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Functionally graded materials (FGMs) in which the elemental composition intentionally varies with position can be fabricated using directed energy deposition additive manufacturing (AM). This work examines an FGM that is linearly graded from V to Invar 36 (64 wt% Fe, 36 wt% Ni). This FGM cracked during fabrication, indicating the formation of detrimental phases. The microstructure, composition, phases, and microhardness of the gradient zone were analyzed experimentally. The phase composition as a function of chemistry was predicted through thermodynamic calculations. It was determined that a significant amount of the intermetallic σ-FeV phase formed within the gradient zone. When the σ phase constituted the majority phase, catastrophic cracking occurred. The approach presented illustrates the suitability of using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations for the prediction of phase formation in FGMs made by AM despite the nonequilibrium conditions in AM, providing a route for the computationally informed design of FGMs.
Do you need to know what technique to use to evaluate the reliability of an engineered system? This self-contained guide provides comprehensive coverage of all the analytical and modeling techniques currently in use, from classical non-state and state space approaches, to newer and more advanced methods such as binary decision diagrams, dynamic fault trees, Bayesian belief networks, stochastic Petri nets, non-homogeneous Markov chains, semi-Markov processes, and phase type expansions. Readers will quickly understand the relative pros and cons of each technique, as well as how to combine different models together to address complex, real-world modeling scenarios. Numerous examples, case studies and problems provided throughout help readers put knowledge into practice, and a solutions manual and Powerpoint slides for instructors accompany the book online. This is the ideal self-study guide for students, researchers and practitioners in engineering and computer science.