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Pulsed coherent extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is a potential alternative to pulsed near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelengths for atom probe tomography. EUV radiation has the benefit of high absorption within the first few nm of the sample surface for elements across the entire periodic table. In addition, EUV radiation may also offer athermal field ion emission pathways through direct photoionization or core-hole Auger decay processes, which are not possible with the (much lower) photon energies used in conventional NUV laser-pulsed atom probe. We report preliminary results from what we believe to be the world’s first EUV radiation-pulsed atom probe microscope. The instrument consists of a femtosecond-pulsed, coherent EUV radiation source interfaced to a local electrode atom probe tomograph by means of a vacuum manifold beamline. EUV photon-assisted field ion emission (of substrate atoms) has been demonstrated on various insulating, semiconducting, and metallic specimens. Select examples are shown.
Article 6 of the SPS Agreement presents a series of interlinked obligations for importing and exporting countries of diseased agricultural products. The Russia–Pigs dispute raises the question of when an importing country is justified in imposing a ban on products from exporting countries unaffected by the disease, on the basis of the fact that the country is part of the same customs union as another country inflicted with the disease. This Article contends that four distinct classes of cross-border and cross-product externalities ought to play an important role when assessing this question in the future. It discusses the possible roles to be played by bilateral, sequential, pass-through, and supply chain externalities in propagating the transmission of agricultural disease across borders through trade.
As part of a continuing project dealing with evaluation, testing, and preparation of new high quality X-ray powder diffraction standards for phosphate and arsenate minerals, new X-ray and supporting data for minyulite, KAl2(PO4)2(0H,F).4H20, have been obtained and Interpreted with the aid of a calculated powder pattern.
Phosphorite is a sedimentary rock with a high enough content of phosphate minerals to bo of economic Interest. Most phosphorites are composed predominantly of m1crocrystall1no to cryptocrystalline carbonate fluorapatlte thenceforth In this report referred to simply by the mineral group name apatite). Florida produces roughly 1/3 of the world's supply of phosphate rock, most of which is used 1n the fe rtiliz e r Industry.
Long term continuation of phosphorite mining In Florida will require exploitation of the extensive hlgh-magneslum phosphorite deposits south of the present mining d istrict 1n central Florida, and this will require new technology In order to produce beneficlated concentrates with less than 1% MgO, a limit Imposed by fe r tiliz e r processing technology. In order to develop benefication methods applicable to these ores, it is essential to know how Mg occurs in phosphorites. Dolomite, CaMg(C03)2, is the chief host of Mg In phosphorites from Florida. Magnesium may also be present, however, as a substituent In apatite (the chief phosphate.mineral in these deposits), as a minor substituent 1n calcite (CaCO3), in certain clay minerals (particularly palygorskite and to a lesser extent in some smectites), and/or in organic matter within the apatite particles.
Of the roughly 3,000 known mineral species over 290 or 10 percent are phosphates. This report deals with a recently initiated project, the purpose of which is to produce better X-ray powder diffraction standards than currently exist for selected phosphate minerals. The project involves evaluation of existing X-ray diffraction standards for phosphate minerals, and collection of new data from species for which current data are judged unsatisfactory.
Sixty-five years ago Hull first described X-ray powder diffraction as a means of phase identification, and 45 years ago Hannawalt and co-workers compiled the first catalogue of powder diffraction patterns, which has evolved into a file of about 44,000 patterns (the X-ray Powder Diffraction File or PDF). The Hannawalt method of manually searching the PDF is a time-tested, effective tool in seeking a match between an unknown pattern and its correct counterpart(s) in the PDF. Recently, computerized powder diffractometers with software to perform data reduction and search the PDF have become relatively common, and these systems offer tremendous potential for rapid and accurate phase identification in simple and complex systems where the data base may include 44,000 patterns.
The fifteenth-century humanist Francesco Filelfo (1398–1481) spent much of the period from 1429 to 1444 involved with Florentine politics, becoming a strong advocate on behalf of the patrician oligarchs, many of whom were exiled in 1434 at the return of Cosimo de’ Medici from eleven months of exile. Filelfo’s works from the period, including his satires, the Oratio ad exules, and the consolatory treatise entitled Commentationes Florentinae de exilio, were a response to the Florentine political crisis. Filelfo demonstrates in these works not only a rhetorical and political purpose on behalf of his patrons, but also takes the opportunity to reflect on the notion of world citizenship, a philosophical concept derived largely from Stoic and Cynic sources.