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In this paper, we present preliminary results of soft X-ray diffuse background observations. We observed two particular regions of the sky in the 0.3–1.5 keV range. The detection system consisted of three independent, 1 cm diameter, cooled solid state detectors. Nearly overlapping fields of view subtended a solid angle of approximately 1/4 sr. Except for the field of view, the whole set was similar to that described in Schnopper et al. (1982) (hereafter referred to as paper 1). This system was flown on board a three-axis stalibized rocket. The flight took place at White Sands Missile Range on 1981 May 4 at 0755 UT.
We have obtained ultraviolet spectra of the Herbig Ae star HD104237 using the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on HST. The high temperature emission and absorption lines show remarkable outflow absorption features, which have very similar profiles that are essentially independent of formation temperature. The profiles are not those expected from a spherically-symmetric stellar wind but have optically-thick absorption to −280 km s−1 and a high velocity plateau extending to −375 km s−1. The profile shape is a manifestation of the nonspherical geometry of the flow. The observed UV emission is too strong to be associated with the hot X–ray emitting plasma seen by ASCA and probably is generated by the interaction of the innermost part of an accretion disk with the corotating outermost magnetospheric field. The outflow is almost certainly the inner part of a biconical disk wind.
When the Soviet Union fell in 1990, three of its 15 components, the Baltic States, joined the European Union, and a fourth, Moldova, may well join in the future. The other 11 quickly became presidential republics, following the lead given by Boris Yeltsin, the president of the largest among them, Russia. By 1994, all 11 were headed by a president elected by universal suffrage. These ex-Soviet countries contribute significantly to the number of presidential republics in the world. Presidential republics form a clear majority, being predominant in Latin America and Africa, alongside the ex-Soviet Union. They are rare in Europe, the main cases being France, Romania, and, though seemingly temporarily, some Balkan states; in Asia, outside the ex-Soviet Union, they are a small minority.
Like many presidential republics elsewhere, those in the ex-Soviet Union are mostly authoritarian, but with variations: this is primarily so in Central Asia, as well as in Azerbaijan and Belarus. These presidencies have been very stable, with some of their leaders, especially in Central Asia, being repeatedly re-elected, often without opposition. There has been a regular turnover in Armenia (but less so in Georgia) and in Ukraine (but not in Belarus). The Russian case is peculiar, as is well known: Putin became prime minister because he could no longer be constitutionally re-elected as president, at least without a break. The power of these presidents has varied over time: outside Central Asia (except Kyrgyzstan) and Azerbaijan, where they have been uniformly strong, their strength has declined in Georgia, increased in Russia and Belarus, and had ups and downs in Armenia and Ukraine.
CoNiCu/Cu superlattice nanowires have been grown by electrodeposition in nuclear tracketched nanoporous membranes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show a good layer structure and allow an estimate of the current efficiency. Current perpendicular to plane (CPP) giant magnetoresistance of up to 22%, at ambient temperature, has been measured but appears to be limited by defects, giving rise to ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, at low nonmagnetic layer thicknesses. Magnetic properties of the superlattice nanowires are influenced by in-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic coupling.
Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.
The joint spectral radius of a set of matrices is the maximal growth rate that can be obtained by forming long products of matrices taken in the set. This quantity and its minimal growth counterpart, the joint spectral subradius, have proved useful for studying several problems from combinatorics and number theory. For instance, they characterise the growth of certain classes of languages, the capacity of forbidden difference constraints on languages, and the trackability of sensor networks. In Section 11.2 we describe some of these applications.
While the joint spectral radius and related notions have applications in combinatorics and number theory, these disciplines have in turn been helpful to improve our understanding of problems related to the joint spectral radius. As an example, we present in Section 11.3 a central result that has been proved with the help of techniques from combinatorics on words: the falseness of the finiteness conjecture.
In practice, computing a joint spectral radius is not an easy task. As we will see, this quantity is NP-hard to approximate in general, and the simple question of knowing, given a set of matrices, if its joint spectral radius is larger than one is even algorithmically undecidable. However, in recent years, approximation algorithms have been proposed that perform well in practice. Some of these algorithms run in exponential time while others provide no accuracy guarantee. In practice, by combining the advantages of the different algorithms, it is often possible to obtain satisfactory estimates.
To study how individual and regional characteristics might explain regional variations in breast-feeding rates in maternity units and to identify outlier regions with very low or high breast-feeding rates.
Individual characteristics (mother and infant) were collected during hospital stay. All newborns fed entirely or partly on breast milk were considered breast-fed. Regional characteristics were extracted from census data. Statistical analysis included multi-level models and estimation of empirical Bayes residuals to identify outlier regions.
All births in all administrative regions in France in 2003.
A national representative sample of 13 186 live births.
Breast-feeding rates in maternity units varied from 43 % to 80 % across regions. Differences in the distribution of individual characteristics accounted for 55 % of these variations. We identified two groups of regions with the lowest and highest breast-feeding rates, after adjusting for individual-level characteristics. In addition to maternal occupation and nationality, the social characteristics of regions, particularly the population’s educational level and the percentage of non-French residents, were significantly associated with breast-feeding rates.
Social characteristics at both the individual and regional levels influence breast-feeding rates in maternity units. Promotion policies should be directed at specific regions, groups within the community and categories of mothers to reduce the gaps and increase the overall breast-feeding rate.
“Humanitarian” (as in “humanitarian action” or “humanitarian endeavour”) has become a household word in recent times. Often it has been distinctly misused, as in the expression “humanitarian intervention”. The author of this article, a senior ICRC staff member, gives a reminder that humanitarian action is intended above all to safeguard and promote the welfare of human beings and to shield them from violence and the abuse of power. He then discusses several policy issues which explain or support humanitarian policy. To sum up, he draws some conclusions which should preserve the true nature of humanitarian action in the present circumstances. In particular, he urges that a diversified approach be adopted to achieve the common goal, namely, to protect people in distress.
The ICRC's role and ability to help prevent the outbreak of armed conflict have always been a matter for concern and consideration. As early as 1863, in the debate which led to the foundation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Gustave Moynier drew attention to the link between preventive action and assistance for victims of armed conflict. The notion of prevention has become rather broad, and the article spells out the different meanings given to it by scholars and practitioners. In addition, a wide range of practical methods and techniques have been worked out. The ICRC's role and possibilities will doubtless always be rather limited. However, since its Avenir project of 1997 to determine its future course of action, much thought has gone into identifying just what the ICRC can do to help prevent the outbreak of armed conflict. Moreover, with its humanitarian activities in armed conflict the ICRC may contribute to ending hostilities and reaching a settlement, and thereby prevent a resumption of conflict.
Globalization is both a fact of life, principally in economics, technology and communication, and an international view of the world. It needs to be considered in terms of its inherent ambivalence and contradictions: it can, for instance, promote cultural and scientific exchange, but it also facilitates coordination between criminal organizations; through the dissemination of human rights it may help to give greater freedom, but may also destroy cultures or inflict damage on traditional economies.
Le Comité international de la Croix-Rouge (CICR) a toujours maintenu des contacts, souvent étroits, avec les Sociétés nationales de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge. Aux termes de l'article 3 des statuts du Mouvement international de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge (ci-après le Mouvement), «les Sociétés nationales forment l'assise du Mouvement et en constituent une force vitale». En ce sens, elles constituent pour le CICR un partenaire privilégié dans la conduite de son action humanitaire. L'institution vient d'ailleurs de le rappeler dans son étude stratégique Avenir, dont il a fait part à toutes les Sociétés nationales (lettre du 16 décembre 1997): «Membre du Mouvement international de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge dont il est le fondateur, le CICR veille au respect des Principes fondamentaux et coopère en priorité (nous soulignons) avec les Sociétés nationales de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge et leur Fédération.»
II a été affirmé, avec raison, que la Croix-Rouge et le Croissant-Rouge ne représented ni une philosophie, ni une morale. Ni les Principes fondamentaux ni le droit international humanitaire ne proposent une vision systématique de la nature humaine ou un catalogue des droits et devoirs moraux des membres du Mouvement. La Croix-Rouge ne prend pas le parti d'une idéologic ou d'un système politique: son haut degré d'universalité lui permet au contraire, avec des résultats certes variables, de s'accommoder, voire d'influencer, tout régime ou orìentation politique dans une perspective humanitaire. Cette faculté est la conséquence, notamment, du respect du principe de neutralité.
Dès l'origine les membres fondateurs de ce qui deviendra le Mouvement international de la Croix-Rouge et du Croissant-Rouge ont eu conscience d'obéir à un certain nombre de principes essentiels. L'idée fondamentale qui est à la base du travail de la Croix-Rouge est celle de l'aide désintéressée en faveur de l'homme qui souffre, sans distinction, même si c'est un ennemi.