seen in Chapter Three, Four and Five), it did not affect their legal caregiving status. However, for the primary kin caregivers in the remaining eight families, a central concern that underscored their accounts was awareness of their informal caregiving status.
This chapter examines the nature and scope of caregiving practices within families to better understand how families can be constructed during maternal imprisonment. Although there is growing international awareness of the ‘collateral consequences’ of imprisonment on children and families (Gordon, 2018; Condry and Scharff Smith, 2018), Jardine (2018) suggests that this has tended to focus narrowly on the prisoners’ immediate families. There is much still to be learned about the caregiving arrangements within families and the ways in which these can shape family life during maternal imprisonment. Importantly, caregivers in this study explained how the repercussions of losing the mothers to prison were felt by many relatives and friends within their kinship networks. Although varied and complex, this depended upon their family constructions, interactions and engagement in – or exposure to – caregiving practices. The three distinct characteristics that were observed within families are discussed in this chapter.
First, the joint interviews (see Chapter Two) reveal something important about the way in which families were collectively responding to the mothers’ imprisonments. Both the joint interviews and caregivers’ descriptions show the meaning, nature and value of collective caregiving practices within the families, facilitating nuanced insights into the families’ shared responses to the mothers’ imprisonments. The value of using Morgan's (2011) theoretical concept of ‘family practices’ is apparent as discussions about ‘family’ are active, subjectively defined and not restricted to the household (see Chapter Two).
Second, following previous research (Caddle and Crisp, 1997; Raikes, 2016), the majority of the children were being looked after by women, either solely or alongside their partners or other female kin. Codd (2008) has argued that caregiving and support for prisoners and their children falls to female relatives in the family. The findings here not only support these gendered caregiving trends, but also indicate that during a mother's imprisonment, it is maternal kin who take on these responsibilities. Importantly, the new caregiving responsibilities for these women had implications for their own children and other grandchildren in the family. Therefore, it is important that discussions about maternal imprisonment consider the needs and experiences of this other group of ‘doubly’ invisible children.