To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The relation between the understanding and belief of the site-specific dangers of climate change and the behaviour that individuals take to mitigate their impacts was assessed to investigate the psychological antecedent to pro-environmental behaviour; a necessity to mitigate anthropogenic climate change at the individual level. A quantitative cross-sectional design was employed to measure beliefs and behaviour of university students. Correlation was measured between the belief in one’s ability to affect change and pro-environmental behaviour. The hypothesis that nations facing greater climate threat would behave accordingly was tested on the two largest national representatives of the sample, China and Australia. In addition, a naïve Bayesian network, coupled with a self-organising map, was developed to explore correlations between self-efficacy and participants’ socio-demographic features. Results showed that Chinese students are more likely to have higher self-efficacy, while such trend was not noticed for Australians. Similarly, participants with higher educational qualifications, older, and with higher paid jobs also have a higher chance of presenting pro-environmental behaviour. Despite the study limitations, there seems to be evidence suggesting that educational and climate change policies have affected students’ self-efficacy and individual commitment to mitigation.
To examine the relationship between protein intake and the risk of incident premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Nested case–control study. FFQ were completed every 4 years during follow-up. Our main analysis assessed protein intake 2–4 years before PMS diagnosis (for cases) or reference year (for controls). Baseline (1991) protein intake was also assessed.
Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2), a large prospective cohort study of registered female nurses in the USA.
Participants were premenopausal women between the ages of 27 and 44 years (mean: 34 years), without diagnosis of PMS at baseline, without a history of cancer, endometriosis, infertility, irregular menstrual cycles or hysterectomy. Incident cases of PMS (n 1234) were identified by self-reported diagnosis during 14 years of follow-up and validated by questionnaire. Controls (n 2426) were women who did not report a diagnosis of PMS during follow-up and confirmed experiencing minimal premenstrual symptoms.
In logistic regression models adjusting for smoking, BMI, B-vitamins and other factors, total protein intake was not associated with PMS development. For example, the OR for women with the highest intake of total protein 2–4 years before their reference year (median: 103·6 g/d) v. those with the lowest (median: 66·6 g/d) was 0·94 (95 % CI 0·70, 1·27). Additionally, intakes of specific protein sources and amino acids were not associated with PMS. Furthermore, results substituting carbohydrates and fats for protein were also null.
Overall, protein consumption was not associated with risk of developing PMS.
An analytic model of a stationary hypersonic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shock with an externally applied magnetic field is proposed. Basically, original jump conditions at a plane oblique shock, analogous to the Rankine–Hugoniot formulae, with a moderately resistive air plasma downstream are derived. Viscous, thermal and Hall effects are neglected, but the plasma dissociation behind the shock causing a jump of isentropic exponent is also a major input of the model. Then, a shock-fitting procedure with ambient atmospheric conditions is worked out by the coupling of these MHD jumps with thermodynamic correlations and an electric conductivity model. For an application to atmospheric entry problems, the flow behind an axisymmetric blunt-body shock is modelled with a stream function satisfying these MHD jump conditions as boundary conditions. An important feature put into evidence is a similarity rule involving the hypersonic parameter
, which shows an aerodynamic correspondence between the upstream Mach number
and the velocity angle
. It also emerges that curvature effects become important past
and the assumption of a spherical shock also becomes untenable past
; therefore, we limit the model of shock thickness used in the MHD fitting to
To investigate if cardiac/pulmonary functional tests and variables obtained from clinical practice (body mass index, dyspnea, functional class, clinical judgment of disability to perform an exercise test and previous hospitalization rate) are related to mortality in patients with overlap chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF).
Although the coexistence of COPD and CHF has been growingly reported, description of survival predictors considering the presence of both conditions is still scarce.
Using a cohort design, outpatients with the previous diagnosis of COPD and/or CHF that performed both spirometry and echocardiography in the same year were followed-up during a mean of 20.9±8.5 months.
Of the 550 patients initially evaluated, 301 had both spirometry and echocardiography: 160 (53%) with COPD on isolation; 100 (33%) with CHF on isolation; and 41 (14%) with overlap. All groups presented similar mortality: COPD 17/160 (11%); CHF 12/100 (12%); and overlap 7/41 (17%) (P=0.73). In the overlap group (n=41), inability to exercise and hospitalization rate were the unique parameters associated with higher mortality (seven events) in univariate analyses. In conclusion, inability to exercise and hospitalization rate emerged as the unique parameters associated with mortality in our sample.
Supersonic civil aircraft present a unique noise certification challenge. High specific thrust required for supersonic cruise results in high engine exhaust velocity and high levels of jet noise during take-off. Aerodynamics of thin, low-aspect-ratio wings equipped with relatively simple flap systems deepen the challenge. Advanced noise reduction procedures have been proposed for supersonic aircraft. These procedures promise to reduce certification noise levels, but they may require departures from normal reference procedures defined in noise regulations. The subject of this article is a take-off performance and noise assessment of a notional supersonic business jet. Analytical models of an airframe and a supersonic engine derived from a contemporary subsonic turbofan core are developed. These models are used to predict take-off trajectories and certification noise levels. Results indicate advanced take-off procedures are helpful in reducing noise along lateral sidelines.
Approximately 8–20 % of reproductive-aged women experience premenstrual syndrome (PMS), substantially impacting quality of life. Women with PMS are encouraged to reduce fat intake to alleviate symptoms; however, its role in PMS development is unclear. We evaluated the association between dietary fat intake and PMS development among a subset of the prospective Nurses’ Health Study II cohort. We compared 1257 women reporting clinician-diagnosed PMS, confirmed by premenstrual symptom questionnaire and 2463 matched controls with no or minimal premenstrual symptoms. Intakes of total fat, subtypes and fatty acids were assessed via FFQ. After adjustment for age, BMI, smoking, Ca and other factors, intakes of total fat, MUFA, PUFA and trans-fat measured 2–4 years before were not associated with PMS. High SFA intake was associated with lower PMS risk (relative risk (RR) quintile 5 (median=28·1 g/d) v. quintile 1 (median=15·1 g/d)=0·75; 95 % CI 0·58, 0·98; Ptrend=0·07). This association was largely attributable to stearic acid intake, with women in the highest quintile (median=7·4 g/d) having a RR of 0·75 v. those with the lowest intake (median=3·7 g/d) (95 % CI 0·57, 0·97; Ptrend=0·03). Individual PUFA and MUFA, including n-3 fatty acids, were not associated with risk. Overall, fat intake was not associated with higher PMS risk. High intake of stearic acid may be associated with a lower risk of developing PMS. Additional prospective research is needed to confirm this finding.
New remote sensing technologies have provided unprecedented results in vineyard monitoring. The aim of this work was to evaluate different sources of images and processing methodologies to describe spatial variability of spectral-based and canopy-based vegetation indices within a vineyard, and their relationship with productive and qualitative vine parameters. Comparison between image-derived indices from Sentinel 2 NDVI, unfiltered and filtered UAV NDVI and with agronomic features have been performed. UAV images allow calculating new non-spectral indices based on canopy architecture that provide additional and useful information to the growers with regards to within-vineyard management zone delineation.
We present a determination of the local dark matter density derived using the integrated Jeans equation method presented in Silverwood et al. (2016) applied to SDSS-SEGUE G-dwarf data processed by Büdenbender et al. (2015). For our analysis we construct models for the tracer density, dark matter and baryon distribution, and tilt term (linking radial and vertical motions), and then calculate the vertical velocity dispersion using the integrated Jeans equation. These models are then fit to the data using MultiNest, and a posterior distribution for the local dark matter density is derived. We find the most reliable determination to come from the α-young population presented in Büdenbender et al. (2015), yielding a result of ρDM = 0.46+0.07−0.09 GeV cm−3 = 0.012+0.001−0.002 M⊙ pc−3. Our results also illuminate the path ahead for future analyses using Gaia DR2 data, highlighting which quantities will need to be determined and which assumptions could be relaxed.
The human ability to predict and interpret others’ intentions is crucial to social life. The purpose of this chapter is to consider the proposition that intentions can be understood from observing others’ movements. To this end, we first focus on experimental evidence showing that individual, social and communicative intentions ‘shape’ movement kinematics. Next, we review recent work suggesting that during action observation humans are capable of picking up intention information and using it to predict others’ behavior. In the third section, we address the neural mechanisms that mediate the ability to read intention from movement observation. Based on preliminary data, we argue that mirror neuron areas are sensitive to intention information conveyed by movement kinematics. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis that a deficit in this ability might account for the difficulties in social interaction reported in autism spectrum disorders.
Dietary pattern analysis is an epidemiological method designed to consider the complexity of food preferences and diet patterns of populations. Few studies from South Asia have used this methodology to describe population food intake. Our objective was to identify dietary patterns and understand their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors among low-income Pakistani urban adults. Dietary information was collected by a thirty-three-item FFQ and dietary patterns were derived by principal component analyses in 5491 subjects enrolled in the Control of Blood Pressure and Risk Attenuation (COBRA) study. Three dietary patterns were identified: a fat and sweet pattern characterised by fried snacks/foods, desserts, organ meats, bakery products, Pakistani bread and food purchased from outside the home; a fruit and vegetable pattern including fruits, juices, raw and cooked vegetables, lean meat and low-fat milk; and a seafood and yogurt pattern identified by prawns, fish, potatoes and yogurt. The fat and sweet pattern scores were low among older subjects, those with high BMI and waist circumference but high among females and physically active participants. The fruit and vegetable pattern was associated with younger age, high BMI, education and non-tobacco use. The seafood and yogurt pattern was associated with high BMI, increased physical activity and non-tobacco use. In conclusion, distinct dietary patterns exist for the Pakistani population that may be related to some of the population characteristics and thus may have importance in suggesting dietary and life-style interventions in the prevention of chronic diseases.
This chapter will enable readers to understand the:
nature of labour market disadvantage and its various categories
intersecting nature and changeability of labour market disadvantage
connections between disadvantage, industry restructuring and the dismantling of labour market protections
implications of labour market disadvantage for workplace relations.
In the second decade of the twenty-first century, the Australian workforce presents an unusual degree of diversity. Race and culture, gender, disability, age, lifestyles and changing family responsibilities are among the key diversity characteristics of an expanding population and labour force. This diversity has been fuelled by sustained mass immigration, the increasing workforce participation of women, the need to retain older and skilled workers and demands for equitable employment participation by traditionally marginalised groups, such as people with disabilities and Indigenous people. In this chapter, the nature and extent of each of these forms of diversity will be addressed, and the implications of this diversity for workplace relations examined. This analysis will also look at the interaction between diversity and disadvantage, and industry restructuring and economic change.
Recent years have witnessed new processes of visibilisation of adult heterosexual men's sexuality in the public arena in Italy, culminating in discussions on sexual scandals. The authors explore here one of these processes: the current mediatisation of a medicalised male sexuality, which appears as a more socially legitimate and scientifically grounded new discourse on masculinity. By analysing recent social campaigns on male sexual health, it will be shown how, far from opening spaces for a de-naturalisation of male sexuality and masculinity, this form of visibility through medicalisation actually works by re-naturalising male sexuality, and thereby restoring virility, through reference to highly gendered respectability and predatory sexual scripts and the disempowering of intimacy as a new sexual script promoting a situational and more symmetric understanding of gender.
Sex is always political. But there are historical periods in which sexuality is more sharply contested and more overtly politicized. In such periods, the domain of erotic life is, in effect, renegotiated. (Rubin 1999, 143)
Dark matter is among the most important open problems in modern physics. Aimed at graduate students and researchers, this book describes the theoretical and experimental aspects of the dark matter problem in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Featuring contributions from 48 leading theorists and experimentalists, it presents many aspects, from astrophysical observations to particle physics candidates, and from the prospects for detection at colliders to direct and indirect searches. The book introduces observational evidence for dark matter along with a detailed discussion of the state-of-the-art of numerical simulations and alternative explanations in terms of modified gravity. It then moves on to the candidates arising from theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics, and to the prospects for detection at accelerators. It concludes by looking at direct and indirect dark matter searches, and the prospects for detecting the particle nature of dark matter with astrophysical experiments.
Dark matter (DM) is one of the pillars of the Standard Cosmological Model, but the nature of this elusive component of the matter budget of the Universe remains unknown, despite the compelling evidence at all astrophysical scales. The possible connection with theories beyond the Standard Model of particle physics makes DM one of the most important open problems in modern cosmology and particle physics, as witnessed by the enormous theoretical and experimental effort that is being put towards its identification.
Many different strategies have been devised to achieve this goal. First, the Large Hadron Collider, which is just starting operations, is expected to provide insights of paramount importance into possible extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics. Whether or not a specific candidate is “observed” at the LHC, any evidence for new physics (or lack thereof) will inevitably change our understanding of physics, and in particular our understanding of DM. If DM candidates are actually found, the question will arise of whether they actually are the DM in the Universe.
A convincing identification can probably be obtained only by combining the results of accelerator searches with astrophysical searches, based on the direct or indirect detection of DM particles in the local Universe. Direct DM searches are based on the measurement of the recoil energy of nuclei struck by DM particles in large detectors. This field has evolved dramatically in the past decade, and the different experimental strategies (cryogenic, liquid noble gases, superheated) developed over the years have led to a spectacular improvement of the constraints on DM–nucleon interactions.