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This work proves that a 1-D porous silicon (PSi) sensor is capable of monitoring the optical changes in a polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel that correlate with swelling capacity. The PSi device was impregnated with PAAm hydrogel with varying crosslinking density and total solids. The optical response of the PSi sensor was utilized to distinguish the changes in refractive index of hydrogels with varying cross-linking densities. Refractive index values calculated by the composite hydrogel-PSi sensor response agree well (≤1% difference) with values measured using a bench-top refractometer. This work serves to build a foundation for creating a composite biochemical-responsive hydrogel-PSi sensor in which competitive binding of a target analyte would cause a reduction in hydrogel cross-linking density. Long-term goals of this work are to exploit the volume sensitivity of a PSi sensor and leverage the added optical response of the responsive hydrogel to increase target detection sensitivity in an affinity based biosensor.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Purpose - The goal of this study is to understand how loss of the membrane protein SLC4A11 alters endothelial cell metabolism thereby producing Corneal Endothelial Dystrophy. Studies from our lab indicated that glutamine-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the outcomes of SLC4a11 loss. In the current study, we ask if autophagy and mitophagy pathways and the signaling pathways that regulate these processes are altered in SLC4a11 KO cells. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods – Immortalized mouse WT and SLC4a11 KO cell lines were incubated in DMEM with and without 0.5mM glutamine for 6 hours. In order to assess mitophagy, cells were stained using Lysotracker Red and Mitotracker Green. Colocalization co-efficients of red and green channels were obtained for at least 35 cells using Zeiss-Zen Pro software. Student’s t-test was used to determine statistical significance. For Western Blots, antibodies against LC3b, AMPK, pAMPK, and b-actin were used to examine autophagy flux and potential signaling pathways that regulate autophagy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results – In the presence of glutamine, the colocalization co-efficient of Lysotracker Red and Mitotracker Green channels was significantly increased in KO cells (0.74 ±0.18) relative to WT (0.58±0.20) with a p-value ≤0.0024. In the absence of glutamine, the colocalization co-efficient was reversed, for KO cells 0.54 ±0.14 and for WT cells 0.77±0.0.16 with a p-value ≤0.0001, suggesting increased mitophagy by glutamine in KO cells. Western Blots indicated that glutamine increased autophagy flux, as indicated by increased levels of LC3b following bafilomycin A treatment in KO cells. Concomitantly, there was an increase in pAMPK/AMPK levels suggesting a potential mechanism for increased mitophagy. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusion and Future studies –Our data indicates enhanced mitophagy as well as autophagy in SLC4a11 KO cells. Future studies will determine whether these processes regulate cell survival in mouse models of corneal endothelial dystrophies.
Complicated and persistent grief reactions afflict approximately 10% of bereaved individuals and are associated with severe disruptions of functioning. These maladaptive patterns were defined in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD), but its criteria remain debated. The condition has been studied using network analysis, showing potential for an improved understanding of PCBD. However, previous studies were limited to self-report and primarily originated from a single archival dataset. To overcome these limitations, we collected structured clinical interview data from a community sample of newly conjugally bereaved individuals (N = 305).
Gaussian graphical models (GGM) were estimated from PCBD symptoms diagnosed at 3, 14, and 25 months after the loss. A directed acyclic graph (DAG) was generated from initial PCBD symptoms, and comorbidity networks with DSM-5 symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were analyzed 1 year post-loss.
In the GGM, symptoms from the social/identity PCBD symptoms cluster (i.e. role confusion, meaninglessness, and loneliness) tended to be central in the network at all assessments. In the DAG, yearning activated a cascade of PCBD symptoms, suggesting how symptoms lead into psychopathological configurations. In the comorbidity networks, PCBD and depressive symptoms formed separate communities, while PTSD symptoms divided in heterogeneous clusters.
The network approach offered insights regarding the core symptoms of PCBD and the role of persistent yearnings. Findings are discussed regarding both clinical and theoretical implications that will serve as a step toward a more integrated understanding of PCBD.
To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy.
Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories. Participants (N=1172) were assessed at 3 times for affect, successful aging, and symptoms of depression. We additionally assessed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology after Hurricane Sandy.
We identified 3 prospective trajectories of depression. The majority (83.6%) had no significant change in depression from before to after these events (resilience), while 7.2% of the sample increased in depression incrementally after each event (incremental depression). A third group (9.2%) went from high to low depression symptomology following the 2 events (depressive-improving). Only those in the incremental depression group had significant PTSD symptoms following Hurricane Sandy.
We identified a small group of individuals for whom the experience of multiple stressful events had an incremental negative effect on mental health outcomes. These results highlight the importance of understanding the perseveration of depression symptomology from one event to another. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:173–182)
Distinguishing temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and after childbirth has important clinical implications for diagnosis, treatment, and maternal and child outcomes. The primary aim of the present study was to distinguish patterns of chronically elevated levels of depressive symptoms v. trajectories that are either elevated during pregnancy but then remit after childbirth, v. patterns that increase after childbirth.
The report uses latent growth mixture modeling in a large, population-based cohort (N = 12 121) to investigate temporal patterns of depressive symptoms. We examined theoretically relevant sociodemographic factors, exposure to adversity, and offspring gender as predictors.
Four distinct trajectories emerged, including resilient (74.3%), improving (9.2%), emergent (4.0%), and chronic (11.5%). Lower maternal and paternal education distinguished chronic from resilient depressive trajectories, whereas higher maternal and partner education, and female offspring gender, distinguished the emergent trajectory from the chronic trajectory. Younger maternal age distinguished the improving group from the resilient group. Exposure to medical, interpersonal, financial, and housing adversity predicted membership in the chronic, emergent, and improving trajectories compared with the resilient trajectory. Finally, exposure to medical, interpersonal, and financial adversity was associated with the chronic v. improving group, and inversely related to the emergent class relative to the improving group.
There are distinct temporal patterns of depressive symptoms during pregnancy, after childbirth, and beyond. Most women show stable low levels of depressive symptoms, while emergent and chronic depression patterns are separable with distinct correlates, most notably maternal age, education levels, adversity exposure, and child gender.
After a strong expansion across the United States, farmers markets’ (FMs) growth rate has declined in spite of policymakers’ interest in promoting them. In this study we model farmers’ participation in FMs and investigate what market factors affect FMs’ location using zip-code-level data for the New England states. Our results suggest that market size, education, presence of children in the household and SNAP participation lend to the establishment of FMs, more than income per se. Farming activities has a positive association with the likelihood of FMs, while proxies for establishment costs and the presence of traditional distribution channels may play a limiting role in their formation.
The GALILEO telescope requires a flexible detector controller that allows one to drive single and mosaic CCDs in different modes of operation. The CCD controller can be divided into two main parts: the preamplifier, located close to the cryostat and the other modules, the Sequencer, the Bias generator, the Clock driver, the Preamplifier and the Correlated double sampler, located into a rack and connected together via a CCDC-BUS.
Lately, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors have had great advances both in the visible and in the X-ray spectral range. However, the technology applied to these devices in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region has not developed as well, because of some problems connected with the interaction between UV radiation and the materials typically used in semiconductor technology. In our laboratory the ultraviolet response of some UV-enhanced CCDs has been investigated. In particular, the quantum efficiency of coronene and lumigen coated and of back-illuminated ion implanted CCDs have been measured in the 304–11000 å spectral range. Very interesting results have been found, mainly for a one ion implanted CCD with quantum efficiency values of more than 60% at 304 å. Some measurements of the response uniformity of this spectral region have also been made. The results obtained encourage the possible use of these detectors in ultraviolet astronomy with very good performance.
Feed restriction after weaning is widely used in meat rabbit farms to promote health and reduce mortality, but this practice impacts negatively on rabbit growth and slaughter performance. This study compared a 3-week post-weaning feed restriction with ad libitum medicated feeding, evaluating effects on feed intake, growth, health, carcass and meat quality of rabbits of two genotypes: Italian White pure breed and Hycole hybrid×Italian White crossbred. A total of 512 rabbits at 36 days of age, of both sexes and two genotypes, were divided into four homogeneous groups assigned, from 36 to 57 days of age, to different feeding programmes (FP): restricted non-medicated (R-N), ad libitum non-medicated (L-N), restricted medicated (R-M) and ad libitum medicated (L-M). The diets were medicated with oxytetracycline (1540 mg/kg) and colistin sulphate (240 mg/kg). The restriction, performed by giving 70, 80 and 90 g/day of feed for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd week, was followed by ad libitum feeding in the successive 5 weeks, up to slaughter at 92 days of age. Restricted feeds were ingested at a level of 64% of the feed intake recorded in the ad libitum fed rabbits; it was significantly associated, regardless of medication and rabbit genotype, with a lower feed intake (−22 to −24 g dry matter/day) during the entire experiment, compensatory growth and a lower feed conversion ratio in the ad libitum period, and a lower final live weight (−150 g) than ad libitum feeding (P<0.001). During restriction, mortality was lower in the restricted rabbits (6.25%, 5.47% v. 12.5%, 14.8% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M; P<0.05), whereas in the ad libitum period mortality did not differ among the groups (9.23%, 9.90%, 11.0% and 4.59% for R-N, R-M, L-N and L-M). Dressing out percentage was not affected by FP or genotype; heavier carcasses were produced by rabbits fed ad libitum (+100 g; P<0.001) and crossbred rabbits (+122 g; P<0.001). Restriction did not alter meat quality, except for a tendency towards a higher cooking loss and less fat; crossbred meat was higher in L* (+1.3; P<0.01) and b* (+0.51; P<0.05) colour indexes and tenderness (−0.14 kg/cm2; P<0.05) than pure breed meat. Under the conditions of this study, a 3-week restricted feeding after weaning resulted to be a suitable alternative, also for high growth potential genotypes, to the antibiotics to preserve rabbit health. The production of lighter carcasses could be compensated partly by the lower feed conversion ratio showed by restricted rabbits.
Sulla (Sulla coronarium L.) forage is valued for its positive impact on ruminant production, in part due to its moderate content of condensed tannin (CT). The duration of daily grazing is a factor affecting the feed intake and milk production of ewes. In this study, the effects of grazing sulla pasture compared with annual ryegrass, and the extension of grazing from 8 to 22 h/day, were evaluated with regard to ewe forage intake and milk production, as well as the physicochemical properties and fatty acid (FA) composition of cheese. During 42 days in the spring, 28 ewes of the Comisana breed were divided into four groups (S8, S22, R8 and R22) that grazed sulla (S) or ryegrass (R) for 8 (0800 to 1600 h) or 22 h/day, and received no feeding supplement. In six cheese-making sessions, cheeses were manufactured from the 48 h bulk milk of each group. Compared with ewes grazing ryegrass, those grazing sulla had higher dry matter (DM) intake, intake rate and milk yield, and produced milk that was lower in fat and higher in casein. Ewes grazing for 22 h spent more time eating, which reduced the intake rate, increased DM and nutrient intake and milk yield, and reduced milk fat. Due to the ability of CT to inhibit the complete ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the FA composition of sulla cheese was more beneficial for consumer health compared with ryegrass cheese, having lower levels of saturated fatty acids and higher levels of PUFA and n-3 FA. The FA profile of S8 cheese was better than that of S22 cheese, as it was higher in branched-chain FA, monounsaturated FA, PUFA, rumenic acid (c9,t11-C18:2), and had a greater health-promoting index. The effect of short grazing time on sulla was attributed to major inhibition of PUFA biohydrogenating ruminal bacteria, presumably stimulated by the higher accumulation of sulla CT in the rumen, which is related to a higher intake rate over a shorter eating time. Thus, grazing sulla improved the performance of ewes, thereby increasing, especially with short grazing time, the nutritional properties of cheese fat.
Olfactory dysfunction is a possible side effect of chemo-radiotherapy performed in patients affected by nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Self-rating measurements and olfactory event-related potentials were used and compared in order to evaluate the impact of this treatment on the olfactory system.
Nine patients underwent subjective evaluation of olfactory function (using visual analogue scales for olfactory symptoms and quality of life, and a six-item Hyposmia Rating Scale), and a quantitative and objective measurement (olfactory event-related potentials).
Spearman's rank correlation analyses highlighted significant relationships between the clinical scales and olfactory event-related potentials. Inter-group analyses showed significant differences in the latency and in the amplitude of olfactory event-related potentials between patients and controls.
Taking into account the small sample size and the lack of pre-treatment assessment, olfactory event-related potentials seemed to allow a more objective diagnosis of unilateral and bilateral olfactory loss. Moreover, olfactory event-related potentials and subjective scales results were concordant.
On my first visit to Cyrene in summer 1972 I was so intrigued by the figurative relief standing on the south side of the so-called Valley Street, immediately to the east of the modern village of Shahat, that I decided to include it in my doctoral thesis. I visited the site in the distinguished company of the late Prof. D. E. Strong, who was then my research supervisor, and Mr. Philip Kenrick. We spent together some hours in front of this fascinating monument discussing a number of points concerning the architecture of the building to which it belonged, the identification of the figures, the iconography of the then hypothetical portraits, and the reading of the inscription. A full description and discussion of the monument were given by Professor Strong in a lecture delivered at the British Museum on the occasion of the opening of the Exhibition of Libyan Antiquities on 14th June, 1973, and later published in the Society for Libyan Studies Report. I returned to Cyrene in summer 1973 in order to make a more thorough examination of the relief and to produce a number of detailed photographs of the heads. The contents of this article are the result of these observations and the stimulating discussions I had with Professor Strong on the subject.
For a comprehensive description of the relief I refer the reader to Strong's contribution in the Fourth Annual Report, but it is appropriate to recapitulate briefly. The relief in question constituted the figured frieze of the entablature of a monumental gateway resting on Corinthian columns. Beneath the frieze, which must have been more than 11m long, ran an inscription in two lines of standard monumental Greek letters. All the architectural elements, including the frieze, are carved on a very gritty and shelly limestone. The state of preservation is very poor: the figures on the right hand block are almost completely lost and elsewhere heads and limbs have fallen off, in some cases being cemented back. The best preserved are the central figures, but even here the sugary limestone has eroded to some extent (Fig.Ia).
A peculiar and very distinct group of portraits have in recent years aroused the interest of an increasing number of students of Roman art. These are the Cyrenaican funerary portraits, some 117 of which were studied and published for the first time as a separate series by E. Rosenbaum in 1960. Several of these portraits have found their way into European collections of ancient sculpture in these last two centuries. One is presently housed in the Museo Nazionale in Rome, and six are in the possession of the Museum Authorities in Malta. Six of the portraits published by Rosenbaum come from the British Museum. To these a seventh one (PLATE 00) should be added, which has remained unpublished having escaped the attention of both Rosenbaum and the compiler of the volume devoted to Cyrenaica of the Corpus Signorum Imperii Romani for Great Britain. Considering the easily noticeable character of this type of funerary sculpture it is somewhat surprising that neither of the two distinguished scholars became aware of the existence of this portrait. It has to be said, however, that no mention of it is made in either Smith and Porcher, or the catalogue of sculpture of the British Museum.
We study the existence and multiplicity of solutions for a parametric equation driven by the p-Laplacian operator on unbounded intervals. Precisely, by using a recent local minimum theorem we prove the existence of a non-trivial non-negative solution to an equation on the real line, without assuming any asymptotic condition either at 0 or at ∞ on the nonlinear term. As a special case, we note the existence of a non-trivial solution for the problem when the nonlinear term is sublinear at 0. Moreover, under a suitable superlinear growth at ∞ on the nonlinearity we prove a multiplicity result for such a problem.
Merluccius merluccius is an economically and ecologically important demersal species inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea; however, reproductive knowledge about this species, along the North African coast is still missing. Monthly samples were collected from November 2010 to October 2011 along the North Tunisian coast. Morphometric parameters were measured, and histological preparations of gonadic tissues provided detailed information on the reproductive biology. Ovary maturity data showed a protracted spawning season throughout the year, with peaks in January, April and August. In females of M. merluccius, seasonal variability in weight and length were noticed, with higher values in the first part of the study period (November–April) than from May to October. Analysing separately these two periods, significant relationships were observed between gonadic maturation indices and the somatic and gonadic indices, suggesting a seasonal differential use of energy intake. From November to May the fish alternate the use of their energy for body growth and reserves for later uses (i.e fat, muscle and liver mass) or for gonadic growth. From June to October the energy is converted mainly into gonad weight and less to somatic growth. The maturity ogives obtained by macroscopic and histological maturity staging methods showed significant differences; however, in both cases the length at first maturity estimates were around 29 cm. Nonetheless, when selecting the main spawning period, the L50 estimation was heavily reduced to 24 cm, suggesting careful attention in the selection of the samples to be used specially for fishery management purposes.