To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
During the 1980s, the immediate memory of the Maoist rustication movement expressed itself almost exclusively through the vector of literature, but since 1990, for reasons worth reflecting upon, a wide range of memorial activities have developed, involving a large number of the former educated youth (zhiqing). In the 2000s, this field benefited from the generalization of the internet and is still very much alive today. At each stage, this mainly popular or unofficial (minjian) memory had to negotiate a breathing space with a party-state still intent on controlling history and collective memory, especially concerning any topic directly linked with the Cultural Revolution. Thus, if memories of an important event are always varied because of the different personal experiences of the past and different individual situations and aspirations in the present, the spectrum of the zhiqing memories has also been complicated by political considerations. This paper does not try to present an exhaustive picture of this large memorial field; instead, through different examples, it attempts to reflect upon the meaning of the strong memorial aspirations of the zhiqing. It argues that only a genuine respect for history (as shown in the remarkable endeavours of some former zhiqing) will help this generation to transcend the conflict of memories to find meaning in its own fate.
Few randomised clinical trials have examined the efficacy of an
intervention aimed at improving psychosocial functioning in bipolar
To examine changes in psychosocial functioning in a group that has been
enrolled in a functional remediation programme 1 year after baseline.
This was a multicentre, randomised, rater-masked clinical trial comparing
three patient groups: functional remediation, psychoeducation and
treatment as usual over 1-year follow-up. The primary outcome was change
in psychosocial functioning measured by means of the Functioning
Assessment Short Test (FAST). Group×time effects for overall psychosocial
functioning were examined using repeated-measures ANOVA (trial
There was a significant group×time interaction for overall psychosocial
functioning, favouring patients in the functional remediation group
(F = 3.071, d.f. = 2, P =
Improvement in psychosocial functioning is maintained after 1-year
follow-up in patients with bipolar disorder receiving functional
Functional remediation is a novel intervention with demonstrated efficacy at improving functional outcome in euthymic bipolar patients. However, in a previous trial no significant changes in neurocognitive measures were detected. The objective of the present analysis was to test the efficacy of this therapy in the enhancement of neuropsychological functions in a subgroup of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients.
A total of 188 out of 239 DSM-IV euthymic bipolar patients performing below two standard deviations from the mean of normative data in any neurocognitive test were included in this subanalysis. Repeated-measures analyses of variance were conducted to assess the impact of the treatment arms [functional remediation, psychoeducation, or treatment as usual (TAU)] on participants’ neurocognitive and functional outcomes in the subgroup of neurocognitively impaired patients.
Patients receiving functional remediation (n = 56) showed an improvement on delayed free recall when compared with the TAU (n = 63) and psychoeducation (n = 69) groups as shown by the group × time interaction at 6-month follow-up [F2,158 = 3.37, degrees of freedom (df) = 2, p = 0.037]. However, Tukey post-hoc analyses revealed that functional remediation was only superior when compared with TAU (p = 0.04), but not with psychoeducation (p = 0.10). Finally, the patients in the functional remediation group also benefited from the treatment in terms of functional outcome (F2,158 = 4.26, df = 2, p = 0.016).
Functional remediation is effective at improving verbal memory and psychosocial functioning in a sample of neurocognitively impaired bipolar patients at 6-month follow-up. Neurocognitive enhancement may be one of the active ingredients of this novel intervention, and, specifically, verbal memory appears to be the most sensitive function that improves with functional remediation.
Little is known about how functional imaging changes in bipolar disorder
relate to different phases of the illness.
To compare cognitive task activation in participants with bipolar
disorder examined in different phases of illness.
Participants with bipolar disorder in mania (n = 38),
depression (n = 38) and euthymia (n =
38), as well as healthy controls (n = 38), underwent
functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of the n-back
working memory task. Activations and de-activations were compared between
the bipolar subgroups and the controls, and among the bipolar subgroups.
All participants were also entered into a linear mixed-effects model.
Compared with the controls, the mania and depression subgroups, but not
the euthymia subgroup, showed reduced activation in the dorsolateral
prefrontal cortex, the parietal cortex and other areas. Compared with the
euthymia subgroup, the mania and depression subgroups showed
hypoactivation in the parietal cortex. All three bipolar subgroups showed
failure of de-activation in the ventromedial frontal cortex. Linear
mixed-effects modelling revealed a further cluster of reduced activation
in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in the patients; this was
significantly more marked in the mania than in the euthymia subgroup.
Bipolar disorder is characterised by mood state-dependent hypoactivation
in the parietal cortex. Reduced dorsolateral prefrontal activation is a
further feature of mania and depression, which may improve partially in
euthymia. Failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex shows
The formation of carbon nanoparticles in low pressure magnetized H2/CH4 and H2/C2H2 plasmas is investigated using infrared quantum cascade laser absorption, mass spectrometry, and electrostatic probe measurements. Results showed that dust formation is correlated to the presence of a significant amount of large positively charged hydrocarbon ions. Large negative ions or neutral hydrocarbon were not observed. These results, along with a qualitative comparison of diffusion and reaction characteristic, suggest that a positive ion may contribute to the growth of nanoparticles in hydrocarbon magnetized plasmas.
This paper proposes a design approach of an electrical power supply intended to offer an especially well-suited supply mode, through the efficient control of the current injected into a DBD setup. The proposed topology is aimed at controlling the operating point of the electrical discharge, thereby allowing favoring the homogeneous regime, and maximizing the electrical power injected into the plasma. The power supply structure is designed on the basis of causality criteria and of an analytical analysis of the electrical waveforms, which are derived from an equivalent circuit model of the DBD. Design issues of this electrical generator are detailed and experimental analysis of its operation, together with actual performances are presented. A very good agreement is obtained by comparing simulation and experiments. Effective ability to control the power transfers by means of its two degrees of freedom (current magnitude and frequency) is highlighted.
Nuclear fuel plates based on a γU-Mo/Al mixture are proposed for research reactors. In this work their thermal behavior in the [425; 550°C] temperature range has been studied mainly by neutron and high energy X-ray diffraction. Even if complementary studies will be necessary, the kinetics of first the growth of the interaction layer between γU-Mo and Al and second of the γU-Mo destabilization have been accurately measured. This basic work should be helpful for defining manufacturing conditions for fuel plates with optimized composition.
The behavior of filaments and prominences during the Solar Cycle is a signature of Sun's activity. It is therefore important to follow their evolution during the cycle, in order to be able to associate it with the various phases of the Solar Cycle as well as with other Solar features or events. The virtual observatory HELIO provides information that can be used for such studies, especially its Heliophysics Feature Catalogue gives a unique access to the description of various features during around one cycle. Features available are: filaments, prominences, photospheric and coronal active regions, coronal radio emission, type III radio bursts, coronal holes and sunspots. Web interfaces allow the user to query data for these features. Useful information can also be shared with other HELIO services, such as Heliophysics Event Catalogue, which provides access to dozens of tables of events such as flares, CMEs, . . .
How to close gaps with the lingual technique in cases of agenesis of the upper lateral incisor is a therapeutic decision orthodontists often have to make. We have decided to discuss the mechanical and strategic aspects of this issue that arise when we implement the lingual technique to treat this disorder, which is a major source of concern for our patients since its esthetic repercussions for the smile are so great.
A high resolution analysis of benthic foraminifera as well as of aeolian terrigenous proxies extracted from a 37 m-long marine core located off the Mauritanian margin spanning the last ~ 1.2 Ma, documents the possible link between major continental environmental changes with a shift in the isotopic signature of deep waters around 1.0–0.9 Ma, within the so-called Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) time period. The increase in the oxygen isotopic composition of deep waters, as seen through the benthic foraminifera δ18O values, is consistent with the growth of larger ice sheets known to have occurred during this transition. Deep-water mass δ13C changes, also estimated from benthic foraminifera, show a strong depletion for the same time interval. This drastic change in δ13C values is concomitant with a worldwide 0.3‰ decrease observed in the major deep oceanic waters for the MPT time period. The phase relationship between aeolian terrigeneous signal increase and this δ13C decrease in our record, as well as in other paleorecords, supports the hypothesis of a global aridification amongst others processes to explain the deep-water masses isotopic signature changes during the MPT. In any case, the isotopic shifts imply major changes in the end-member δ18O and δ13C values of deep waters.
Structural colors were obtained by the deposition of plant cell walls biopolymers films on reflective support. Multilayered xyloglucan(XG)/cellulose nanocrystals(CN) thin films were obtained by spin-assisted layer-by-layer assembly while arabinoxylan (AX) thin films were elaborated via the spin-coating of AX/melamine formaldehyde resin followed by a cross-linking step. The effects of aqueous solutions on the stability of the structural colors were evaluated. The films were subsequently used to detect cellulase and xylanase activities by the change in the colors due to the film degradation. This enzymatic assay method appeared to be about 150 more sensitive that a standard method. Moreover due its simplicity, the method could be used to detect other biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes and more generally for other heterocatalytic degradations of solid polymer layers.
The digestion of polysaccharides from the wheat cultivars Caphorn and Isengrain was investigated, and the efficiency of an enzyme preparation was tested using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1). The apparent digestibility (AD) of carbohydrates was determined based on the measurement of organic matter (OM), total monosaccharides, reducing ends (RE) and end products (EP: glucose, maltose and xylobiose). The AD of the OM from Caphorn and Isengrain measured using caecectomised cockerels did not differ from that measured using TIM-1: 72·0 (sd 2·6) v. 70·6 (sd 0·6) % for Caphorn (P = 0·580) and 73·0 (sd 2·3) v. 71·1 (sd 1·9) % for Isengrain (P = 0·252). After the 6 h TIM-1 digestion, 41·4–58·9 % of the OM, RE and EP were recovered from the jejunal compartment and 18·3–27·1 % from the ileal compartment, while ileal deliveries and digestive residues constituted the remainder. A commercial enzyme cocktail tested at 0·2 μl/g of wheat improved TIM-1 digestibility of Caphorn and Isengrain polysaccharides: 3·9 % (P = 0·0203) and 3·4 % (P = 0·0058) based on the OM; 9·7 % (P < 0·0001) and 3·1 % (P = 0·031) based on the total glucose; 47·2 % (P < 0·0001) and 14·2 % (P = 0·0004) based on the RE, respectively. The enzyme cocktail improved the release of the EP for Caphorn (3·8 %, P = 0·008) but not for Isengrain ( − 0·8 %, P = 0·561). The higher efficiency of the enzyme supplementation on the digestion of Caphorn polysaccharides compared with Isengrain seems to be linked to the higher soluble carbohydrate contents and/or less ramified arabinoxylan of Caphorn.
19F nuclear magnetic resonance and As X-ray absorption results on AsF5-graphite intercalation compounds are discussed in terms of species of the commonly used oxidation reaction of the graphitic planes. Three fluorine populations and two oxidation states of the arsenic are clearly present, but they cannot be easily related to the oxidation reaction of the graphite planes.
We have designed and tested a new compact, very sensitive (>1 μRad), X-ray quantum sensor for high energy (0.5 -10 MeV) flash imaging. Monte Carlo simulations have been computed for several interesting detector materials (CdZnTe, HgI2-a, BGO, CsI, LSO...). From these calculations, we obtain general design rules and curves which allow one to optimize the pixel size of a sensor to the dose levels. An experimental CdZnTe detector array and its performance is presented.
The CEA/DAM megajoule-class pulsed Nd:glass laser devoted to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) research is requiring 7,000-m2 of coated area onto 10,000 optical components. Among these different optics, two specific examples of applied sol-gel chemistry will be described. First one is dealing with the 240 44-cm square cavity-end mirrors needing to be highly-reflective (HR)-coated onto deformable substrates. Such large dielectric mirrors are using interference quaterwave stacks of SiO2 and ZrO2-PVP (PolyVinylPyrrolidone) thin films, both starting from sol-gel colloidal suspensions (sols). The ZrO2-PVP high index layer is a nanohybrid material prepared from mixing nanosized-zirconia suspension with a transparent polymer solution (PVP). The oxide/polymer ratio of the hybrid system has been optimized regarding refractive index value and laser damage threshold. UV-curing of the nanohybrid has enabled optical coating stacking up to 20 layers, achieving 99% minimum reflection over the whole coated surface. FT-IR spectroscopy has been used to highlight particles/polymer chemical interactions and also polymer modifications under UV-irradiation.
Second example is concerning development of a silica-based hybrid material to protect silvercoated light reflector used in laser pumping cavity. These metallic reflectors require a protective overlayer in order to preserve high-reflectivity front surfaces for long periods of operation under intense broadband flashlamp light and typical airborne contaminants. The so-called ormosil coating has been optimized in term of thickness and composition to enhance silver resistance to oxidation and tarnishing under UV-irradiation, to protect silver layer from clean-room cleaning procedure, to withstand 10,000 flashlamp glow-discharges exposure with the lowest possible change in the reflection value. To fulfil these requirements, the developed hybrid sol-gel material acts as an oxidation dense barrier, is chemical-resistant, is durable and remain transparent in the 400-1000nm wavelength range. Moreover, the sol-gel process allows industrial protective coating deposition onto large-sized and multi-shaped reflectors. These new protected reflectors will need to be replaced much less often than reflectors employed in current solid-state lasers, ensuring both higher performance and lower operating costs.