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To synthesise evidence of urban dietary behaviours (macronutrients, types of foods, dietary diversity and dietary practices) in two African countries in relation to postulated changes in the context of nutrition transition.
Systematic review and meta-analyses, including six online databases and grey literature, 1971–2018 (Protocol CRD42017067718).
Urban Ghana and Kenya.
Population-based studies of healthy adolescents and adults.
The forty-seven included studies encompassed 20 726 individuals plus 6526 households. Macronutrients were within WHO-recommended ranges: mean energy intake was 1867 kcal/d (95 % CI 1764, 1969) and the proportions of macronutrients were carbohydrate 61·2 % (58·4, 64·0), fat 25·3 % (22·8, 28·0) and protein 13·7 % (12·3, 15·1). The proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables was 51·6 %; unhealthy foods, 29·4 %; and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), 39·9 %. Two-thirds (68·8 %) consumed animal-source proteins. Dietary diversity scores were within the mid-range. Meal patterns were structured (typically three meals per day), with evidence lacking on snacking or eating out.
Population-level diets fell within WHO macronutrient recommendations, were relatively diverse with structured meal patterns, but some indications of nutrition transition were apparent. The proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables was low compared to healthy-eating recommendations, and consumption of SSBs was widespread. A paucity of evidence from 1971 to 2010 precluded a longitudinal analysis of nutrition transition. Evidence from these two countries indicates which aspects of dietary behaviours may be contributing to increasing overweight/obesity, namely a low proportion of population consuming fruit and vegetables and widespread consumption of SSBs. These are potential targets for promoting healthier diets.
This chapter analyzes government policies in the three principal Japanese colonies in the five decades up to 1945. It examines the extent to which the Japanese colonial governments in Taiwan, Korea and Manchuria succeeded in centralizing tax and other revenues, in leveraging these revenues in order to borrow, in establishing accountable government fiscal systems and in using revenues from taxes, non-tax sources and from loans to fund not just administration and policing but also expenditures on capital works. We also assess the important body of literature developed over the past five decades that emphasized the more positive aspects of the Japanese legacy, including the agricultural transformation, and the development of industry and transport infrastructure. When viewed in a broader Asian context, Japanese colonial policies were not as exceptional as some scholars have argued. There were a number of similarities with both revenue and expenditure policies in other Asian colonies, and while economic policies did diverge in the 1930s as the military-industrial complex in Japan became more powerful, the outcomes for indigenous populations in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria were not always positive.
This chapter introduces and motivates the main theme of the book and the key questions related to the development of fiscal capacity in colonial Asia and Africa. We situate the colonial fiscal state in the context of the changing world order in the long century between 1850 and 1960. We discuss the historiography and existing theoretical perspectives on fiscal development, arguing that these remain biased towards the European, or Eurasian experience at best. We also summarize the key insights of all the chapters in light of the general patterns that emerge from the comparative perspective adopted in this book. Finally, we formulate a brief future research agenda which identifies the next steps to be taken to improve our understanding of the various ways in which fiscal states have developed across the globe since the mid-nineteenth century.
This chapter examines the changing role of the state in Southeast Asia in the decades from 1900 through to 1960, a period which covers the last phase of colonialism in the region, and the transition to independence. To what extent did colonial governments establish modern fiscal states in the region? By the end of the nineteenth century the three main European colonial powers, Britain, France and the Netherlands, all controlled substantial territories in the region. The Spanish, who had occupied the Philippine islands since the seventeenth century, ceded control to the Americans after their defeat in the Spanish-American War at the end of the nineteenth century. Siam, which became Thailand at the end of the 1930s, had managed to remain independent, although at the cost of losing territory to both British and French possessions. This chapter compares and contrasts revenue, expenditure and borrowing policies across the major colonial territories and Thailand, and examines the transition to independence in the years from 1946 to 1963, when the Federation of Malaysia was formed.
In a context of hyper-diversity and social polarisation, it has been suggested that public parks constitute crucial arenas in which to safeguard deliberative democracy and foster social relations that bind loosely connected strangers. Drawing on empirical research, we offer a more circumspect and nuanced understanding of the – nonetheless vital – role that parks can play in fostering civic norms that support the capacity for living with difference. As ‘spaces apart’, parks have distinctive atmospheres that afford opportunities for convivial encounters in which ‘indifference to difference’ underpins ‘openness to otherness’. As places in which difference is rendered routine and unremarkable, the potency of parks for social cohesion derives from fleeting and unanticipated interactions and the weak ties they promote, rather than strong bonds of community that tend to solidify lines of cultural differentiation. Both by design and unintentionally, regulation and law can serve to foster or constrain the conditions that sustain conviviality.
This book examines the evolution of fiscal capacity in the context of colonial state formation and the changing world order between 1850 and 1960. Until the early nineteenth century, European colonial control over Asia and Africa was largely confined to coastal and island settlements, which functioned as little more than trading posts. The officials running these settlements had neither the resources nor the need to develop new fiscal instruments. With the expansion of imperialism, the costs of maintaining colonies rose. Home governments, reluctant to place the financial burden of imperial expansion on metropolitan taxpayers, pressed colonial governments to become fiscally self-supporting. A team of leading historians provides a comparative overview of how colonial states set up their administrative systems and how these regimes involved local people and elites. They shed new light on the political economy of colonial state formation and the institutional legacies they left behind at independence.
Access to an outdoor range has many potential benefits for laying hens but range use can be poor due to factors only partly understood. Techniques to monitor individual range use within commercial flocks are crucial to increase our understanding of these factors. Direct observation of individual range use is difficult and time-consuming, and automatic monitoring currently relies on equipment that is difficult to use in an on-farm setting without itself influencing range use. We evaluated the performance of a novel small, light and readily portable light-based monitoring system by validating its output against direct observations. Six commercial houses (2000 hens/house) and their adjacent ranges were used, three of which were equipped with more structures on the range than the others (to determine whether cover would influence monitoring accuracy). In each house, 14 hens were equipped with light monitoring devices for 5 discrete monitoring cycles of 7 to 8 consecutive days (at 20, 26, 32, 36 and 41 weeks of age). Light levels were determined each minute: if the reading on the hen-mounted device exceeded indoor light levels, the hen was classified as outside. Focal hens were observed directly for 5 min/hen per week. Accuracy (% of samples where monitoring and direct observations were in agreement) was high both for ranges with more and with fewer structures, although slightly better for the latter (92% v. 96% ± 1 SEM, F1,19 = 5.2, P = 0.034). Furthermore, accuracy increased over time (89%, 94%, 95%, 98% ± 1 SEM for observations at 26, 32, 36 and 41 weeks, respectively, F3,19 = 3.2, P = 0.047), probably due to progressively reduced indoor light levels resulting from partial closing of ventilation openings to sustain indoor temperature. Light-based monitoring was sufficiently accurate to indicate a tendency for a greater percentage of monitored time spent outside when more range structures were provided (more: 67%, fewer: 56%, SEM: 4,
$\chi_1^2 = 2.9$
, P = 0.089). Furthermore, clear and relatively consistent individual differences were detected. Individuals that were caught outside at the start of the experiment ranged more throughout its duration (caught outside: 72%, caught inside 51%, SEM: 4,
$\chi_1^2 = 10.0$
, P = 0.002), and individual range use was correlated between monitoring cycles (for adjacent monitoring cycles:
$r_s^2 = 0.5-0.7$
, P < 0.0001). This emphasizes the importance of studying range use on an individual level. In conclusion, our light-based monitoring system can assess individual range use accurately (although accuracy was affected by house characteristics to some extent) and was used to show that both cover availability and individual characteristics affected range use.
This paper presents a diachronic account for the emergence of the expletive það in Icelandic impersonal constructions. Using data from the IcePaHC corpus (Wallenberg et al. 2011), I show that a cataphorically referential það functions as a topic position placeholder in Old Icelandic (1150-1350) in impersonals with a clausal argument. The corpus findings indicate that það spread from this early cataphoric context to impersonals which lack the clausal argument, with ‘say-type predicates’ acting as a bridging context. Strikingly, this coincides with another change whereby cataphoric það becomes increasingly restricted to the topic position in constructions with a clausal subject. I interpret this as evidence that cataphoric það is losing its subject status in such contexts and becoming a topic position placeholder, in line with its function in impersonals. This sheds light on the mixed status of cataphoric það in modern Icelandic and challenges the ‘Prefinite First Hypothesis’ for the diachrony of Germanic expletives (e.g. Faarlund 1990).
The global ageing population and the long prodromal period for the development of cognitive decline and dementia brings a need to understand the antecedents of both successful and impaired cognitive ageing. It is increasingly apparent that the trajectory of risk-factor change, as well as the level of the risk factor, may be associated with an increased or decreased risk of cognitive decline or dementia.
Our aim was to summarise the published evidence and to generate hypotheses related to risk-factor trajectories and risk of incident cognitive decline or dementia.
We collated data from longitudinal observational studies relating to trajectory of blood pressure, obesity and cholesterol and later cognitive decline or dementia using standard systematic review methodology. The databases MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from inception to 26 April 2018.
Thirteen articles were retained for inclusion. Analytical methods varied. Our summary of the current evidence base suggests that first body mass index and then blood pressure rises and then falls more steeply in those who go on to develop dementia. The evidence for cholesterol was less consistent.
Based on our review we present the hypothesis that weight falls around 10 years and blood pressure around 5 years before diagnosis. Confirmatory work is required. However, characterisation of risk according to combinations and patterns of risk factors may ultimately be integrated into the assessments used to identify those at risk of receiving a diagnosis of cognitive decline or dementia in late life.
Make recommendations on approaches to building and strengthening relationships between academic departments or divisions of Emergency Medicine and rural and regional emergency departments.
A panel of leaders from both rural and urban/academic practice environments met over 8 months. Draft recommendations were developed from panel expertise as well as survey data and presented at the 2018 Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Symposium. Symposium feedback was incorporated into final recommendations.
Seven recommendations emerged and are summarized below:
1)CAEP should ensure engagement with other rural stakeholder organizations such as the College of Family Physicians of Canada and the Society of Rural Physicians of Canada.
2)Engagement efforts require adequate financial and manpower resources.
3)Training opportunities should be promoted.
4)The current operational interface between the academic department of Emergency Medicine and the emergency departments in the catchment area must be examined and gaps addressed as part of building and strengthening relationships.
5)Initial engagement efforts should be around projects with common value.
6)Academic Departments should partner with and support rural scholars.
7)Academic departments seeking to build or strengthen relationships should consider successful examples from elsewhere in the country as well as considering local culture and challenges.
These recommendations serve as guidance for building and strengthening mutually beneficial relationships between academic departments or divisions of Emergency Medicine and rural and regional emergency departments.
This article explores a series of doctrinal disputations held in early Islamic Egypt, and known through the Hodegos of Anastasius of Sinai (fl. c. 670–c. 700). Using the text's prosopographical and contextual cues, it argues that these disputations occurred in the 680s, in the aftermath of Constantinople's Sixth Ecumenical Council (680/1), the decisions of which had thrown the Chalcedonian Christians of the caliphate into conflict and schism. In 686, it is argued, Anastasius had confronted the famed Edessene and Severan Athanasius bar Gūmōyē before the Marwānid prince ‘Abd al-'Azīz at Fusṭāṭ, and there been defeated. That defeat is indicative of the new-found position of the Egyptian Severan Church, which now flourished under Marwānid patronage.