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Turbulent boundary layers under adverse pressure gradients are studied using well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) with the goal of assessing the influence of the streamwise pressure-gradient development. Near-equilibrium boundary layers were characterized through the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter
. In order to fulfil the near-equilibrium conditions, the free stream velocity was prescribed such that it followed a power-law distribution. The turbulence statistics pertaining to cases with a constant value of
(extending up to approximately 40 boundary-layer thicknesses) were compared with cases with non-constant
distributions at matched values of
and friction Reynolds number
. An additional case at matched Reynolds number based on displacement thickness
was also considered. It was noticed that non-constant
cases appear to approach the conditions of equivalent constant
cases after long streamwise distances (approximately 7 boundary-layer thicknesses). The relevance of the constant
cases lies in the fact that they define a ‘canonical’ state of the boundary layer, uniquely characterized by
. The investigations on the flat plate were extended to the flow around a wing section overlapping in terms of
. Comparisons with the flat-plate cases at matched values of
revealed that the different development history of the turbulent boundary layer on the wing section leads to a less pronounced wake in the mean velocity as well as a weaker second peak in the Reynolds stresses. This is due to the weaker accumulated effect of the
history. Furthermore, a scaling law suggested by Kitsios et al. (Intl J. Heat Fluid Flow, vol. 61, 2016, pp. 129–136), proposing the edge velocity and the displacement thickness as scaling parameters, was tested on two constant-pressure-gradient parameter cases. The mean velocity and Reynolds-stress profiles were found to be dependent on the downstream development. The present work is the first step towards assessing history effects in adverse-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers and highlights the fact that the values of the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter and the Reynolds number are not sufficient to characterize the state of the boundary layer.
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