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In September 2012 the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia– Ejercito del Pueblo (FARC-EP; Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia– People's Army) released a homemade rap video announcing its readiness to participate in peace talks with the President Juan Manuel Santos. Available on YouTube, the clip shows four young rebels playing guitar and drums and singing rhymes about traveling to Cuba and intervening in the peace negotiations. Also, the guerilla members mock President Santos by echoing popular comments about his physical appearance. The video aroused hostility and suspicion in the prevailing media. Some newspapers and TV commentators questioned the clip's authenticity while others condemned its “lack of sophistication” or “bizarre” character. Absent from the public discussion was the guerillas’ decision to welcome the peace talks with a musical declaration. But this rap video was not the first musical intervention of the FARC-EP in contexts of peace talks. Back in 2000, the guerrilla musical group of Julian Conrado and Los Companeros livened up several encounters during the political negotiations between the guerrillas and the Pastrana government. At that time, international official delegations and local audiences attended guerrilla concerts and learned about Fariano cultural policies. But why have the rebels chosen to intervene in peace talks through musical performances? In this chapter I show that musical practices became compelling political means among the guerillas. I explore music produced by artists belonging to the FARC-EP guerrillas (including Julian Conrado and Los Companeros, Lucas Iguaran, and Christian Perez) and argue that, through rhythms, lyrics, and musical discourses, these Fariano artists constructed combatants as belonging to the Colombian nation, as reflecting regional identities and as sharing a commonality of knowledge with others in Colombian society. Additionally, in their music Farianos reshape the meaning of their collective struggle and disseminate personal stories throughout a geographically and territorially unwieldy organization.
The Fortuitous Configuration of a Research Topic: Sources and Assumptions
Between 1997 and 2006 I worked at the Jesuit organization Center of Research and Popular Education (CINEP; Centro de Investigacion y Educacion Popular), one of the oldest Colombian NGOs. Taking advantage of CINEP involvement with the Catholic Church and its constant presence on the field, my research team traced the history of the Colombian armed actors and their complex relationships with regional societies and the state.
In an era of globalization, new ventures have become especially active in collaborations with external partners worldwide to overcome the liability of newness and to obtain the resources required to innovate. In this context, this study conceptually analyzes how the geographical and institutional distances between a new venture and its international partners may influence the venture’s ability to benefit from broad external linkages for innovation purposes. It proposes that the interplay of these factors affects not only knowledge transfer, but also business relations. The study advances theory on international collaborative linkages and innovation, by providing a novel framework that explains how contextual factors associated with distance affect the relation between new ventures’ collaborations and their ability to develop innovations.
Despite the higher proportion of foreclosures and home evictions executed in Spain, compared to other countries, and the known link between social exclusion and mental health problems, studies exploring this association in Spain remain scarce. This study investigated the link between the process of home eviction and the appearance of symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Two hundred and five people affected by the process of home eviction were assessed using a structured interview that included three validated assessment instruments for PTSD, perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Analysis involved comparison with the normative groups that formed the validation studies together with regression analysis to determine the major psychological and socio-demographic predictors of perceived stress. Of the participants, 95.1% reported that they were experiencing the process of home eviction with fear, helplessness, or horror. In PTSD symptomatology, they scored higher than the normative PTSD group in symptoms of avoidance (t = 5.01; p < .05), activation (t = 5.48; p < .01), and total score (t = 4.15; p < .05). Of this subgroup, 72.5% fulfilled the DSM-IV symptom criteria for PTSD. The major predictor of perceived stress was PTSD symptomatology (B = .09; p < .001). The process of home eviction in Spain is having an alarming impact on mental health of affected people calling for effective measures to provide psychological and social support.
In this paper, we reanalyze the glacier mass balance on Glaciar Antisana 15α over the 1995–2012 period. Annual glacier mass balances were quantified on the basis of monthly glaciological measurements using an adaptation of Lliboutry's statistical approach. The geodetic mass balance was computed between 1997 and 2009 giving a cumulative balance of −1.39 ± 1.97 m w.e. and a slightly negative adjusted annual glaciological mass balance (−0.12 ± 0.16 m w.e. a−1). Despite a careful analysis of uncertainties, we found a large discrepancy between the cumulative glaciological and the geodetic mass balances over the common period, of 4.66 m w.e. This discrepancy can mainly be explained by underestimated net accumulation in the glacier upper reaches, which could be due to the peculiar climate conditions of the equatorial zone with year round accumulation, thereby preventing clear identification of annual layers. An increase of ~70% in measured rates of net accumulation would be needed to balance the glaciological and geodetic mass balances; a hypothesis confirmed by estimated ice flux in the vicinity of the ELA. Consequently, the vertical gradient of precipitation may be higher than previously estimated and the accumulation processes (including the role of frost deposition) need to be carefully analyzed.
Observations show that glaciers around the world are in retreat and losing mass. Internationally coordinated for over a century, glacier monitoring activities provide an unprecedented dataset of glacier observations from ground, air and space. Glacier studies generally select specific parts of these datasets to obtain optimal assessments of the mass-balance data relating to the impact that glaciers exercise on global sea-level fluctuations or on regional runoff. In this study we provide an overview and analysis of the main observational datasets compiled by the World Glacier Monitoring Service (WGMS). The dataset on glacier front variations (∼42 000 since 1600) delivers clear evidence that centennial glacier retreat is a global phenomenon. Intermittent readvance periods at regional and decadal scale are normally restricted to a subsample of glaciers and have not come close to achieving the maximum positions of the Little Ice Age (or Holocene). Glaciological and geodetic observations (∼5200 since 1850) show that the rates of early 21st-century mass loss are without precedent on a global scale, at least for the time period observed and probably also for recorded history, as indicated also in reconstructions from written and illustrated documents. This strong imbalance implies that glaciers in many regions will very likely suffer further ice loss, even if climate remains stable.
Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, whose diagnosis has limitations, such as the low sensitivity and specificity of parasitological and immunological methods, respectively. In the present study an alternative molecular technique requiring previous standardization was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the amplification of a 121-bp highly repetitive sequence for Schistosoma mansoni. DNA was extracted from eggs of S. mansoni by salting out. Different conditions were standardized for the PCR technique, including the concentration of reagents and the DNA template, annealing temperature and number of cycles, followed by the determination of the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the technique. Furthermore, the standardized PCR technique was employed in DNA extracted, using Chelex®100, from samples of sera of patients with an immunodiagnosis of schistosomiasis. The optimal conditions for the PCR were 2.5 mm MgCl2, 150 mm deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), 0.4 μm primers, 0.75 U DNA polymerase, using 35 cycles and an annealing temperature of 63°C. The analytical sensitivity of the PCR was 10 attograms of DNA and the specificity was 100%. The DNA sequence was successfully detected in the sera of two patients, demonstrating schistosomiasis transmission, although low, in the community studied. The standardized PCR technique, using smaller amounts of reagents than in the original protocol, is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of DNA from S. mansoni and could be an important tool for diagnosis in areas of low endemicity.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) significantly impacts daily living activities, including car driving. To investigate driving difficulties experienced with MS, we compared 50 MS patients with minor or moderate disability and 50 healthy controls (HC) using computerized driving tests (the ASDE driver test and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test) and neuropsychological tests. Inclusion criteria included being active drivers. We evaluated whether cognitive deterioration in MS is associated with the results of driving tests by comparing MS patients without cognitive deterioration with HC. The results indicated that the MS patients performed worse than the HCs in attention, information processing, working memory and visuomotor coordination tasks. Furthermore, MS patients with cognitive impairments experienced more difficulties in the driving tests than did the non-impaired MS patients. Motor dysfunction associated with MS also played an important role in this activity. The results of this study suggest that MS should be assessed carefully and that special emphasis should be placed on visuomotor coordination and executive functions because patients with minor motor disability and subtle cognitive impairments can pass measures predictive of driving safety. (JINS, 2014, 20, 555–565)
It is well known that a dispute will only fall within the jurisdiction of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) if the dispute directly arises out of an ‘investment’, as is provided by Article 25(1) of the Convention for the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States (ICSID Convention). However, not only does the ICSID Convention fail to provide any definition of what constitutes an ‘investment’, the drafters of the ICSID Convention, in fact, made an express decision not to include such a definition. This absence has given rise to interesting issues of interpretation as ICSID tribunals have sought to arrive at an understanding of how the term ‘investment’ should be properly understood for the purposes of the ICSID Convention. Various elements have been proposed in defining what is and what is not ‘an ICSID investment’, including the existence of contribution, certain duration, risk, participation, and contribution to the development of the host State. In considering these characteristics of an ‘investment’, this chapter argues that the most important element is the aim of furthering the economic development of the host State. Indeed, it is argued that this constitutes the most critical element in any definition of investment as it is understood under the ICSID Convention.
At a fundamental level, the arguments put forward in this chapter are grounded in the nature of the State itself. Inarguably, the welfare and development of their nationals and residents is of primary concern to States. It is also clear that in promoting that development, significant amounts of capital can be required. Accordingly, a range of strategies is often adopted by States to attract that capital, a key one of which is enhancing the domestic investment climate through entering into international legal instruments that provide protection to foreign investment. In concluding international investment agreements (IIAs), States agree to grant international protection to foreign investments – and, in return, they expect to attract the capital needed to promote their economic development. For host States, this assumption is a central, if often unarticulated, rationale behind the conclusion of the agreement. For this reason, it is important to consider the intention of States when entering into IIAs and to gain a proper understanding of why the treaties were concluded. This understanding could, in turn, influence the interpretation of the IIAs' provisions under international law. The argument presented in this chapter is that this type of analysis should play an important role in the interpretation and application of IIAs, and in adjudicating fair solutions to the disputes that might arise between investors and States.
On the frame of a broad project devoted to the evaluation of the occupational and environmental radiological impact of several NORM industries located at the South-West Spain, a study determining the U-series radionuclides levels in air particulate matter has been accomplished inside a phosphate rock processing plant dedicated to phosphoric acid production. U-series radionuclides concentrations in aerosols collected inside this plant have been determined and compared with those obtained in aerosols collected from a reference monitoring station not affected by NORM industries or other anthropogenic inputs. Additionally, based on the observed increments in the volumetric concentrations of the radionuclides from the U-series in the plant, the increase in the occupational doses due to inhalation for their workers has been estimated. Even under conservative assumptions, the dose enhancements are clearly below 1 mSv/year, the annual limit for the public.
Temporary pacing wires have been associated with serious postoperative complications. Recommendations for their routine use after open heart surgery are decades old, and may not reflect current surgical techniques and outcomes.
The electronic web-enabled medical records of all patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery from February, 2002, through December, 2005, were reviewed, excluding patients undergoing implantation of pacemakers as a primary procedure, or those undergoing ligation of a patent arterial duct.
There were 1193 surgical procedures performed, 1041 with cardiopulmonary bypass. Median age of the patients was 5.8 months, with a range from 0 days to 54 years, weighing 6.2 kilograms, with a range from 1 to 114 kilograms. Mortality prior to discharge was 2.5%, and median postoperative stay was 6 days. No deaths were attributed to arrhythmias. Temporary pacing wires were placed 14 times (1.2%). Indications for placement included sinus nodal dysfunction in 8 patients, preoperative in 4 and intraoperative in 4, high degree atrioventricular block in 4 patients, and intraoperative atrial flutter in 2 patients. Of these patients, 4 (0.3%) eventually underwent permanent implantation of a pacemaker, 2 for persistent sinus nodal dysfunction, and 2 for persistent atrioventricular block. Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia requiring antiarrhythmic therapy occurred in 9 patients (0.8%). All recovered without incident, and none were treated with temporary pacing.
The diminished risk of unexpected postoperative arrhythmias in the current era alleviates the necessity for routine placement of temporary pacing wires. Those institutions with experienced surgical and cardiac critical care teams may be able to predict the need for temporary pacing wires preoperatively or intraoperatively.
We did a retrospective study of 1920 episodes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in 27 community hospitals and analysed inter-hospital variability in length of hospital stay (LOS), mortality and readmission rates. The overall adjusted LOS (mean±S.D.) was 10·0±9·8 days. LOS increased according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) risk class: 7·3 days for class I to 11·3 days for class V (P<0·001). In a multiple regression model, LOS increased (P<0·001) according to the hospital (inter-hospital variability), PSI risk class, complications during hospitalization, admission to ICU, need of oxygen and transfer to a nursing home. Hospitals with shorter LOS did not show an increased readmission rate (adjusted OR 1·02, 95% CI 0·51–2·03, P=0·97) and post-discharge mortality (adjusted OR 1·20, 95% CI 0·70–2·05, P=0·51). There are significant inter-hospital variations in LOS in patients with CAP which are related to differences in clinical management. The reduction of these differences will further improve efficiency and quality of care.
Successful rearing of hatchery-reared sea bass, Lates calcarifer, fry in illuminated floating cages was demonstrated in a 42-day experiment. Three feeding regimes, i.e. natural zooplankton (NZ) + minced fish flesh (MFF), NZ alone, or MFF alone and two stocking densities (600 and 1 200 individuals m2) were tested in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment. Fish reared in unlit cages and fed MFF alone during daytime served as the control. Results showed that no interaction existed between stocking density and feeding regime and that the two stocking densities used did not influence fish growth in terms of mean final body size. In general, sea bass reared in lit cages (NZ + MFF and NZ) grew and survived better than the control fish (MFF). However, fish reared under NZ + MFF feeding regime had the highest final mean total length (TL, 42.1 mm) and body weight (BW, 1 311.8 mg) followed by fish reared under NZ feeding regime (mean TL = 26 mm, BW = 415 mg). Fish in the unlit control cages exhibited the poorest growth (final mean TL and BW: 26 mm and 277.6 mg BW). Furthermore, specific growth rates (range: 5.7–8.5% day−1) of fish in lit cages were significantly better than those of fish in the unlit control cages (mean: 3% day−1). Percentage survival (38%) of fish stocked at 600 m−2 density and fed NZ was not significantly different from fish in the NZ + MFF feeding regime. However, increasing the density to 1 200 ind. m−2 tended to significantly decrease percentage survival (20%) of fish with NZ feeding. Fish reared in the unlit control cages had the poorest survival of 13–14%. The high percentage composition by number (CN, 88%) of copepods in the stomachs of sea bass fry fed on NZ alone and the equally high percentage feeding incidence (94%) indicated that fish fed sufficiently on natural zooplankton. Supplemental feed using minced fish flesh contributed about 43–59% of the fish diet in addition to natural zooplankton.
SINCE 1974, A PROCESS OF POLITICAL ‘OPENING’ HAS BEEN taking place in Brazil. But it was only after 1978, when the amnesty law was passed and exiles be an to return, that a majority of observers and academic analysts convinced them-selves that that process was real. The Brazilian regime can still be described as military-based and authoritarian, but now the so-called abertura has become meaningful enough to direct our attention to a different set of questions: why did such changes take place, contrary to most predictions, journalistic as well as academic, of the late 1960s and early 1970s? Why have elections pla ed such a decisive role in them, again contrary to most predictions? Are the fruits picked in this example of redemocratization really ripe to be enjoyed? Can the other countries subject to military-authoritarian rule in the Southern Cone equally aspire to them – that is , to orderly but yet significant steps toward an eventual demise of their authoritarian systems?
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