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With growing demand for better fuel economy for automobiles, multimaterial solutions are increasingly being utilized in the automotive industry for reducing weight in the vehicle body structure. This poses challenges in terms of joining dissimilar metals, especially those with vastly different properties such as aluminum to steel joining. General Motors has developed a new resistance spot-welding technique for dissimilar materials using a multi-ring domed (MRD) electrode and multiple solidification weld schedules to address this challenge. Originally developed for aluminum to aluminum resistance spot welding, this technology is being deployed as the mainstream aluminum joining solution to leverage existing infrastructure and workforce competency in resistance spot welding. With the recent expansion of MRD technology to aluminum to steel resistance spot welding, there is an ever-greater need to experimentally verify the quality of each aluminum to steel resistance spot-weld application with limited time and resources. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) would enable the transfer of resistance spot-welding technology to dissimilar aluminum to steel joints. This article describes the current state of the art of aluminum to steel resistance spot welding and the challenges in developing a robust NDE process for this technology.
Adverse effects of early exposure to parental mood disturbance on child adjustment have been documented for both mothers and fathers, but are rarely examined in tandem. Other under-researched questions include effects of changes over time in parental well-being, similarities and contrasts between effects of parental mood disturbance on children's internalizing versus externalizing problems, and potential mediating effects of couple relationship quality. The current study involved 438 couples who reported symptoms of depression and anxiety at each of four time points (i.e., last trimester of pregnancy and 4, 14, and 24 months postbirth). Mothers and fathers also rated their couple relationship quality and their child's socioemotional adjustment at 14 months, as well as internalizing and externalizing problems at 24 months. Latent growth models indicated direct effects of (a) maternal prenatal well-being on externalizing problems at 24 months, and (b) paternal prenatal well-being on socioemotional problems at 14 months. Internalizing symptoms at 24 months showed only indirect associations with parental well-being, with couple relationship quality playing a mediating role. Our findings highlight the importance of prenatal exposure to parental mood disturbance and demonstrate that, even in a low-risk sample, poor couple relationship quality explains the intergenerational stability of internalizing problems.
Science and technology generated by Universities has many challenges in reaching commercial product applications, as has been explored in a range of literature. Product design has been identified to add value through various types of contributions in addressing these challenges; however, there remains a gap in literature to explore how and when product development activities can practically be applied to technology development.
This paper furthers the idea that the product development process can help bridge the gap between the laboratory and commercial applications by proposing a framework for how Ulrich and Eppinger's product development process can integrate with the STAM technology development model. This is a significant step towards understanding how in practice these disciplines can work together to bring science and technology from the laboratory to products in the marketplace.
Researchers need to select high-quality research designs and communicate those designs clearly to readers. Both tasks are difficult. We provide a framework for formally “declaring” the analytically relevant features of a research design in a demonstrably complete manner, with applications to qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods research. The approach to design declaration we describe requires defining a model of the world (M), an inquiry (I), a data strategy (D), and an answer strategy (A). Declaration of these features in code provides sufficient information for researchers and readers to use Monte Carlo techniques to diagnose properties such as power, bias, accuracy of qualitative causal inferences, and other “diagnosands.” Ex ante declarations can be used to improve designs and facilitate preregistration, analysis, and reconciliation of intended and actual analyses. Ex post declarations are useful for describing, sharing, reanalyzing, and critiquing existing designs. We provide open-source software, DeclareDesign, to implement the proposed approach.
Measurement error threatens the validity of survey research, especially when studying sensitive questions. Although list experiments can help discourage deliberate misreporting, they may also suffer from nonstrategic measurement error due to flawed implementation and respondents’ inattention. Such error runs against the assumptions of the standard maximum likelihood regression (MLreg) estimator for list experiments and can result in misleading inferences, especially when the underlying sensitive trait is rare. We address this problem by providing new tools for diagnosing and mitigating measurement error in list experiments. First, we demonstrate that the nonlinear least squares regression (NLSreg) estimator proposed in Imai (2011) is robust to nonstrategic measurement error. Second, we offer a general model misspecification test to gauge the divergence of the MLreg and NLSreg estimates. Third, we show how to model measurement error directly, proposing new estimators that preserve the statistical efficiency of MLreg while improving robustness. Last, we revisit empirical studies shown to exhibit nonstrategic measurement error, and demonstrate that our tools readily diagnose and mitigate the bias. We conclude this article with a number of practical recommendations for applied researchers. The proposed methods are implemented through an open-source software package.
Objectives: Despite changes to brain integrity with aging, some functions like basic language processes remain remarkably preserved. One theory for the maintenance of function in light of age-related brain atrophy is the engagement of compensatory brain networks. This study examined age-related changes in the neural networks recruited for simple language comprehension. Methods: Sixty-five adults (native English-speaking, right-handed, and cognitively normal) aged 17–85 years underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reading paradigm and structural scanning. The fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis to derive brain networks associated with reading comprehension. Results: Two typical frontotemporal language networks were identified, and these networks remained relatively stable across the wide age range. In contrast, three attention-related networks showed increased activation with increasing age. Furthermore, the increased recruitment of a dorsal attention network was negatively correlated to gray matter thickness in temporal regions, whereas an anterior frontoparietal network was positively correlated to gray matter thickness in insular regions. Conclusions: We found evidence that older adults can exert increased effort and recruit additional attentional resources to maintain their reading abilities in light of increased cortical atrophy.
How to restore citizens’ trust and cooperation with the police in the wake of civil war? We report results from an experimental evaluation of the Liberian National Police’s (LNP) “Confidence Patrols” program, which deployed teams of newly retrained, better-equipped police officers on recurring patrols to rural communities across three Liberian counties over a period of 14 months. We find that the program increased knowledge of the police and Liberian law, enhanced security of property rights, and reduced the incidence of some types of crime, notably simple assault and domestic violence. The program did not, however, improve trust in the police, courts, or government more generally. We also observe higher rates of crime reporting in treatment communities, concentrated almost entirely among those who were disadvantaged under prevailing customary mechanisms of dispute resolution. We consider implications of these findings for post-conflict policing in Liberia and weak and war-torn states more generally.
Childhood adversity is associated with mental disorder following military deployment. However, it is unclear how different childhood trauma profiles relate to developing a post-deployment disorder. We investigated childhood trauma prospectively in determining new post-deployment probable disorder.
In total, 1009 Regular male ADF personnel from the Australian Defence Force (ADF) Middle East Area of Operations (MEAO) Prospective Study provided pre- and post-deployment self-report data. Logistic regression and generalised structural equation modelling were utilised to examine associations between childhood trauma and new post-deployment probable disorder and possible mediator pathways through pre-deployment symptoms.
There were low rates of pre-deployment probable disorder. New post-deployment probable disorder was associated with childhood trauma, index deployment factors (combat role and deployment trauma) and pre-deployment symptoms but not with demographic, service or adult factors prior to the index deployment (including trauma, combat or previous deployment). Even after controlling for demographic, service and adult factors prior to the index deployment as well as index deployment trauma, childhood trauma was still a significant determinant of new post-deployment probable disorder. GSEM demonstrated that the association between interpersonal childhood trauma and new post-deployment probable disorder was fully mediated by pre-deployment symptoms. This was not the case for those who experienced childhood trauma that was not interpersonal in nature.
To determine the risk of developing a post-deployment disorder an understanding of the types of childhood trauma encountered is essential, and pre-deployment symptom screening alone is insufficient
What are the effects of international intervention on the rule of law after civil war? Rule of law requires not only that state authorities abide by legal limits on their power, but also that citizens rely on state laws and institutions to adjudicate disputes. Using an original survey and list experiment in Liberia, I show that exposure to the UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL) increased citizens’ reliance on state over nonstate authorities to resolve the most serious incidents of crime and violence, and increased nonstate authorities’ reliance on legal over illegal mechanisms of dispute resolution. I use multiple identification strategies to support a causal interpretation of these results, including an instrumental variables strategy that leverages plausibly exogenous variation in the distribution of UNMIL personnel induced by the killing of seven peacekeepers in neighboring Côte d'Ivoire. My results are still detectable two years later, even in communities that report no further exposure to peacekeepers. I also find that exposure to UNMIL did not mitigate and may in fact have exacerbated citizens’ perceptions of state corruption and bias in the short term, but that these apparently adverse effects dissipated over time. I conclude by discussing implications of these complex but overall beneficial effects.
The papers in this issue were presented at the IALL's 21st Annual Course on International Law Librarianship, held at Yale Law School, October 20 through October 23, 2002. The program featured several of America's great scholars in international law and drew on the rich resources of Yale University and its environs. It also introduced participants to the history of legal education in America and included excursions to America's first national law school, in Litchfield, Connecticut, and to the United Nations headquarters, in New York City. A pre-conference reception was held at the nearby Quinnipiac University School of Law Library, on Sunday afternoon, October 20th, in Hamden, Connecticut, and a post-conference institute on Islamic Law, was held on October 24th, at Harvard Law School, in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Improving information literacy in law translates into developing methods for improving legal research competencies among lawyers, law students and the general public. This paper summarizes four approaches for improving legal research skills of prospective lawyers in U.S. law schools and discusses their successes and shortcomings to help assess their potential application in an international environment. These approaches include: (1) offering mandatory law school courses in legal research; (2) adding elective (or optional) credit based courses in legal research; (3) offering non-credit legal research support to law students at their point of need; and (4) testing prospective lawyers on their legal research competencies as a requirement to being licensed to practice law.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) portend high patient morbidity and mortality. Although evidence-based clinical interventions can reduce SSIs, they are not reliably delivered in practice, and data are limited on the best approach to improve adherence.
To summarize implementation strategies aimed at improving adherence to evidence-based interventions that reduce SSIs.
We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, the WHO Regional databases, AFROLIB, and Africa-Wide for studies published between January 1990 and December 2015. The Effective Practice and Organization Care (EPOC) criteria were used to identify an acceptable-quality study design. We used structured forms to extract data on implementation strategies and grouped them into an implementation model called the “Four Es” framework (ie, engage, educate, execute, and evaluate).
In total, 125 studies met our inclusion criteria, but only 8 studies met the EPOC criteria, which limited our ability to identify best practices. Most studies used multifaceted strategies to improve adherence with evidence-based interventions. Engagement strategies included multidisciplinary work and strong leadership involvement. Education strategies included various approaches to introduce evidence-based practices to clinicians and patients. Execution strategies standardized the interventions into simple tasks to facilitate uptake. Evaluation strategies assessed adherence with evidence-based interventions and patient outcomes, providing feedback of performance to providers.
Multifaceted implementation strategies represent the most common approach to facilitating the adoption of evidence-based practices. We believe that this summary of implementation strategies complements existing clinical guidelines and may accelerate efforts to reduce SSIs.
Growing demand for beds in government-subsidized long-term care (LTC) homes in Ontario is causing long waitlists, which must be absorbed by other residential alternatives, including unsubsidized retirement homes. This study compares Ontario’s LTC homes and retirement homes for care services provided, funding regimes, and implications of differential funding for seniors. Descriptive data for both types of homes were collected from public and proprietary sources regarding service offerings, availability, costs, and funding. Overlaps exist in the services of both LTC and retirement homes, particularly at higher levels of care. Although both sectors charge residents for accommodation, most care costs in LTC homes are publicly funded, whereas residents in retirement homes generally cover these expenses personally. Given waitlists in Ontario’s LTC homes, many seniors must find residential care elsewhere, including in retirement homes. Several policy alternatives exist that may serve to improve equity of access to seniors’ residential care.
How does learning about democratic erosion in other countries shape opinions about the state of democracy in the United States today? We describe lessons learned from a collaborative course on democratic erosion taught at nearly two dozen universities during the 2017–18 academic year. We use survey data, student-written blog posts, exit questionnaires, and interviews with students who did and did not take the course to explore the effects of studying democratic erosion from a comparative perspective. Do comparisons foster optimism about the relative resilience of American democracy or pessimism about its vulnerability to the same risk factors that have damaged other democracies around the world? Somewhat to our surprise, we find that the course increased optimism about US democracy, instilling greater confidence in the relative strength and longevity of American democratic norms and institutions. We also find, however, that the course did not increase civic engagement and, if anything, appears to have exacerbated skepticism toward activities such as protest. Students who took the course became increasingly sensitive to the possibility that some forms of civic engagement reflect and intensify the same threats to democracy that the course emphasized—especially polarization.