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This paper presents a corpus and experiments to mine possession relations from text. Specifically, we target alienable and control possessions and assign temporal anchors indicating when a possession relation holds between the possessor and possessee. We work with intra-sentential possessor and possessees that satisfy lexical and syntactic constraints. We experiment with traditional classifiers and neural networks to automate the task. In addition, we analyze the factors that help to determine possession existence and possession type and common errors made by the best performing classifiers. Experimental results show that determining possession existence relies on the entire sentence, whereas determining possession type primarily relies on the verb, possessor and possessee.
Maternal age has progressively increased in industrialized countries. Most studies focus on the consequences of delayed motherhood for women's physical and mental health, but little is known about potential effects on infants' neurodevelopment. This prospective study examines the association between maternal age and offspring neurodevelopment in terms of both psychomotor development (Ages & Stages Questionnaires-3) and emotional competences (Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire).
We evaluated a cohort of healthy pregnant women aged 20–41 years and their offspring, assessed at 38 weeks gestation (n = 131) and 24 months after birth (n = 101). Potential age-related variables were considered (paternal age, education level, parity, social support, maternal cortisol levels, and maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms). Bayesian ordinal regression models were performed for each neurodevelopmental outcome.
Maternal age was negatively associated with poor child development in terms of personal-social skills [odds ratio (OR) −0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77–0.99] and with difficult temperament in terms of worse emotional regulation (OR −0.13, 95% CI 0.78–0.96) and lower positive affect (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.75–0.95). As for age-related variables, whereas maternal anxiety symptoms and cortisol levels were also correlated with poor child development and difficult temperament, maternal social support and parental educational level were associated with better psychomotor and emotional competences.
Increasing maternal age may be associated with child temperament difficulties and psychomotor delay in terms of social interaction skills. Early detection of neurodevelopment difficulties in these babies would allow preventive psychosocial interventions to avoid future neuropsychiatric disorders.
To explore motor praxis in adults with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) in comparison with a control group of people with intellectual disability (ID) and to examine the relationship with brain structural measurements.
Thirty adult participants with PWS and 132 with ID of nongenetic etiology (matched by age, sex, and ID level) were assessed using a comprehensive evaluation of the praxis function, which included pantomime of tool use, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures, motor sequencing, and constructional praxis.
Results support specific praxis difficulties in PWS, with worse performance in the imitation of motor actions and better performance in constructional praxis than ID peers. Compared with both control groups, PWS showed increased gray matter volume in sensorimotor and subcortical regions. However, we found no obvious association between these alterations and praxis performance. Instead, praxis scores correlated with regional volume measures in distributed apparently normal brain areas.
Our findings are consistent in showing significant impairment in gesture imitation abilities in PWS and, otherwise, further indicate that the visuospatial praxis domain is relatively preserved. Praxis disability in PWS was not associated with a specific, focal alteration of brain anatomy. Altered imitation gestures could, therefore, be a consequence of widespread brain dysfunction. However, the specific contribution of key brain structures (e.g., areas containing mirror neurons) should be more finely tested in future research.
This chapter asks whether the “planetary,” a term that has gained currency in literary criticism since the 1990s, is a manageable framework through which to study modernism. Current iterations of the “planetary” signal crises in our contemporary shared human environment, while also marking a transformation in our disciplines. Addressing this bind, Blanco considers a number of different uses and versions of “planetarity,” from Gayatri Spivak’s and Enrique Dussel’s to Susan Stanford Friedman’s recent provocations within the new modernist studies. While thinking about the advantages and disadvantages of framing a center-less modernism, Blanco also asks what happens when rupture is not thought of as the principal operating principle through which to think modernism. Framing these questions around the experiences of Spanish American modernistas in fin-de-siècle Paris (especially Nicaraguan Rubén Darío and Guatemalan Enrique Gómez Carrillo), Blanco ask whether a privileging of a planetary framework effectively undoes a workable conceptualization of modernism.
Rodriguez-Blanco clarifies John Finnis’s objection to legal positivism in the shape of Hart’s theory, namely, that it is unstable because it uses the notion of an internal point of view, which does not have sufficient discriminatory power to distinguish between good and less good legal norms, between rational and non-rational court decisions, etc. Finnis’s view is that understanding a human action in law involves understanding what the point of the action is, that such understanding requires use of the Aristotelian focal meaning (or central case) methodology, that Hart’s internal point of view does not involve focal meaning and therefore cannot be used to understand the point of human actions, and that Hart’s theory is thus unstable. Rodriguez-Blanco argues that Anglophone legal philosophers’ focus in the past fifty years on Dworkin’s critique of Hart’s legal positivism has meant that they missed an opportunity to learn, through Finnis’s critique of Hart’s theory, about the philosophy of practical reason and the theory of action, and to contribute significantly to debates about normative questions, the nature of law and its relation to agency, reasons for action, and goodness.
Mental health-related multimorbidity can be considered as multimorbidity in the presence of a mental disorder. Some knowledge gaps on the study of mental health-related multimorbidity were identified. These knowledge gaps could be potentially addressed with real-world data.
Negation is a complex linguistic phenomenon present in all human languages. It can be seen as an operator that transforms an expression into another expression whose meaning is in some way opposed to the original expression. In this article, we survey previous work on negation with an emphasis on computational approaches. We start defining negation and two important concepts: scope and focus of negation. Then, we survey work in natural language processing that considers negation primarily as a means to improve the results in some task. We also provide information about corpora containing negation annotations in English and other languages, which usually include a combination of annotations of negation cues, scopes, foci, and negated events. We continue the survey with a description of automated approaches to process negation, ranging from early rule-based systems to systems built with traditional machine learning and neural networks. Finally, we conclude with some reflections on current progress and future directions.
To determine whether electronically available comorbidities and laboratory values on admission are risk factors for hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile infection (HO-CDI) across multiple institutions and whether they could be used to improve risk adjustment.
All patients at least 18 years of age admitted to 3 hospitals in Maryland between January 1, 2016, and January 1, 2018.
Comorbid conditions were assigned using the Elixhauser comorbidity index. Multivariable log-binomial regression was conducted for each hospital using significant covariates (P < .10) in a bivariate analysis. Standardized infection ratios (SIRs) were computed using current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) risk adjustment methodology and with the addition of Elixhauser score and individual comorbidities.
At hospital 1, 314 of 48,057 patient admissions (0.65%) had a HO-CDI; 41 of 8,791 patient admissions (0.47%) at community hospital 2 had a HO-CDI; and 75 of 29,211 patient admissions (0.26%) at community hospital 3 had a HO-CDI. In multivariable regression, Elixhauser score was a significant risk factor for HO-CDI at all hospitals when controlling for age, antibiotic use, and antacid use. Abnormal leukocyte level at hospital admission was a significant risk factor at hospital 1 and hospital 2. When Elixhauser score was included in the risk adjustment model, it was statistically significant (P < .01). Compared with the current CDC SIR methodology, the SIR of hospital 1 decreased by 2%, whereas the SIRs of hospitals 2 and 3 increased by 2% and 6%, respectively, but the rankings did not change.
Electronically available patient comorbidities are important risk factors for HO-CDI and may improve risk-adjustment methodology.
To describe epidemiologic and genomic characteristics of a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak in a large skilled nursing facility (SNF), and the strategies that controlled transmission.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Cohort study during March 22–May 4, 2020 of all staff and residents at a 780-bed SNF in San Francisco, California.
Contact tracing and symptom screening guided targeted testing of staff and residents; respiratory specimens were also collected through serial point prevalence surveys (PPS) in units with confirmed cases. Cases were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction testing for SARS-CoV-2; whole genome sequencing (WGS) characterized viral isolate lineages and relatedness. Infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions included restricting from work any staff who had close contact to a confirmed case; restricting movements between units; implementing surgical face masking facility-wide; and recommended PPE (isolation gown, gloves, N95 respirator and eye protection) for clinical interactions in units with confirmed cases.
Of 725 staff and residents tested through targeted testing and serial PPS, twenty-one (3%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive; sixteen (76%) staff and 5 (24%) residents. Fifteen (71%) were linked to a single unit. Targeted testing identified 17 (81%) cases; PPS identified 4 (19%). Most (71%) cases were identified prior to IPC intervention. WGS was performed on SARS-CoV-2 isolates from four staff and four residents; five were of Santa Clara County lineage and the three others were distinct lineages.
Early implementation of targeted testing, serial PPS, and multimodal IPC interventions limited SARS-CoV-2 transmission within the SNF.
Liquid-phase transmission electron microscopy is a technique for simultaneous imaging of the structure and dynamics of specimens in a liquid environment. The conventional sample geometry consists of a liquid layer tightly sandwiched between two Si3N4 windows with a nominal spacing on the order of 0.5 μm. We describe a variation of the conventional approach, wherein the Si3N4 windows are separated by a 10-μm-thick spacer, thus providing room for gas flow inside the liquid specimen enclosure. Adjusting the pressure and flow speed of humid air inside this environmental liquid cell (ELC) creates a stable liquid layer of controllable thickness on the bottom window, thus facilitating high-resolution observations of low mass-thickness contrast objects at low electron doses. We demonstrate controllable liquid thicknesses in the range 160 ± 34 to 340 ± 71 nm resulting in corresponding edge resolutions of 0.8 ± 0.06 to 1.7 ± 0.8 nm as measured for immersed gold nanoparticles. Liquid layer thickness 40 ± 8 nm allowed imaging of low-contrast polystyrene particles. Hydration effects in the ELC have been studied using poly-N-isopropylacrylamide nanogels with a silica core. Therefore, ELC can be a suitable tool for in situ investigations of liquid specimens.
Greater psychosocial risk in childhood and adolescence predicts poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in adulthood. We assessed whether the timing of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence predicts cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood. Young adults and their mothers participated in a longitudinal study beginning in infancy in Santiago, Chile (N = 1040). At infancy, 5 years, 10 years, and adolescence, mothers reported on depressive symptoms, stressful experiences, support for child development in the home, father absence, parental education, and socioeconomic status (SES) to create a psychosocial risk composite at each time point. Young adults (52.1% female; 21–27 years) provided fasting serum samples and participated in anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) assessments, including a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan for measuring body fat. Greater infant psychosocial risk was associated with a greater young adult metabolic syndrome score (β = 0.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.01 to 0.13, p = 0.02), a higher body mass index and waist circumference composite (β = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.13, p = 0.002), and a higher body fat (DXA) composite (β = 0.07, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.12, p = 0.02). No psychosocial risk measure from any time point was associated with BP. Infant psychosocial risk predicted cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood better than psychosocial risk at 5 years, 10 years, or adolescence, mean of psychosocial risk from infancy through adolescence, and maximum of psychosocial risk at any one time. Consistent with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease model, findings suggest that infancy is a sensitive period for psychosocial risk leading to poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in young adulthood.
Spanish American writers’ engagement with Decadence in the fin de siècle entailed a careful negotiation of ideas about their own region’s future and its historical evolution within the Western world. Their position regarding Decadence repeatedly turns to a discussion of the New World’s geopolitical and artistic position, keeping an eye on Spain’s decline in the global landscape of the fin de siècle. To illustrate these transatlantic negotiations, Blanco engages with the writing of several Spanish figures from the fin de siècle who dealt with Decadence’s controversial arrival in Spanish America. A central figure in this discussion is the Nicaraguan writer Rubén Darío, spin doctor of modernismo and a principal recipient of the ‘Decadent’ label throughout the 1890s and beyond. A writer who moved across different urban centres from Spanish America to Europe, Darío was a prime theorist of new literary developments in the region. As Blanco argues, while modernismo took in Decadence’s poetic energy as well as its diverse artistic work ethic, it had to become something else to breathe new life in Spanish American letters.
On top of a neural network-based dependency parser and a graph-based natural language processing module, we design a Prolog-based dialog engine that explores interactively a ranked fact database extracted from a text document. We reorganize dependency graphs to focus on the most relevant content elements of a sentence and integrate sentence identifiers as graph nodes. Additionally, after ranking the graph, we take advantage of the implicit semantic information that dependency links and WordNet bring in the form of subject–verb–object, “is-a” and “part-of” relations. Working on the Prolog facts and their inferred consequences, the dialog engine specializes the text graph with respect to a query and reveals interactively the document’s most relevant content elements. The open-source code of the integrated system is available at https://github.com/ptarau/DeepRank.
The digitalisation of the industry offers new opportunities to discuss design activities and support tools. Advancement in AI allows thinking about new Designer-AI tools interaction in the design process. The paper aims to initiate a characterisation of tools issued from researches in the application of AI in Design to rethink the division of work between Designer-AI tools. The paper is based on the literature on the concept of Levels of Automation in cognitive engineering, manufacturing and robotics, and proposes a grid of characterisation of the Level of Automation for the design process.
There are few papers that focus on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of earthen mortars. These mortars are abundant in historical buildings in northwestern Spain. The Basílica da AscensiónyForno da Santa building is an unfinished church built on a previous structure that was transformed into a crypt (Allariz, Ourense, NW Spain). Previous archaeological studies established a sequence of phases of construction, the first dating back to the Iron Age, with significant changes occurring in the Early and Late Medieval ages. The only datable material in the crypt is earthen mortar. Thus, eight mortar samples (seven joint mortars and one wall infill) were taken, seven of them dated by OSL. The dose rate was assessed, and the expected equivalent doses estimated based on the established archaeological age. Several grain sizes (from fine to coarse) were used in small multigrain aliquots to assess the equivalent doses and ages. No evidence of partial bleaching was observed in most samples and grain sizes. The resulting ages are younger than expected for most samples. This is explained by the fact that joints were repaired with new mortar from the 16th century onwards.
This article presents a two-step methodology to annotate temporally anchored spatial knowledge on top of OntoNotes. We first generate potential knowledge using semantic roles or syntactic dependencies and then crowdsource annotations to validate the potential knowledge. The resulting annotations indicate how long entities are or are not located somewhere and temporally anchor this spatial information. We present an in-depth corpus analysis comparing the spatial knowledge generated by manipulating roles or dependencies. Experiments show that working with syntactic dependencies instead of semantic roles allows us to generate more potential entity-related spatial knowledge and obtain better results in a realistic scenario, that is, with predicted linguistic information.